Abstract

We experimentally investigate a new class of quasi-aperiodic structures for improving the emission pattern in nanowire arrays. Efficient normal emission, as well as lasing, can be obtained from III-nitride photonic crystal (PhC) nanowire arrays that utilize slow group velocity modes near the Γ-point in reciprocal space. However, due to symmetry considerations, the emitted far-field pattern of such modes are often ‘donut’-like. Many applications, including lighting for displays or lasers, require a more uniform beam profile in the far-field. Previous work has improved far-field beam uniformity of uncoupled modes by changing the shape of the emitting structure. However, in nanowire systems, the shape of nanowires cannot always be arbitrarily changed due to growth or etch considerations. Here, we investigate breaking symmetry by instead changing the position of emitters. Using a quasi-aperiodic geometry, which changes the emitter position within a photonic crystal supercell (2x2), we are able to linearize the photonic bandstructure near the Γ-point and greatly improve emitted far-field uniformity. We realize the III-nitride nanowires structures using a top-down fabrication procedure that produces nanowires with smooth, vertical sidewalls. Comparison of room-temperature micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) measurements between periodic and quasi-aperiodic nanowire arrays reveal resonances in each structure, with the simple periodic structure producing a donut beam in the emitted far-field and the quasi-aperiodic structure producing a uniform Gaussian-like beam. We investigate the input pump power vs. output intensity in both systems and observe the simple periodic array exhibiting a non-linear relationship, indicative of lasing. We believe that the quasi-aperiodic approach studied here provides an alternate and promising strategy for shaping the emission pattern of nanoemitter systems.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

Z. Lin, A. Pick, M. Loncar, and A. W. Rodriguez, “Enhanced Spontaneous Emission at Third-Order Dirac Exceptional Points in Inverse-Designed Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 107402 (2016).

2015 (3)

H. Zhang, G. Jacopin, V. Neplokh, L. Largeau, F. H. Julien, O. Kryliouk, and M. Tchernycheva, “Color control of nanowire InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by post-growth treatment,” Nanotechnology 26(46), 465203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, J. Ledig, T. Schimpke, M. A. Sánchez-Garcia, M. Strassburg, A. Waag, and E. Calleja, “Demonstration of (In, Ga)N/GaN core-shell micro light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy on ordered MOVPE GaN Pillars,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3661–3665 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

P. D. Anderson, C. Lin, and M. Povinelli, “Effect of guided resonance modes on emission from GaN core–shell nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 117(4), 1879–1884 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Hirose, Y. Liang, Y. Kurosaka, A. Watanaba, T. Sugiyama, and S. Noda, “Watt-class high-power, high-beam-quality photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 406–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, R. Biswas, and K.-M. Ho, “Enhanced light emission in semiconductor nanowire arrays,” Opt. Commun. 287, 250–253 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. Kölper, M. Sabathil, F. Römer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and B. Witzigmann, “Core–shell InGaN nanowire light emitting diodes: Electronic and optical device properties,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 209(11), 2304–2312 (2012).
[Crossref]

T.-W. Yeh, Y.-T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells Grown on Nonpolar Facets of Vertical GaN Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Ishizawa, K. Kishino, R. Araki, A. Kikuchi, and S. Sugimoto, “Optically Pumped Green (530–560 nm) Stimulated Emissions from InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Triangular-Lattice Nanocolumn Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055001 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. C. Scofield, S.-H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, M. Hocevar, A. Pierret, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, H. P. Urbach, and J. G. Rivas, “Controlling the Directional Emission of Light by Periodic Arrays of Heterostructured Semiconductor Nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5830–5837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolum arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. F. Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

A. Håkansson, H. T. Miyazaki, and J. Sánchez-Dehesa, “Inverse Design for Full Control of Spontaneous Emission Using Light Emitting Scattering Optical Elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 153902 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: Lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

T. Takeuchi, H. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical Properties of Strained AlGaN and GaInN on GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2), L177–L179 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, J. Joannopoulos, and E. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

K. Sakoda, “Symmetry, degeneracy, and uncoupled modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(11), 7982–7986 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, B.

