Abstract

The third-order nonlinear optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film have been investigated by the Z-scan technique in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) region. We prepared the high-quality CH3NH3PbI3 films with the precursor solutions, and experimentally observed its broadband saturable absorption behavior and large Kerr nonlinearity. The CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film exhibited a large nonlinear refractive index (~10−12 m2/W) in the mid-IR regime. Our study indicates the great potential of the organic-inorganic perovskite material in the mid-IR nonlinear optics, and might provide some new sights for Kerr nonlinearity based mid-IR nonlinear optical application.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  24. C. C. Stoumpos, C. D. Malliakas, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Semiconducting Tin and Lead Iodide Perovskites with Organic Cations: Phase Transitions, High Mobilities, and Near-infrared Photoluminescent Properties,” Inorg. Chem. 52(15), 9019–9038 (2013).
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  31. T. Baikie, Y. Fang, J. M. Kadro, M. Schreyer, F. Wei, S. G. Mhaisalkar, M. Graetzel, and T. J. White, “Synthesis and crystal chemistry of the hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3) PbI3 for solid-state sensitised solar cell applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 1(18), 5628–5641 (2013).
  32. Y. Fang, Q. Dong, Y. Shao, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang, “Highly narrowband perovskite single-crystal photodetectors enabled by surface-charge recombination,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 679–686 (2015).
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2017 (4)

W. Hu, R. S. Wu, S. Z. Yang, P. Fan, J. L. Yang, and A. L. Pan, “Solvent-induced crystallization for hybrid perovskite thin-film photodetector with high-performance and low working voltage,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(37), 375101 (2017).

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-Dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Nanosheets for Ultrafast Pulsed Fiber Lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[PubMed]

G. B. Jiang, L. L. Miao, J. Yi, B. Huang, W. Peng, Y. H. Zou, H. H. Huang, W. Hu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Ultrafast pulse generation from erbium-doped fiber laser modulated by hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 842 (2017).

B. Kulyka, D. Guichaouaa, A. Ayadia, A. El-Ghayourya, and B. Sahraouia, “Functionalized Azo-Based Iminopyridine Rhenium Complexes for Nonlinear Optical Performance,” Dyes Pigments 145, 256–262 (2017).

2016 (7)

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
[PubMed]

R. Zhang, J. Fan, X. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Mai, T. Xu, J. Wang, and H. J. Snaith, “Nonlinear Optical Response of Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 371–377 (2016).

S. Mirershadi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, A. Zawadzka, H. Rouhbakhsh, and B. Sahraoui, “Third order nonlinear optical properties of organometal halide perovskite by means of the Z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 647, 7–13 (2016).

W. G. Lu, C. Chen, D. B. Han, L. H. Yao, J. B. Han, H. Z. Zhong, and Y. T. Wang, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots: A Comparison Study Using Z-Scan Technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1732–1737 (2016).

L. Niu, Q. S. Zeng, J. Shi, C. X. Cong, C. Y. Wu, F. C. Liu, J. D. Zhou, W. Fu, Q. D. Fu, and C. H. Jin, “Controlled Growth and Reliable Thickness-Dependent Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Platelet Crystal,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(29), 5263–5270 (2016).

T. M. Brenner, D. A. Egger, L. Kronik, G. Hodes, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic—inorganic perovskites: low-cost semiconductors with intriguing charge-transport properties,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 15007 (2016).

B. S. Kalanoor, L. Gouda, R. Gottesman, S. Tirosh, E. Haltzi, A. Zaban, and Y. R. Tischler, “Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities in Organometallic Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 361–370 (2016).

2015 (9)

S. D. Stranks and H. J. Snaith, “Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 391–402 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Tian, M. Peter, E. Unger, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, V. Sundström, and I. G. Scheblykin, “Mechanistic Insights into Perovskite Photoluminescence Enhancement: Light Curing with Oxygen can Boost Yield Thousandfold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(38), 24978–24987 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. Walters, B. R. Sutherland, S. Hoogland, D. Shi, R. Comin, D. P. Sellan, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Two-Photon Absorption in Organometallic Bromide Perovskites,” ACS Nano 9(9), 9340–9346 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional Engineering of Perovskite Materials for High-Performance Solar Cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[PubMed]

R. Wu, J. Yang, J. Xiong, P. Liu, C. Zhou, H. Huang, Y. Gao, and B. Yang, “Efficient electron-blocking layer-free planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with a high open-circuit voltage,” Org. Electron. 26, 265–272 (2015).

