Abstract

A method to realize patterned ion-sliced lithium niobate is presented for hybrid photonic integration on silicon. The process involves indirect wafer bonding and dry etching to produce patterns with controllable size, shape, and orientation. The patterns are released by sacrificial wet etching and transferred to silicon waveguides using a pick-and-place process. To demonstrate the technique, a hybrid silicon and lithium niobate racetrack resonator with co-planar electrodes is presented with a measured tunability of 5.2 pm/V. The method enhances flexibility in design and control of fabrication yield for the realization of hybrid silicon and lithium niobate integrated optic devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

2014 (2)

L. Chen, Q. Xu, M. G. Wood, and R. M. Reano, “Hybrid silicon and lithium niobate electro-optical ring modulator,” Optica 1(2), 112–118 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wood, L. Chen, J. R. Burr, and R. M. Reano, “Optimization of electron beam patterned hydrogen silsesquioxane mask edge roughness for low-loss silicon waveguides,” J. Nanophotonics 8(1), 083098 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

Y. S. Lee, G.-D. Kim, W.-J. Kim, S.-S. Lee, W.-G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Hybrid Si-LiNbO3 microring electro-optically tunable resonators for active photonic devices,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1119–1121 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Photonics for Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. A. Rogers, M. G. Lagally, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Synthesis, assembly and applications of semiconductor nanomembranes,” Nature 477(7362), 45–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. M. Briggs, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Compact silicon photonic waveguide modulator based on the vanadium dioxide metal-insulator phase transition,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11192–11201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

P. Sun and R. M. Reano, “Cantilever couplers for intra-chip coupling to silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4565–4574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schrempel, T. Gischkat, H. Hartung, T. Höche, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, and W. Wesch, “Ultrathin membranes in x-cut lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1426–1428 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

F. Niklaus, R. Kumar, J. J. McMahon, J. Yu, J.-Q. Lu, T. S. Cale, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding using partially cured benzocyclobutene for three-dimensional integration,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(4), G291–G295 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

R. M. Roth, T. Izuhara, R. L. Espinola, D. Djukic, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, “Integrable wide-free-spectral-range Fabry-Perot optical filters using free-standing LiNbO3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 994–996 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Izuhara, I.-L. Gheorma, R. M. Osgood, A. N. Roy, H. Bakhru, Y. M. Tesfu, and M. E. Reeves, “Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(4), 616–618 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

A. M. Radojevic, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Zeroth-order half-wave plates of LiNbO3 for integrated optics applications at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1653–1655 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[Crossref]

Abel, S.

S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, C. Rossel, M. D. Rossell, R. Erni, D. Caimi, M. Sousa, A. Chelnokov, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A strong electro-optically active lead-free ferroelectric integrated on silicon,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alam, M. Z.

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bakhru, H.

R. M. Roth, T. Izuhara, R. L. Espinola, D. Djukic, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, “Integrable wide-free-spectral-range Fabry-Perot optical filters using free-standing LiNbO3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 994–996 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Izuhara, I.-L. Gheorma, R. M. Osgood, A. N. Roy, H. Bakhru, Y. M. Tesfu, and M. E. Reeves, “Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(4), 616–618 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. M. Radojevic, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Zeroth-order half-wave plates of LiNbO3 for integrated optics applications at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1653–1655 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bakhru, S.

Benaissa, L.

A. Reinhardt, L. Benaissa, J. Davis, N. Lamard, V. Kovacova, N. Boudou, and E. Defaÿ, “Acoustic filters based on thin single crystal LiNbO3 films: status and prospects,” in 2014 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, 773–781, (2014).
[Crossref]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Boudou, N.

A. Reinhardt, L. Benaissa, J. Davis, N. Lamard, V. Kovacova, N. Boudou, and E. Defaÿ, “Acoustic filters based on thin single crystal LiNbO3 films: status and prospects,” in 2014 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, 773–781, (2014).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Briggs, R. M.

Burr, J. R.

M. Wood, L. Chen, J. R. Burr, and R. M. Reano, “Optimization of electron beam patterned hydrogen silsesquioxane mask edge roughness for low-loss silicon waveguides,” J. Nanophotonics 8(1), 083098 (2014).
[Crossref]

Caimi, D.

S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, C. Rossel, M. D. Rossell, R. Erni, D. Caimi, M. Sousa, A. Chelnokov, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A strong electro-optically active lead-free ferroelectric integrated on silicon,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cale, T. S.