T.-W. Yeh, Y.-T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells Grown on Nonpolar Facets of Vertical GaN Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, H. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical Properties of Strained AlGaN and GaInN on GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2), L177–L179 (1997).
[Crossref]

Albert, S.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, J. Ledig, T. Schimpke, M. A. Sánchez-Garcia, M. Strassburg, A. Waag, and E. Calleja, “Demonstration of (In, Ga)N/GaN core-shell micro light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy on ordered MOVPE GaN Pillars,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3661–3665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

S. F. Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, H. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical Properties of Strained AlGaN and GaInN on GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2), L177–L179 (1997).
[Crossref]

Anderson, P. D.

P. D. Anderson, C. Lin, and M. Povinelli, “Effect of guided resonance modes on emission from GaN core–shell nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 117(4), 1879–1884 (2014).
[Crossref]

Araki, R.

S. Ishizawa, K. Kishino, R. Araki, A. Kikuchi, and S. Sugimoto, “Optically Pumped Green (530–560 nm) Stimulated Emissions from InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Triangular-Lattice Nanocolumn Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arnold, S. F.

S. F. Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, M. Hocevar, A. Pierret, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, H. P. Urbach, and J. G. Rivas, “Controlling the Directional Emission of Light by Periodic Arrays of Heterostructured Semiconductor Nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5830–5837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bengoechea-Encabo, A.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, J. Ledig, T. Schimpke, M. A. Sánchez-Garcia, M. Strassburg, A. Waag, and E. Calleja, “Demonstration of (In, Ga)N/GaN core-shell micro light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy on ordered MOVPE GaN Pillars,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3661–3665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Benisty, H.

Benz, A.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergenek, K.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R.

Bhattacharya, P.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biswas, R.

C. Xu, R. Biswas, and K.-M. Ho, “Enhanced light emission in semiconductor nanowire arrays,” Opt. Commun. 287, 250–253 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boroditsky, M.

Brener, I.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calleja, E.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, J. Ledig, T. Schimpke, M. A. Sánchez-Garcia, M. Strassburg, A. Waag, and E. Calleja, “Demonstration of (In, Ga)N/GaN core-shell micro light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy on ordered MOVPE GaN Pillars,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3661–3665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coccioli, R.

Conroy, M.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dapkus, P. D.

T.-W. Yeh, Y.-T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells Grown on Nonpolar Facets of Vertical GaN Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Spontaneous emission in GaN/InGaN photonic crystal nanopillars,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17991–18004 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diedenhofen, S. L.

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, M. Hocevar, A. Pierret, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, H. P. Urbach, and J. G. Rivas, “Controlling the Directional Emission of Light by Periodic Arrays of Heterostructured Semiconductor Nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5830–5837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erchak, A. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, J. Joannopoulos, and E. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Frost, T.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Håkansson, A.

A. Håkansson, H. T. Miyazaki, and J. Sánchez-Dehesa, “Inverse Design for Full Control of Spontaneous Emission Using Light Emitting Scattering Optical Elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 153902 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirose, K.

K. Hirose, Y. Liang, Y. Kurosaka, A. Watanaba, T. Sugiyama, and S. Noda, “Watt-class high-power, high-beam-quality photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 406–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ho, K.-M.

C. Xu, R. Biswas, and K.-M. Ho, “Enhanced light emission in semiconductor nanowire arrays,” Opt. Commun. 287, 250–253 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hocevar, M.

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, M. Hocevar, A. Pierret, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, H. P. Urbach, and J. G. Rivas, “Controlling the Directional Emission of Light by Periodic Arrays of Heterostructured Semiconductor Nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5830–5837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holmes, J. D.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huffaker, D. L.

A. C. Scofield, S.-H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ishizawa, S.

S. Ishizawa, K. Kishino, R. Araki, A. Kikuchi, and S. Sugimoto, “Optically Pumped Green (530–560 nm) Stimulated Emissions from InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Triangular-Lattice Nanocolumn Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jacopin, G.

H. Zhang, G. Jacopin, V. Neplokh, L. Largeau, F. H. Julien, O. Kryliouk, and M. Tchernycheva, “Color control of nanowire InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by post-growth treatment,” Nanotechnology 26(46), 465203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jahangir, S.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janssen, O. T. A.