Y. Fang, Q. Dong, Y. Shao, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang, “Highly narrowband perovskite single-crystal photodetectors enabled by surface-charge recombination,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 679–686 (2015).

C. Motta, F. El-Mellouhi, S. Kais, N. Tabet, F. Alharbi, and S. Sanvito, “Revealing the role of organic cations in hybrid halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3.,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7026 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (7)

S. D. Stranks, V. M. Burlakov, T. Leijtens, J. M. Ball, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Recombination kinetics in organic-inorganic perovskites: excitons, free charge, and subgap states,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(3), 034007 (2014).

K. Iliopoulos, I. Guezguez, A. P. Kerasidou, A. El-Ghayoury, D. Branzea, G. Nita, N. Avarvari, H. Belmabrouk, S. Couris, and B. Sahraouia, “Effect of metal cation complexation on the Nonlinear Optical response of an Electroactive Bisiminopyridine ligand,” Dyes Pigments 101, 229–233 (2014).

N. K. Noel, A. Abate, S. D. Stranks, E. S. Parrott, V. M. Burlakov, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhanced Photoluminescence and Solar Cell Performance Via Lewis Base Passivation of Organic-inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites,” ACS Nano 8(10), 9815–9821 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. A. Green, A. Ho-Baillie, and H. J. Snaith, “The Emergence of Perovskite Solar Cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 506–514 (2014).

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface Engineering of Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).

2013 (5)

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential Deposition as a Route to High-Performance Perovskite-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[PubMed]

C. C. Stoumpos, C. D. Malliakas, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Semiconducting Tin and Lead Iodide Perovskites with Organic Cations: Phase Transitions, High Mobilities, and Near-infrared Photoluminescent Properties,” Inorg. Chem. 52(15), 9019–9038 (2013).
[PubMed]

T. Baikie, Y. Fang, J. M. Kadro, M. Schreyer, F. Wei, S. G. Mhaisalkar, M. Graetzel, and T. J. White, “Synthesis and crystal chemistry of the hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3) PbI3 for solid-state sensitised solar cell applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 1(18), 5628–5641 (2013).

J. Even, L. Pedesseau, J.-M. Jancu, and C. Katan, “Importance of spin–orbit coupling in hybrid organic/inorganic perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(17), 2999–3005 (2013).

2011 (1)

G. K. Lim, Z. L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W. H. Ng, H. W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L. L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).

2000 (1)

E. Garmire, “Resonant Optical Nonlinearities in Semiconductors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1094–1110 (2000).

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).

1989 (1)

1978 (1)

M. J. Weber, D. Milam, and W. L. Smith, “Nonlinear refractive index of glasses and crystals,” Opt. Eng. 17(5), 463–469 (1978).

Abate, A.

N. K. Noel, A. Abate, S. D. Stranks, E. S. Parrott, V. M. Burlakov, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhanced Photoluminescence and Solar Cell Performance Via Lewis Base Passivation of Organic-inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites,” ACS Nano 8(10), 9815–9821 (2014).
[PubMed]

Abdellah, M.

Y. Tian, M. Peter, E. Unger, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, V. Sundström, and I. G. Scheblykin, “Mechanistic Insights into Perovskite Photoluminescence Enhancement: Light Curing with Oxygen can Boost Yield Thousandfold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(38), 24978–24987 (2015).
[PubMed]

Adinolfi, V.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ahmadi-Kandjani, S.

S. Mirershadi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, A. Zawadzka, H. Rouhbakhsh, and B. Sahraoui, “Third order nonlinear optical properties of organometal halide perovskite by means of the Z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 647, 7–13 (2016).

Alarousu, E.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[PubMed]

Alharbi, F.

C. Motta, F. El-Mellouhi, S. Kais, N. Tabet, F. Alharbi, and S. Sanvito, “Revealing the role of organic cations in hybrid halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3.,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7026 (2015).
[PubMed]

Avarvari, N.

K. Iliopoulos, I. Guezguez, A. P. Kerasidou, A. El-Ghayoury, D. Branzea, G. Nita, N. Avarvari, H. Belmabrouk, S. Couris, and B. Sahraouia, “Effect of metal cation complexation on the Nonlinear Optical response of an Electroactive Bisiminopyridine ligand,” Dyes Pigments 101, 229–233 (2014).

Ayadia, A.