F. Niklaus, R. Kumar, J. J. McMahon, J. Yu, J.-Q. Lu, T. S. Cale, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding using partially cured benzocyclobutene for three-dimensional integration,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(4), G291–G295 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cargill, G. S.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Caspers, J. N.

Chelnokov, A.

S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, C. Rossel, M. D. Rossell, R. Erni, D. Caimi, M. Sousa, A. Chelnokov, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A strong electro-optically active lead-free ferroelectric integrated on silicon,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. W.

Chen, H.-W.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Photonics for Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Chiles, J.

Choquette, K.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

Cross, L. E.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Davis, J.

A. Reinhardt, L. Benaissa, J. Davis, N. Lamard, V. Kovacova, N. Boudou, and E. Defaÿ, “Acoustic filters based on thin single crystal LiNbO3 films: status and prospects,” in 2014 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, 773–781, (2014).
[Crossref]

Defaÿ, E.

A. Reinhardt, L. Benaissa, J. Davis, N. Lamard, V. Kovacova, N. Boudou, and E. Defaÿ, “Acoustic filters based on thin single crystal LiNbO3 films: status and prospects,” in 2014 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, 773–781, (2014).
[Crossref]

Degl’Innocenti, R.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Diederich, F.

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Dumon, P.

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C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
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A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
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T. Izuhara, I.-L. Gheorma, R. M. Osgood, A. N. Roy, H. Bakhru, Y. M. Tesfu, and M. E. Reeves, “Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(4), 616–618 (2003).
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M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
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A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
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Hu, J.

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S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
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Jones, R.

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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Khan, S.

Kim, D.-H.

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Kim, R.-H.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
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Kim, W.-J.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
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E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kley, E. B.

Koch, B. R.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Photonics for Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koechlin, M.

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
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Kovacova, V.

A. Reinhardt, L. Benaissa, J. Davis, N. Lamard, V. Kovacova, N. Boudou, and E. Defaÿ, “Acoustic filters based on thin single crystal LiNbO3 films: status and prospects,” in 2014 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, 773–781, (2014).
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Kumar, A.

A. M. Radojevic, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Zeroth-order half-wave plates of LiNbO3 for integrated optics applications at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1653–1655 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kumar, R.

F. Niklaus, R. Kumar, J. J. McMahon, J. Yu, J.-Q. Lu, T. S. Cale, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding using partially cured benzocyclobutene for three-dimensional integration,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(4), G291–G295 (2006).
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Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
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Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
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J. A. Rogers, M. G. Lagally, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Synthesis, assembly and applications of semiconductor nanomembranes,” Nature 477(7362), 45–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamard, N.

A. Reinhardt, L. Benaissa, J. Davis, N. Lamard, V. Kovacova, N. Boudou, and E. Defaÿ, “Acoustic filters based on thin single crystal LiNbO3 films: status and prospects,” in 2014 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, 773–781, (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-S.

Lee, W.-G.

Lee, Y. K.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. S.

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Levy, M.

A. M. Radojevic, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Zeroth-order half-wave plates of LiNbO3 for integrated optics applications at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1653–1655 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Li, X.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, D.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Photonics for Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, R.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, J.-Q.

F. Niklaus, R. Kumar, J. J. McMahon, J. Yu, J.-Q. Lu, T. S. Cale, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding using partially cured benzocyclobutene for three-dimensional integration,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(4), G291–G295 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

Ma, Z.

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Marchiori, C.

S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, C. Rossel, M. D. Rossell, R. Erni, D. Caimi, M. Sousa, A. Chelnokov, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A strong electro-optically active lead-free ferroelectric integrated on silicon,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McBrien, G. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

McMahon, J. J.

F. Niklaus, R. Kumar, J. J. McMahon, J. Yu, J.-Q. Lu, T. S. Cale, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding using partially cured benzocyclobutene for three-dimensional integration,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(4), G291–G295 (2006).
[Crossref]

Meitl, M.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mojahedi, M.

Murphy, E. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nagy, J.

Niklaus, F.

F. Niklaus, R. Kumar, J. J. McMahon, J. Yu, J.-Q. Lu, T. S. Cale, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding using partially cured benzocyclobutene for three-dimensional integration,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(4), G291–G295 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nuzzo, R. G.

J. A. Rogers, M. G. Lagally, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Synthesis, assembly and applications of semiconductor nanomembranes,” Nature 477(7362), 45–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Offrein, B. J.