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, M. Hocevar, A. Pierret, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, H. P. Urbach, and J. G. Rivas, “Controlling the Directional Emission of Light by Periodic Arrays of Heterostructured Semiconductor Nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5830–5837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J.

S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, J. Joannopoulos, and E. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[Crossref]

Julien, F. H.

H. Zhang, G. Jacopin, V. Neplokh, L. Largeau, F. H. Julien, O. Kryliouk, and M. Tchernycheva, “Color control of nanowire InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by post-growth treatment,” Nanotechnology 26(46), 465203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, A.

S. Ishizawa, K. Kishino, R. Araki, A. Kikuchi, and S. Sugimoto, “Optically Pumped Green (530–560 nm) Stimulated Emissions from InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Triangular-Lattice Nanocolumn Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055001 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolum arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-H.

A. C. Scofield, S.-H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kishino, K.

S. Ishizawa, K. Kishino, R. Araki, A. Kikuchi, and S. Sugimoto, “Optically Pumped Green (530–560 nm) Stimulated Emissions from InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Triangular-Lattice Nanocolumn Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055001 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolum arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koleske, D. D.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kölper, C.

C. Kölper, M. Sabathil, F. Römer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and B. Witzigmann, “Core–shell InGaN nanowire light emitting diodes: Electronic and optical device properties,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 209(11), 2304–2312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

Kryliouk, O.

H. Zhang, G. Jacopin, V. Neplokh, L. Largeau, F. H. Julien, O. Kryliouk, and M. Tchernycheva, “Color control of nanowire InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by post-growth treatment,” Nanotechnology 26(46), 465203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kunishi, W.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: Lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurosaka, Y.

K. Hirose, Y. Liang, Y. Kurosaka, A. Watanaba, T. Sugiyama, and S. Noda, “Watt-class high-power, high-beam-quality photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 406–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Largeau, L.

H. Zhang, G. Jacopin, V. Neplokh, L. Largeau, F. H. Julien, O. Kryliouk, and M. Tchernycheva, “Color control of nanowire InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by post-growth treatment,” Nanotechnology 26(46), 465203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ledig, J.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, J. Ledig, T. Schimpke, M. A. Sánchez-Garcia, M. Strassburg, A. Waag, and E. Calleja, “Demonstration of (In, Ga)N/GaN core-shell micro light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy on ordered MOVPE GaN Pillars,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3661–3665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, R. K.

Lester, L.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, B.

A. C. Scofield, S.-H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, Y.

K. Hirose, Y. Liang, Y. Kurosaka, A. Watanaba, T. Sugiyama, and S. Noda, “Watt-class high-power, high-beam-quality photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 406–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, A.

A. C. Scofield, S.-H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.

P. D. Anderson, C. Lin, and M. Povinelli, “Effect of guided resonance modes on emission from GaN core–shell nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 117(4), 1879–1884 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-T.

T.-W. Yeh, Y.-T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells Grown on Nonpolar Facets of Vertical GaN Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, A. Pick, M. Loncar, and A. W. Rodriguez, “Enhanced Spontaneous Emission at Third-Order Dirac Exceptional Points in Inverse-Designed Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 107402 (2016).

Linder, N.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

Z. Lin, A. Pick, M. Loncar, and A. W. Rodriguez, “Enhanced Spontaneous Emission at Third-Order Dirac Exceptional Points in Inverse-Designed Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 107402 (2016).

Lu, P.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk, T. S.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandl, M.

C. Kölper, M. Sabathil, F. Römer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and B. Witzigmann, “Core–shell InGaN nanowire light emitting diodes: Electronic and optical device properties,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 209(11), 2304–2312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miyai, E.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: Lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyazaki, H. T.

A. Håkansson, H. T. Miyazaki, and J. Sánchez-Dehesa, “Inverse Design for Full Control of Spontaneous Emission Using Light Emitting Scattering Optical Elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 153902 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neplokh, V.

H. Zhang, G. Jacopin, V. Neplokh, L. Largeau, F. H. Julien, O. Kryliouk, and M. Tchernycheva, “Color control of nanowire InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by post-growth treatment,” Nanotechnology 26(46), 465203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, T. K.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

K. Hirose, Y. Liang, Y. Kurosaka, A. Watanaba, T. Sugiyama, and S. Noda, “Watt-class high-power, high-beam-quality photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 406–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: Lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nutt, S. R.