B. Kulyka, D. Guichaouaa, A. Ayadia, A. El-Ghayourya, and B. Sahraouia, “Functionalized Azo-Based Iminopyridine Rhenium Complexes for Nonlinear Optical Performance,” Dyes Pigments 145, 256–262 (2017).

Baikie, T.

T. Baikie, Y. Fang, J. M. Kadro, M. Schreyer, F. Wei, S. G. Mhaisalkar, M. Graetzel, and T. J. White, “Synthesis and crystal chemistry of the hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3) PbI3 for solid-state sensitised solar cell applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 1(18), 5628–5641 (2013).

Bakr, O. M.

G. Walters, B. R. Sutherland, S. Hoogland, D. Shi, R. Comin, D. P. Sellan, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Two-Photon Absorption in Organometallic Bromide Perovskites,” ACS Nano 9(9), 9340–9346 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ball, J. M.

S. D. Stranks, V. M. Burlakov, T. Leijtens, J. M. Ball, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Recombination kinetics in organic-inorganic perovskites: excitons, free charge, and subgap states,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(3), 034007 (2014).

Bao, Q.

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-Dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Nanosheets for Ultrafast Pulsed Fiber Lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[PubMed]

Belmabrouk, H.

K. Iliopoulos, I. Guezguez, A. P. Kerasidou, A. El-Ghayoury, D. Branzea, G. Nita, N. Avarvari, H. Belmabrouk, S. Couris, and B. Sahraouia, “Effect of metal cation complexation on the Nonlinear Optical response of an Electroactive Bisiminopyridine ligand,” Dyes Pigments 101, 229–233 (2014).

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[PubMed]

Branzea, D.

K. Iliopoulos, I. Guezguez, A. P. Kerasidou, A. El-Ghayoury, D. Branzea, G. Nita, N. Avarvari, H. Belmabrouk, S. Couris, and B. Sahraouia, “Effect of metal cation complexation on the Nonlinear Optical response of an Electroactive Bisiminopyridine ligand,” Dyes Pigments 101, 229–233 (2014).

Brenner, T. M.

T. M. Brenner, D. A. Egger, L. Kronik, G. Hodes, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic—inorganic perovskites: low-cost semiconductors with intriguing charge-transport properties,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 15007 (2016).

Buin, A.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[PubMed]

Burlakov, V. M.

N. K. Noel, A. Abate, S. D. Stranks, E. S. Parrott, V. M. Burlakov, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhanced Photoluminescence and Solar Cell Performance Via Lewis Base Passivation of Organic-inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites,” ACS Nano 8(10), 9815–9821 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. D. Stranks, V. M. Burlakov, T. Leijtens, J. M. Ball, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Recombination kinetics in organic-inorganic perovskites: excitons, free charge, and subgap states,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(3), 034007 (2014).

Burschka, J.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential Deposition as a Route to High-Performance Perovskite-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[PubMed]

Cahen, D.

T. M. Brenner, D. A. Egger, L. Kronik, G. Hodes, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic—inorganic perovskites: low-cost semiconductors with intriguing charge-transport properties,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 15007 (2016).

Chen, C.

W. G. Lu, C. Chen, D. B. Han, L. H. Yao, J. B. Han, H. Z. Zhong, and Y. T. Wang, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots: A Comparison Study Using Z-Scan Technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1732–1737 (2016).

Chen, Q.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface Engineering of Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chen, S.

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chen, S. Q.

Chen, Y.

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-Dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Nanosheets for Ultrafast Pulsed Fiber Lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chen, Z. L.

G. K. Lim, Z. L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W. H. Ng, H. W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L. L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).

Cho, H.

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chua, L. L.

G. K. Lim, Z. L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W. H. Ng, H. W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L. L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).

Clark, J.

G. K. Lim, Z. L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W. H. Ng, H. W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L. L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).

Coleman, J. N.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[PubMed]

Comin, R.

G. Walters, B. R. Sutherland, S. Hoogland, D. Shi, R. Comin, D. P. Sellan, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Two-Photon Absorption in Organometallic Bromide Perovskites,” ACS Nano 9(9), 9340–9346 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[PubMed]

Cong, C. X.

L. Niu, Q. S. Zeng, J. Shi, C. X. Cong, C. Y. Wu, F. C. Liu, J. D. Zhou, W. Fu, Q. D. Fu, and C. H. Jin, “Controlled Growth and Reliable Thickness-Dependent Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Platelet Crystal,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(29), 5263–5270 (2016).