S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, C. Rossel, M. D. Rossell, R. Erni, D. Caimi, M. Sousa, A. Chelnokov, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A strong electro-optically active lead-free ferroelectric integrated on silicon,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

R. M. Roth, T. Izuhara, R. L. Espinola, D. Djukic, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, “Integrable wide-free-spectral-range Fabry-Perot optical filters using free-standing LiNbO3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 994–996 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Izuhara, I.-L. Gheorma, R. M. Osgood, A. N. Roy, H. Bakhru, Y. M. Tesfu, and M. E. Reeves, “Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(4), 616–618 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. M. Radojevic, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Zeroth-order half-wave plates of LiNbO3 for integrated optics applications at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1653–1655 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Photonics for Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.-I.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poberaj, G.

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pryce, I. M.

Rabiei, P.

P. Rabiei, J. Ma, S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25573–25581 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).
[Crossref]

Radojevic, A. M.

A. M. Radojevic, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Zeroth-order half-wave plates of LiNbO3 for integrated optics applications at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1653–1655 (2000).
[Crossref]

Reano, R. M.

Reeves, M. E.

T. Izuhara, I.-L. Gheorma, R. M. Osgood, A. N. Roy, H. Bakhru, Y. M. Tesfu, and M. E. Reeves, “Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(4), 616–618 (2003).
[Crossref]

Reinhardt, A.

A. Reinhardt, L. Benaissa, J. Davis, N. Lamard, V. Kovacova, N. Boudou, and E. Defaÿ, “Acoustic filters based on thin single crystal LiNbO3 films: status and prospects,” in 2014 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, 773–781, (2014).
[Crossref]

Ren, S.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rezzonico, D.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

J. A. Rogers, M. G. Lagally, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Synthesis, assembly and applications of semiconductor nanomembranes,” Nature 477(7362), 45–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossel, C.

S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, C. Rossel, M. D. Rossell, R. Erni, D. Caimi, M. Sousa, A. Chelnokov, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A strong electro-optically active lead-free ferroelectric integrated on silicon,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossell, M. D.

S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, C. Rossel, M. D. Rossell, R. Erni, D. Caimi, M. Sousa, A. Chelnokov, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A strong electro-optically active lead-free ferroelectric integrated on silicon,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, J. E.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, R. M.

Roy, A. N.

T. Izuhara, I.-L. Gheorma, R. M. Osgood, A. N. Roy, H. Bakhru, Y. M. Tesfu, and M. E. Reeves, “Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(4), 616–618 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schrempel, F.

Sitar, Z.

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sousa, M.

S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, C. Rossel, M. D. Rossell, R. Erni, D. Caimi, M. Sousa, A. Chelnokov, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A strong electro-optically active lead-free ferroelectric integrated on silicon,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steier, W. H.

Stöferle, T.

S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, C. Rossel, M. D. Rossell, R. Erni, D. Caimi, M. Sousa, A. Chelnokov, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A strong electro-optically active lead-free ferroelectric integrated on silicon,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sulser, F.

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, P.

Sysak, M.

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Photonics for Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tesfu, Y. M.

T. Izuhara, I.-L. Gheorma, R. M. Osgood, A. N. Roy, H. Bakhru, Y. M. Tesfu, and M. E. Reeves, “Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(4), 616–618 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weis, R. S.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[Crossref]

Wesch, W.

Wood, M.

M. Wood, L. Chen, J. R. Burr, and R. M. Reano, “Optimization of electron beam patterned hydrogen silsesquioxane mask edge roughness for low-loss silicon waveguides,” J. Nanophotonics 8(1), 083098 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wood, M. G.

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Yan, A. Y.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, J.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-J.

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

F. Niklaus, R. Kumar, J. J. McMahon, J. Yu, J.-Q. Lu, T. S. Cale, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding using partially cured benzocyclobutene for three-dimensional integration,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(4), G291–G295 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Fabrication of single-crystal lithium niobate films by crystal ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(16), 2293–2295 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Izuhara, I.-L. Gheorma, R. M. Osgood, A. N. Roy, H. Bakhru, Y. M. Tesfu, and M. E. Reeves, “Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(4), 616–618 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