T.-W. Yeh, Y.-T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells Grown on Nonpolar Facets of Vertical GaN Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Brien, J. D.

T.-W. Yeh, Y.-T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells Grown on Nonpolar Facets of Vertical GaN Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Connell, J.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohnishi, D.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: Lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okano, T.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: Lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ooi, B. S.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
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Padgett, M.

S. F. Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
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Parbrook, P. J.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrich, G. S.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pick, A.

Z. Lin, A. Pick, M. Loncar, and A. W. Rodriguez, “Enhanced Spontaneous Emission at Third-Order Dirac Exceptional Points in Inverse-Designed Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 107402 (2016).

Pierret, A.

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, M. Hocevar, A. Pierret, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, H. P. Urbach, and J. G. Rivas, “Controlling the Directional Emission of Light by Periodic Arrays of Heterostructured Semiconductor Nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5830–5837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Povinelli, M.

P. D. Anderson, C. Lin, and M. Povinelli, “Effect of guided resonance modes on emission from GaN core–shell nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 117(4), 1879–1884 (2014).
[Crossref]

Prabaswara, A.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rakich, P.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ripin, D. J.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rivas, J. G.

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, M. Hocevar, A. Pierret, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, H. P. Urbach, and J. G. Rivas, “Controlling the Directional Emission of Light by Periodic Arrays of Heterostructured Semiconductor Nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5830–5837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, A. W.

Z. Lin, A. Pick, M. Loncar, and A. W. Rodriguez, “Enhanced Spontaneous Emission at Third-Order Dirac Exceptional Points in Inverse-Designed Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 107402 (2016).

Römer, F.

C. Kölper, M. Sabathil, F. Römer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and B. Witzigmann, “Core–shell InGaN nanowire light emitting diodes: Electronic and optical device properties,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 209(11), 2304–2312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sabathil, M.

C. Kölper, M. Sabathil, F. Römer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and B. Witzigmann, “Core–shell InGaN nanowire light emitting diodes: Electronic and optical device properties,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 209(11), 2304–2312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sakai, H.

T. Takeuchi, H. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical Properties of Strained AlGaN and GaInN on GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2), L177–L179 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sakai, K.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: Lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakoda, K.

K. Sakoda, “Symmetry, degeneracy, and uncoupled modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(11), 7982–7986 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sánchez-Dehesa, J.

A. Håkansson, H. T. Miyazaki, and J. Sánchez-Dehesa, “Inverse Design for Full Control of Spontaneous Emission Using Light Emitting Scattering Optical Elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 153902 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sánchez-Garcia, M. A.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, J. Ledig, T. Schimpke, M. A. Sánchez-Garcia, M. Strassburg, A. Waag, and E. Calleja, “Demonstration of (In, Ga)N/GaN core-shell micro light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy on ordered MOVPE GaN Pillars,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3661–3665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sarkissian, R.

T.-W. Yeh, Y.-T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells Grown on Nonpolar Facets of Vertical GaN Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

A. C. Scofield, S.-H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schimpke, T.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, J. Ledig, T. Schimpke, M. A. Sánchez-Garcia, M. Strassburg, A. Waag, and E. Calleja, “Demonstration of (In, Ga)N/GaN core-shell micro light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy on ordered MOVPE GaN Pillars,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3661–3665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E.

S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, J. Joannopoulos, and E. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scofield, A. C.

A. C. Scofield, S.-H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekiguchi, H.

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolum arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, J. N.

A. C. Scofield, S.-H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sota, S.

T. Takeuchi, H. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical Properties of Strained AlGaN and GaInN on GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2), L177–L179 (1997).
[Crossref]

Stewart, L. S.

T.-W. Yeh, Y.-T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells Grown on Nonpolar Facets of Vertical GaN Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strassburg, M.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, J. Ledig, T. Schimpke, M. A. Sánchez-Garcia, M. Strassburg, A. Waag, and E. Calleja, “Demonstration of (In, Ga)N/GaN core-shell micro light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy on ordered MOVPE GaN Pillars,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3661–3665 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Kölper, M. Sabathil, F. Römer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and B. Witzigmann, “Core–shell InGaN nanowire light emitting diodes: Electronic and optical device properties,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 209(11), 2304–2312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Subramania, G.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, S.