Couris, S.

K. Iliopoulos, I. Guezguez, A. P. Kerasidou, A. El-Ghayoury, D. Branzea, G. Nita, N. Avarvari, H. Belmabrouk, S. Couris, and B. Sahraouia, “Effect of metal cation complexation on the Nonlinear Optical response of an Electroactive Bisiminopyridine ligand,” Dyes Pigments 101, 229–233 (2014).

Demir, H. V.

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
[PubMed]

Dong, Q.

Y. Fang, Q. Dong, Y. Shao, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang, “Highly narrowband perovskite single-crystal photodetectors enabled by surface-charge recombination,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 679–686 (2015).

Dowben, P. A.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[PubMed]

Duan, H. S.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface Engineering of Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[PubMed]

Egger, D. A.

T. M. Brenner, D. A. Egger, L. Kronik, G. Hodes, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic—inorganic perovskites: low-cost semiconductors with intriguing charge-transport properties,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 15007 (2016).

El-Ghayoury, A.

K. Iliopoulos, I. Guezguez, A. P. Kerasidou, A. El-Ghayoury, D. Branzea, G. Nita, N. Avarvari, H. Belmabrouk, S. Couris, and B. Sahraouia, “Effect of metal cation complexation on the Nonlinear Optical response of an Electroactive Bisiminopyridine ligand,” Dyes Pigments 101, 229–233 (2014).

El-Ghayourya, A.

B. Kulyka, D. Guichaouaa, A. Ayadia, A. El-Ghayourya, and B. Sahraouia, “Functionalized Azo-Based Iminopyridine Rhenium Complexes for Nonlinear Optical Performance,” Dyes Pigments 145, 256–262 (2017).

El-Mellouhi, F.

C. Motta, F. El-Mellouhi, S. Kais, N. Tabet, F. Alharbi, and S. Sanvito, “Revealing the role of organic cations in hybrid halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3.,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7026 (2015).
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J. Even, L. Pedesseau, J.-M. Jancu, and C. Katan, “Importance of spin–orbit coupling in hybrid organic/inorganic perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(17), 2999–3005 (2013).

Fan, J.

R. Zhang, J. Fan, X. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Mai, T. Xu, J. Wang, and H. J. Snaith, “Nonlinear Optical Response of Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 371–377 (2016).

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[PubMed]

Fan, P.

W. Hu, R. S. Wu, S. Z. Yang, P. Fan, J. L. Yang, and A. L. Pan, “Solvent-induced crystallization for hybrid perovskite thin-film photodetector with high-performance and low working voltage,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(37), 375101 (2017).

Fang, Y.

Y. Fang, Q. Dong, Y. Shao, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang, “Highly narrowband perovskite single-crystal photodetectors enabled by surface-charge recombination,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 679–686 (2015).

T. Baikie, Y. Fang, J. M. Kadro, M. Schreyer, F. Wei, S. G. Mhaisalkar, M. Graetzel, and T. J. White, “Synthesis and crystal chemistry of the hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3) PbI3 for solid-state sensitised solar cell applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 1(18), 5628–5641 (2013).

Feng, Y.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[PubMed]

Fox, D.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. K. Lim, Z. L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W. H. Ng, H. W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L. L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).

Fu, Q. D.

L. Niu, Q. S. Zeng, J. Shi, C. X. Cong, C. Y. Wu, F. C. Liu, J. D. Zhou, W. Fu, Q. D. Fu, and C. H. Jin, “Controlled Growth and Reliable Thickness-Dependent Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Platelet Crystal,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(29), 5263–5270 (2016).

Fu, W.

L. Niu, Q. S. Zeng, J. Shi, C. X. Cong, C. Y. Wu, F. C. Liu, J. D. Zhou, W. Fu, Q. D. Fu, and C. H. Jin, “Controlled Growth and Reliable Thickness-Dependent Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Platelet Crystal,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(29), 5263–5270 (2016).

Gao, P.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential Deposition as a Route to High-Performance Perovskite-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[PubMed]

Gao, Y.

R. Wu, J. Yang, J. Xiong, P. Liu, C. Zhou, H. Huang, Y. Gao, and B. Yang, “Efficient electron-blocking layer-free planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with a high open-circuit voltage,” Org. Electron. 26, 265–272 (2015).

Garmire, E.

E. Garmire, “Resonant Optical Nonlinearities in Semiconductors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1094–1110 (2000).