R. A. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. J. R. Heck, H.-W. Chen, A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, D. Liang, H. Park, M. Sysak, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid Silicon Photonics for Optical Interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 333–346 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Y. Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. M. Radojevic, R. M. Osgood, M. Levy, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Zeroth-order half-wave plates of LiNbO3 for integrated optics applications at 1.55 µm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1653–1655 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

F. Niklaus, R. Kumar, J. J. McMahon, J. Yu, J.-Q. Lu, T. S. Cale, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding using partially cured benzocyclobutene for three-dimensional integration,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(4), G291–G295 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Nanophotonics (1)

M. Wood, L. Chen, J. R. Burr, and R. M. Reano, “Optimization of electron beam patterned hydrogen silsesquioxane mask edge roughness for low-loss silicon waveguides,” J. Nanophotonics 8(1), 083098 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Abel, T. Stöferle, C. Marchiori, C. Rossel, M. D. Rossell, R. Erni, D. Caimi, M. Sousa, A. Chelnokov, B. J. Offrein, and J. Fompeyrine, “A strong electro-optically active lead-free ferroelectric integrated on silicon,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1671 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

J. A. Rogers, M. G. Lagally, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Synthesis, assembly and applications of semiconductor nanomembranes,” Nature 477(7362), 45–53 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

R. M. Briggs, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Compact silicon photonic waveguide modulator based on the vanadium dioxide metal-insulator phase transition,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11192–11201 (2010).
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A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rabiei, J. Ma, S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25573–25581 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen and R. M. Reano, “Compact electric field sensors based on indirect bonding of lithium niobate to silicon microrings,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4032–4038 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen, M. G. Wood, and R. M. Reano, “12.5 pm/V hybrid silicon and lithium niobate optical microring resonator with integrated electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27003–27010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sun and R. M. Reano, “Cantilever couplers for intra-chip coupling to silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4565–4574 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen, J. Chen, J. Nagy, and R. M. Reano, “Highly linear ring modulator from hybrid silicon and lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13255–13264 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Optica (1)

Science (1)

S.-I. Park, Y. Xiong, R.-H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D.-H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C.-J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K.-C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

H. Yamazaki, T. Yamada, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, A. Kaneko, A. Sano, E. Yamada, and Y. Miyamoto, “Integrated 100-Gb/s PDM-QPSK modulator using a hybrid assembly technique with silica-based PLCs and LiNbO3 phase modulators,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Sep. 2008, Paper Mo.3.C.1.

A. Reinhardt, L. Benaissa, J. Davis, N. Lamard, V. Kovacova, N. Boudou, and E. Defaÿ, “Acoustic filters based on thin single crystal LiNbO3 films: status and prospects,” in 2014 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, 773–781, (2014).
[Crossref]

K. K. Wong, Properties of Lithium Niobate (INSPEC, 2002).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Ion-sliced LiNbO3 exfoliation: (a) He+ ion implantation on wafer 1, (b) PECVD SiO2 deposition on wafer 1 and BCB spin-coating on wafer 2, (c) wafer bonding and annealing, (d) exfoliation of ion-sliced LiNbO3.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) X-cut ion-sliced LiNbO3 bonded to a LiNbO3 handle substrate. The wafers are diced into rectangular samples for identification and alignment of the crystal z-axes. (b) Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the cross-section of the thin film stack. The dark line in the BCB layer is due to charging during the scanning electron microscopy.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Patterned ion-sliced LiNbO3 fabrication flow: (a) patterning Cr mask, (b) dry etching of LiNbO3, (c) wet etching of PECVD SiO2, (d) Transferring LiNbO3 to an unpolished silicon substrate.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) HF acid etching of the patterned x-cut ion-sliced LiNbO3; (b) Released ion-sliced LiNbO3 transferred to the unpolished surface of a silicon substrate.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fabrication process of Si/LiNbO3 racetrack resonator: (a) Silicon strip patterned on silicon-on-insulator wafer using EBL and plasma etching; (b) spin-coat, partial curing, and etch back of BCB; (c) bonding of LiNbO3 and plasma etch of BCB; (d) deposition of PECVD SiO2 and removal of SiO2 above the resonator; (e) patterning of signal electrode; (f) patterning of ground electrode and cantilever couplers.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Top-view optical micrograph of fabricated Si/LiNbO3 racetrack resonator. (a) Image of device after bonding of the LiNbO3; (b) Image of device after patterning of the electrodes.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measurements of Si/LiNbO3 racetrack resonator; (a) Optical transmission; (b) Wavelength detuning with voltage as parameter.

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