S. Ishizawa, K. Kishino, R. Araki, A. Kikuchi, and S. Sugimoto, “Optically Pumped Green (530–560 nm) Stimulated Emissions from InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Triangular-Lattice Nanocolumn Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, T.

K. Hirose, Y. Liang, Y. Kurosaka, A. Watanaba, T. Sugiyama, and S. Noda, “Watt-class high-power, high-beam-quality photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 406–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, H.

T. Takeuchi, H. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical Properties of Strained AlGaN and GaInN on GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2), L177–L179 (1997).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, H. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical Properties of Strained AlGaN and GaInN on GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2), L177–L179 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tchernycheva, M.

H. Zhang, G. Jacopin, V. Neplokh, L. Largeau, F. H. Julien, O. Kryliouk, and M. Tchernycheva, “Color control of nanowire InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by post-growth treatment,” Nanotechnology 26(46), 465203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbach, H. P.

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, M. Hocevar, A. Pierret, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, H. P. Urbach, and J. G. Rivas, “Controlling the Directional Emission of Light by Periodic Arrays of Heterostructured Semiconductor Nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5830–5837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, P.

S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, J. Joannopoulos, and E. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vrijen, R.

Waag, A.

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, J. Ledig, T. Schimpke, M. A. Sánchez-Garcia, M. Strassburg, A. Waag, and E. Calleja, “Demonstration of (In, Ga)N/GaN core-shell micro light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy on ordered MOVPE GaN Pillars,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3661–3665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. T.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. Hirose, Y. Liang, Y. Kurosaka, A. Watanaba, T. Sugiyama, and S. Noda, “Watt-class high-power, high-beam-quality photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 406–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

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C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Witzigmann, B.

C. Kölper, M. Sabathil, F. Römer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and B. Witzigmann, “Core–shell InGaN nanowire light emitting diodes: Electronic and optical device properties,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 209(11), 2304–2312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wright, J. B.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, R. Biswas, and K.-M. Ho, “Enhanced light emission in semiconductor nanowire arrays,” Opt. Commun. 287, 250–253 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

Yablonovitch, E.

Yariv, A.

Yeh, T.-W.

T.-W. Yeh, Y.-T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells Grown on Nonpolar Facets of Vertical GaN Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, G. Jacopin, V. Neplokh, L. Largeau, F. H. Julien, O. Kryliouk, and M. Tchernycheva, “Color control of nanowire InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by post-growth treatment,” Nanotechnology 26(46), 465203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

S. L. Diedenhofen, O. T. A. Janssen, M. Hocevar, A. Pierret, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, H. P. Urbach, and J. G. Rivas, “Controlling the Directional Emission of Light by Periodic Arrays of Heterostructured Semiconductor Nanowires,” ACS Nano 5(7), 5830–5837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. Ishizawa, K. Kishino, R. Araki, A. Kikuchi, and S. Sugimoto, “Optically Pumped Green (530–560 nm) Stimulated Emissions from InGaN/GaN Multiple-Quantum-Well Triangular-Lattice Nanocolumn Arrays,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 055001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolum arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

P. D. Anderson, C. Lin, and M. Povinelli, “Effect of guided resonance modes on emission from GaN core–shell nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 117(4), 1879–1884 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

S. Albert, A. Bengoechea-Encabo, J. Ledig, T. Schimpke, M. A. Sánchez-Garcia, M. Strassburg, A. Waag, and E. Calleja, “Demonstration of (In, Ga)N/GaN core-shell micro light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy on ordered MOVPE GaN Pillars,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(8), 3661–3665 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Takeuchi, H. Takeuchi, S. Sota, H. Sakai, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Optical Properties of Strained AlGaN and GaInN on GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2), L177–L179 (1997).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