Goh, R. G.

G. K. Lim, Z. L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W. H. Ng, H. W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L. L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).

Goriely, A.

S. D. Stranks, V. M. Burlakov, T. Leijtens, J. M. Ball, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Recombination kinetics in organic-inorganic perovskites: excitons, free charge, and subgap states,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(3), 034007 (2014).

N. K. Noel, A. Abate, S. D. Stranks, E. S. Parrott, V. M. Burlakov, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhanced Photoluminescence and Solar Cell Performance Via Lewis Base Passivation of Organic-inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites,” ACS Nano 8(10), 9815–9821 (2014).
[PubMed]

Gottesman, R.

B. S. Kalanoor, L. Gouda, R. Gottesman, S. Tirosh, E. Haltzi, A. Zaban, and Y. R. Tischler, “Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities in Organometallic Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 361–370 (2016).

Gouda, L.

B. S. Kalanoor, L. Gouda, R. Gottesman, S. Tirosh, E. Haltzi, A. Zaban, and Y. R. Tischler, “Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities in Organometallic Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 361–370 (2016).

Graetzel, M.

T. Baikie, Y. Fang, J. M. Kadro, M. Schreyer, F. Wei, S. G. Mhaisalkar, M. Graetzel, and T. J. White, “Synthesis and crystal chemistry of the hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3) PbI3 for solid-state sensitised solar cell applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 1(18), 5628–5641 (2013).

Grätzel, M.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential Deposition as a Route to High-Performance Perovskite-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[PubMed]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, A. Ho-Baillie, and H. J. Snaith, “The Emergence of Perovskite Solar Cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 506–514 (2014).

Guezguez, I.

K. Iliopoulos, I. Guezguez, A. P. Kerasidou, A. El-Ghayoury, D. Branzea, G. Nita, N. Avarvari, H. Belmabrouk, S. Couris, and B. Sahraouia, “Effect of metal cation complexation on the Nonlinear Optical response of an Electroactive Bisiminopyridine ligand,” Dyes Pigments 101, 229–233 (2014).

Guichaouaa, D.

B. Kulyka, D. Guichaouaa, A. Ayadia, A. El-Ghayourya, and B. Sahraouia, “Functionalized Azo-Based Iminopyridine Rhenium Complexes for Nonlinear Optical Performance,” Dyes Pigments 145, 256–262 (2017).

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).

Haltzi, E.

B. S. Kalanoor, L. Gouda, R. Gottesman, S. Tirosh, E. Haltzi, A. Zaban, and Y. R. Tischler, “Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities in Organometallic Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 361–370 (2016).

Han, D. B.

W. G. Lu, C. Chen, D. B. Han, L. H. Yao, J. B. Han, H. Z. Zhong, and Y. T. Wang, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots: A Comparison Study Using Z-Scan Technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1732–1737 (2016).

Han, J. B.

W. G. Lu, C. Chen, D. B. Han, L. H. Yao, J. B. Han, H. Z. Zhong, and Y. T. Wang, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots: A Comparison Study Using Z-Scan Technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1732–1737 (2016).

Heo, J. H.

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ho, P. K. H.

G. K. Lim, Z. L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W. H. Ng, H. W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. H. Ho, and L. L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).

Ho-Baillie, A.

M. A. Green, A. Ho-Baillie, and H. J. Snaith, “The Emergence of Perovskite Solar Cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 506–514 (2014).

Hodes, G.

T. M. Brenner, D. A. Egger, L. Kronik, G. Hodes, and D. Cahen, “Hybrid organic—inorganic perovskites: low-cost semiconductors with intriguing charge-transport properties,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 15007 (2016).

Hong, Z.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface Engineering of Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hoogland, S.

G. Walters, B. R. Sutherland, S. Hoogland, D. Shi, R. Comin, D. P. Sellan, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Two-Photon Absorption in Organometallic Bromide Perovskites,” ACS Nano 9(9), 9340–9346 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hu, W.

G. B. Jiang, L. L. Miao, J. Yi, B. Huang, W. Peng, Y. H. Zou, H. H. Huang, W. Hu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Ultrafast pulse generation from erbium-doped fiber laser modulated by hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 842 (2017).

W. Hu, R. S. Wu, S. Z. Yang, P. Fan, J. L. Yang, and A. L. Pan, “Solvent-induced crystallization for hybrid perovskite thin-film photodetector with high-performance and low working voltage,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(37), 375101 (2017).

Huan, A.

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
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Huang, B.

G. B. Jiang, L. L. Miao, J. Yi, B. Huang, W. Peng, Y. H. Zou, H. H. Huang, W. Hu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Ultrafast pulse generation from erbium-doped fiber laser modulated by hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 842 (2017).

Huang, H.

R. Wu, J. Yang, J. Xiong, P. Liu, C. Zhou, H. Huang, Y. Gao, and B. Yang, “Efficient electron-blocking layer-free planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with a high open-circuit voltage,” Org. Electron. 26, 265–272 (2015).

Huang, H. H.

G. B. Jiang, L. L. Miao, J. Yi, B. Huang, W. Peng, Y. H. Zou, H. H. Huang, W. Hu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Ultrafast pulse generation from erbium-doped fiber laser modulated by hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 842 (2017).

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).

Huang, J.

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Humphry-Baker, R.

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H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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C. C. Stoumpos, C. D. Malliakas, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Semiconducting Tin and Lead Iodide Perovskites with Organic Cations: Phase Transitions, High Mobilities, and Near-infrared Photoluminescent Properties,” Inorg. Chem. 52(15), 9019–9038 (2013).
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Mohammed, O. F.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
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J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential Deposition as a Route to High-Performance Perovskite-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
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N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional Engineering of Perovskite Materials for High-Performance Solar Cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).

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Y. Tian, M. Peter, E. Unger, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, V. Sundström, and I. G. Scheblykin, “Mechanistic Insights into Perovskite Photoluminescence Enhancement: Light Curing with Oxygen can Boost Yield Thousandfold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(38), 24978–24987 (2015).
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G. Walters, B. R. Sutherland, S. Hoogland, D. Shi, R. Comin, D. P. Sellan, O. M. Bakr, and E. H. Sargent, “Two-Photon Absorption in Organometallic Bromide Perovskites,” ACS Nano 9(9), 9340–9346 (2015).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).

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P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-Dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Nanosheets for Ultrafast Pulsed Fiber Lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
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M. J. Weber, D. Milam, and W. L. Smith, “Nonlinear refractive index of glasses and crystals,” Opt. Eng. 17(5), 463–469 (1978).

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R. Zhang, J. Fan, X. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Mai, T. Xu, J. Wang, and H. J. Snaith, “Nonlinear Optical Response of Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 371–377 (2016).

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J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
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P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-Dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Nanosheets for Ultrafast Pulsed Fiber Lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).

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G. B. Jiang, L. L. Miao, J. Yi, B. Huang, W. Peng, Y. H. Zou, H. H. Huang, W. Hu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Ultrafast pulse generation from erbium-doped fiber laser modulated by hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 842 (2017).

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Wu, R.

R. Wu, J. Yang, J. Xiong, P. Liu, C. Zhou, H. Huang, Y. Gao, and B. Yang, “Efficient electron-blocking layer-free planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with a high open-circuit voltage,” Org. Electron. 26, 265–272 (2015).

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W. Hu, R. S. Wu, S. Z. Yang, P. Fan, J. L. Yang, and A. L. Pan, “Solvent-induced crystallization for hybrid perovskite thin-film photodetector with high-performance and low working voltage,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(37), 375101 (2017).

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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

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J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
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Xiong, Q.

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
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Xu, Y.

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-Dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Nanosheets for Ultrafast Pulsed Fiber Lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[PubMed]

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J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
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Yang, J.

R. Wu, J. Yang, J. Xiong, P. Liu, C. Zhou, H. Huang, Y. Gao, and B. Yang, “Efficient electron-blocking layer-free planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with a high open-circuit voltage,” Org. Electron. 26, 265–272 (2015).

Yang, J. L.

W. Hu, R. S. Wu, S. Z. Yang, P. Fan, J. L. Yang, and A. L. Pan, “Solvent-induced crystallization for hybrid perovskite thin-film photodetector with high-performance and low working voltage,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(37), 375101 (2017).

Yang, S. Z.

W. Hu, R. S. Wu, S. Z. Yang, P. Fan, J. L. Yang, and A. L. Pan, “Solvent-induced crystallization for hybrid perovskite thin-film photodetector with high-performance and low working voltage,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(37), 375101 (2017).

Yang, T.

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-Dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Nanosheets for Ultrafast Pulsed Fiber Lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[PubMed]

Yang, W. S.