S. F. Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

A. C. Scofield, S.-H. Kim, J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, B. Liang, A. Scherer, and D. L. Huffaker, “Bottom-up Photonic Crystal Lasers,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5387–5390 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-W. Yeh, Y.-T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells Grown on Nonpolar Facets of Vertical GaN Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, A. Prabaswara, M. Conroy, S. Jahangir, T. Frost, J. O’Connell, J. D. Holmes, P. J. Parbrook, P. Bhattacharya, and B. S. Ooi, “An enhanced surface passivation effect in InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire light emitting diodes for mitigating Shockley-Read-Hall recombination,” Nanoscale 7(40), 16658–16665 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

H. Zhang, G. Jacopin, V. Neplokh, L. Largeau, F. H. Julien, O. Kryliouk, and M. Tchernycheva, “Color control of nanowire InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes by post-growth treatment,” Nanotechnology 26(46), 465203 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

K. Hirose, Y. Liang, Y. Kurosaka, A. Watanaba, T. Sugiyama, and S. Noda, “Watt-class high-power, high-beam-quality photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 406–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, “Photonics: Lasers producing tailored beams,” Nature 441(7096), 946 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Xu, R. Biswas, and K.-M. Ho, “Enhanced light emission in semiconductor nanowire arrays,” Opt. Commun. 287, 250–253 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

K. Sakoda, “Symmetry, degeneracy, and uncoupled modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(11), 7982–7986 (1995).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Håkansson, H. T. Miyazaki, and J. Sánchez-Dehesa, “Inverse Design for Full Control of Spontaneous Emission Using Light Emitting Scattering Optical Elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 153902 (2006).
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Z. Lin, A. Pick, M. Loncar, and A. W. Rodriguez, “Enhanced Spontaneous Emission at Third-Order Dirac Exceptional Points in Inverse-Designed Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 107402 (2016).

S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, J. Joannopoulos, and E. Schubert, “High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

C. Kölper, M. Sabathil, F. Römer, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, and B. Witzigmann, “Core–shell InGaN nanowire light emitting diodes: Electronic and optical device properties,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 209(11), 2304–2312 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous Inhibition and Redistribution of Spontaneous Light Emission in Photonic Crystals,” Science 308, 1296 (2005).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Chua, L. Lu, J. B. -Abad, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, “Larger-area single-mode photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2072 (2014).

W. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Exp. 29, 25528 (2011).

P. D. Anderson and M. Povinelli, “Optimized emission in nanowire arrays through quasi-aperiodic inverse design,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2672 (2015).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of (a) simple periodic and (b) quasi-aperiodic arrays. In the figures light green shading indicates GaN, while dark green shading indicates the position of five axial InGaN QWs. The dashed white lines indicate the boundaries of the irreducible unit cells in each structure (in (b), a* = 2a). Electric field intensity (gray scale) and in-plane electric field vectors (green arrows) of resonant modes for the (c) simple periodic and (d) quasi-aperiodic complex unit-cells. Solid green lines indicate nanowire boundaries while white dashed lines indicate cross-sectional planes. Emitted far-field patterns for the (e) simple periodic and (f) quasi-aperiodic resonances as a function of direction cosines. The intensities depicted are in arbitrary units.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Device fabrication procedure: (a) EBL patterning of PMMA followed by MIBK:IPA development (b) Ni deposition followed by liftoff (c) Cl-based dry etch (d) KOH-based wet etch followed by H2SO4–based Ni removal. Green indicates GaN, blue indicates PMMA, silver indicates Ni, and black lines indicate axial InGaN QWs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEMs for a (a) simple periodic and (b) quasi-aperiodic device. Insets show cross-sectional views of each structure. Black markers indicate a physical length of 500 nm. Black arrows indicate areas where nanowire bases are connected in the quasi-aperiodic array

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Left) Room-temperature PL for a simple periodic (black) and quasi-aperiodic (purple) device. Dashed lines indicate the center of a resonance in each device. (Right) Emitted far-field patterns of the simple periodic (top) and quasi-aperiodic (bottom) resonances.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Input power-output intensity relations for a resonance in a (a) simple periodic array and (b) quasi-aperiodic array. Projected scale bars mark the peak amplitude of each device resonance at varying pump powers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated TE photonic bandstructures for (a) simple periodic and (b) quasi-aperiodic arrays composed of GaN nanorods in air. Here, r = 65 nm, h = 200 nm, a = 240 nm and a* = 2a = 480 nm. Insets within each figure represent unit cell cross-sections.

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