N. J. Jeon, J. H. Noh, W. S. Yang, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “Compositional Engineering of Perovskite Materials for High-Performance Solar Cells,” Nature 517(7535), 476–480 (2015).
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Yang, Y.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface Engineering of Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yantara, N.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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Yao, L. H.

W. G. Lu, C. Chen, D. B. Han, L. H. Yao, J. B. Han, H. Z. Zhong, and Y. T. Wang, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots: A Comparison Study Using Z-Scan Technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1732–1737 (2016).

Yartsev, A.

Y. Tian, M. Peter, E. Unger, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, V. Sundström, and I. G. Scheblykin, “Mechanistic Insights into Perovskite Photoluminescence Enhancement: Light Curing with Oxygen can Boost Yield Thousandfold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(38), 24978–24987 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yi, J.

G. B. Jiang, L. L. Miao, J. Yi, B. Huang, W. Peng, Y. H. Zou, H. H. Huang, W. Hu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Ultrafast pulse generation from erbium-doped fiber laser modulated by hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 842 (2017).

Yoo, S.

H. Cho, S. H. Jeong, M. H. Park, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, C. L. Lee, J. H. Heo, A. Sadhanala, N. Myoung, S. Yoo, S. H. Im, R. H. Friend, and T. W. Lee, “Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Science 350(6265), 1222–1225 (2015).
[PubMed]

You, J.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface Engineering of Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yu, H.

R. Zhang, J. Fan, X. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Mai, T. Xu, J. Wang, and H. J. Snaith, “Nonlinear Optical Response of Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 371–377 (2016).

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yuan, M.

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yuan, Y.

Y. Fang, Q. Dong, Y. Shao, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang, “Highly narrowband perovskite single-crystal photodetectors enabled by surface-charge recombination,” Nat. Photonics 9(10), 679–686 (2015).

Zaban, A.

B. S. Kalanoor, L. Gouda, R. Gottesman, S. Tirosh, E. Haltzi, A. Zaban, and Y. R. Tischler, “Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities in Organometallic Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 361–370 (2016).

Zawadzka, A.

S. Mirershadi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, A. Zawadzka, H. Rouhbakhsh, and B. Sahraoui, “Third order nonlinear optical properties of organometal halide perovskite by means of the Z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 647, 7–13 (2016).

Zeng, Q. S.

L. Niu, Q. S. Zeng, J. Shi, C. X. Cong, C. Y. Wu, F. C. Liu, J. D. Zhou, W. Fu, Q. D. Fu, and C. H. Jin, “Controlled Growth and Reliable Thickness-Dependent Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Platelet Crystal,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(29), 5263–5270 (2016).

Zeng, R.

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhang, H.

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-Dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Nanosheets for Ultrafast Pulsed Fiber Lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[PubMed]

R. Zhang, J. Fan, X. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Mai, T. Xu, J. Wang, and H. J. Snaith, “Nonlinear Optical Response of Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 371–377 (2016).

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhang, L.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-Dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Nanosheets for Ultrafast Pulsed Fiber Lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, J. Fan, X. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Mai, T. Xu, J. Wang, and H. J. Snaith, “Nonlinear Optical Response of Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 371–377 (2016).

Zhang, X.

R. Zhang, J. Fan, X. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Mai, T. Xu, J. Wang, and H. J. Snaith, “Nonlinear Optical Response of Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 371–377 (2016).

D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-Dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Nanosheets for Ultrafast Pulsed Fiber Lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[PubMed]

Zhao, C. J.

G. B. Jiang, L. L. Miao, J. Yi, B. Huang, W. Peng, Y. H. Zou, H. H. Huang, W. Hu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Ultrafast pulse generation from erbium-doped fiber laser modulated by hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 842 (2017).

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zheng, K.

Y. Tian, M. Peter, E. Unger, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, V. Sundström, and I. G. Scheblykin, “Mechanistic Insights into Perovskite Photoluminescence Enhancement: Light Curing with Oxygen can Boost Yield Thousandfold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(38), 24978–24987 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zhong, H. Z.

W. G. Lu, C. Chen, D. B. Han, L. H. Yao, J. B. Han, H. Z. Zhong, and Y. T. Wang, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots: A Comparison Study Using Z-Scan Technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1732–1737 (2016).

Zhou, C.

R. Wu, J. Yang, J. Xiong, P. Liu, C. Zhou, H. Huang, Y. Gao, and B. Yang, “Efficient electron-blocking layer-free planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with a high open-circuit voltage,” Org. Electron. 26, 265–272 (2015).

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface Engineering of Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhou, J. D.

L. Niu, Q. S. Zeng, J. Shi, C. X. Cong, C. Y. Wu, F. C. Liu, J. D. Zhou, W. Fu, Q. D. Fu, and C. H. Jin, “Controlled Growth and Reliable Thickness-Dependent Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Platelet Crystal,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(29), 5263–5270 (2016).

Zou, Y. H.

G. B. Jiang, L. L. Miao, J. Yi, B. Huang, W. Peng, Y. H. Zou, H. H. Huang, W. Hu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Ultrafast pulse generation from erbium-doped fiber laser modulated by hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 842 (2017).

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

P. Li, Y. Chen, T. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Lin, Y. Xu, L. Li, H. Mu, B. N. Shivananju, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, S. Li, D. Tang, B. Jia, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Two-Dimensional CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Nanosheets for Ultrafast Pulsed Fiber Lasers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(14), 12759–12765 (2017).
[PubMed]

ACS Nano (4)

J. Xing, F. Yan, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, H. Yu, Q. Zhang, R. Zeng, H. V. Demir, X. Sun, A. Huan, and Q. Xiong, “High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6623–6630 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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R. Zhang, J. Fan, X. Zhang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Mai, T. Xu, J. Wang, and H. J. Snaith, “Nonlinear Optical Response of Organic–Inorganic Halide Perovskites,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 371–377 (2016).

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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

W. G. Lu, C. Chen, D. B. Han, L. H. Yao, J. B. Han, H. Z. Zhong, and Y. T. Wang, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots: A Comparison Study Using Z-Scan Technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(11), 1732–1737 (2016).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. B. Jiang, L. L. Miao, J. Yi, B. Huang, W. Peng, Y. H. Zou, H. H. Huang, W. Hu, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Ultrafast pulse generation from erbium-doped fiber laser modulated by hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 842 (2017).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Mirershadi, S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, A. Zawadzka, H. Rouhbakhsh, and B. Sahraoui, “Third order nonlinear optical properties of organometal halide perovskite by means of the Z-scan technique,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 647, 7–13 (2016).

Dyes Pigments (2)

K. Iliopoulos, I. Guezguez, A. P. Kerasidou, A. El-Ghayoury, D. Branzea, G. Nita, N. Avarvari, H. Belmabrouk, S. Couris, and B. Sahraouia, “Effect of metal cation complexation on the Nonlinear Optical response of an Electroactive Bisiminopyridine ligand,” Dyes Pigments 101, 229–233 (2014).

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W. Hu, R. S. Wu, S. Z. Yang, P. Fan, J. L. Yang, and A. L. Pan, “Solvent-induced crystallization for hybrid perovskite thin-film photodetector with high-performance and low working voltage,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(37), 375101 (2017).

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Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Tian, M. Peter, E. Unger, M. Abdellah, K. Zheng, T. Pullerits, A. Yartsev, V. Sundström, and I. G. Scheblykin, “Mechanistic Insights into Perovskite Photoluminescence Enhancement: Light Curing with Oxygen can Boost Yield Thousandfold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(38), 24978–24987 (2015).
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D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, R. Comin, M. Yuan, E. Alarousu, A. Buin, Y. Chen, S. Hoogland, A. Rothenberger, K. Katsiev, Y. Losovyj, X. Zhang, P. A. Dowben, O. F. Mohammed, E. H. Sargent, and O. M. Bakr, “Solar cells. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals,” Science 347(6221), 519–522 (2015).
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H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Photovoltaics. Interface Engineering of Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The cross-sectional SEM of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film. (b) The XRD pattern of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film. (c) The linear absorption spectrum of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film. (d) The photoluminescence spectrum of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the Z-scan measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nonlinear optical response of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film. (a) Open-aperture and (b) close-aperture dividing by open-aperture Z-scan trace with a peak intensity of 9.1 MW/cm2 at 1930 nm; (c) Open-aperture and (d) close-aperture dividing by open-aperture Z-scan trace with a peak intensity of 43.6 MW/cm2 at 1560 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The optical transmittance of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film with different peak intensity at (a)1930 nm and (b)1560 nm, respectively.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T open (z)=1 q 0 2 2 (1+ z 2 / z 0 2 )
T(x)=1+ 4xΔΦ (1+ x 2 )(9+ x 2 )
T=1( α s 1+I/ I sat + α ns )

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