Abstract

laser machining of CFRP is a potential processing method as an alternative of conventional mechanical machining. This paper studies the absorption behavior of CFRP surface by establishing an optical absorption model based on the interaction of laser and fiber-matrix microstructure in material. In addition to polarization dependence, laser absorptivity is also subjected to the influence of wavelength, fiber volume fraction, and power intensity distribution within the laser spot. It is found that effect of multiple reflections in the microstructure would increase the absorptivity by 30%. Experiments have confirmed that absorption shows little fluctuation along the scanning line due to large laser spot. Short wavelength and arbitrarily polarized laser source are advantageous in achieving an effective and consistent machining process. CFRP sample for validation experiment is obtained through the nanosecond Nd:YVO4 laser milling process. The experiment data are in good agreement with the calculated results.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. B. Katnam, L. F. M. Da Silva, and T. M. Young, “Bonded repair of composite aircraft structures: A review of scientific challenges and opportunities,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 61, 26–42 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. V. Krishnaraj, A. Prabukarthi, A. Ramanathan, N. Elanghovan, M. Senthil Kumar, R. Zitoune, and J. P. Davim, “Optimization of machining parameters at high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates,” Compos. Part B Eng. 43(4), 1791–1799 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Mathew, G. Goswami, N. Ramakrishnan, and N. Naik, “Parametric studies on pulsed Nd: YAG laser cutting of carbon fibre reinforced plastic composites,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 89, 198–203 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Fischer, L. Romoli, and R. Kling, “Laser-based repair of carbon fiber reinforced plastics,” CIRP ANN.-MANUF. TECHN 59, 203–206 (2010).
  5. Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, P. L. Chu, and L. Li, “Study on UV laser machining quality of carbon fibre reinforced composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. S. 41, 1403–1408 (2010).
  6. D. Chung, Carbon Fiber Composites (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2012).
  7. C. T. Pan and H. Hocheng, “The anisotropic heat-affected zone in the laser grooving of fiber-reinforced composite material,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 62(1-3), 54–60 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).
  9. R. Weber, M. Hafner, A. Michalowski, and T. Graf, “Minimum Damage in CFRP Laser Processing,” Phys. Procedia 12, Part B, 302–307 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Borghesi and G. Guizzetti, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, 1991).
  11. J. Mosteller and F. Wooten, “Optical properties and reflectance of uniaxial absorbing crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 511–518 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Lekner, “Reflection and refraction by uniaxial crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3(32), 6121–6133 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Freitag, R. Weber, and T. Graf, “Polarization dependence of laser interaction with carbon fibers and CFRP,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1474–1479 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. L. Romoli, F. Fischer, and R. Kling, “A study on UV laser drilling of PEEK reinforced with carbon fibers,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50(3), 449–457 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

K. B. Katnam, L. F. M. Da Silva, and T. M. Young, “Bonded repair of composite aircraft structures: A review of scientific challenges and opportunities,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 61, 26–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

V. Krishnaraj, A. Prabukarthi, A. Ramanathan, N. Elanghovan, M. Senthil Kumar, R. Zitoune, and J. P. Davim, “Optimization of machining parameters at high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates,” Compos. Part B Eng. 43(4), 1791–1799 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Romoli, F. Fischer, and R. Kling, “A study on UV laser drilling of PEEK reinforced with carbon fibers,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50(3), 449–457 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).

F. Fischer, L. Romoli, and R. Kling, “Laser-based repair of carbon fiber reinforced plastics,” CIRP ANN.-MANUF. TECHN 59, 203–206 (2010).

Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, P. L. Chu, and L. Li, “Study on UV laser machining quality of carbon fibre reinforced composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. S. 41, 1403–1408 (2010).

1999 (1)

J. Mathew, G. Goswami, N. Ramakrishnan, and N. Naik, “Parametric studies on pulsed Nd: YAG laser cutting of carbon fibre reinforced plastic composites,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 89, 198–203 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

C. T. Pan and H. Hocheng, “The anisotropic heat-affected zone in the laser grooving of fiber-reinforced composite material,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 62(1-3), 54–60 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. Lekner, “Reflection and refraction by uniaxial crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3(32), 6121–6133 (1991).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

Chu, P. L.

Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, P. L. Chu, and L. Li, “Study on UV laser machining quality of carbon fibre reinforced composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. S. 41, 1403–1408 (2010).

R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).

Da Silva, L. F. M.

K. B. Katnam, L. F. M. Da Silva, and T. M. Young, “Bonded repair of composite aircraft structures: A review of scientific challenges and opportunities,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 61, 26–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

Davim, J. P.

V. Krishnaraj, A. Prabukarthi, A. Ramanathan, N. Elanghovan, M. Senthil Kumar, R. Zitoune, and J. P. Davim, “Optimization of machining parameters at high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates,” Compos. Part B Eng. 43(4), 1791–1799 (2012).
[Crossref]

Elanghovan, N.

V. Krishnaraj, A. Prabukarthi, A. Ramanathan, N. Elanghovan, M. Senthil Kumar, R. Zitoune, and J. P. Davim, “Optimization of machining parameters at high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates,” Compos. Part B Eng. 43(4), 1791–1799 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fischer, F.

L. Romoli, F. Fischer, and R. Kling, “A study on UV laser drilling of PEEK reinforced with carbon fibers,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50(3), 449–457 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Fischer, L. Romoli, and R. Kling, “Laser-based repair of carbon fiber reinforced plastics,” CIRP ANN.-MANUF. TECHN 59, 203–206 (2010).

Freitag, C.

Goswami, G.

J. Mathew, G. Goswami, N. Ramakrishnan, and N. Naik, “Parametric studies on pulsed Nd: YAG laser cutting of carbon fibre reinforced plastic composites,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 89, 198–203 (1999).
[Crossref]

Graf, T.

C. Freitag, R. Weber, and T. Graf, “Polarization dependence of laser interaction with carbon fibers and CFRP,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1474–1479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Weber, M. Hafner, A. Michalowski, and T. Graf, “Minimum Damage in CFRP Laser Processing,” Phys. Procedia 12, Part B, 302–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hafner, M.

R. Weber, M. Hafner, A. Michalowski, and T. Graf, “Minimum Damage in CFRP Laser Processing,” Phys. Procedia 12, Part B, 302–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hocheng, H.

C. T. Pan and H. Hocheng, “The anisotropic heat-affected zone in the laser grooving of fiber-reinforced composite material,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 62(1-3), 54–60 (1996).
[Crossref]

Katnam, K. B.

K. B. Katnam, L. F. M. Da Silva, and T. M. Young, “Bonded repair of composite aircraft structures: A review of scientific challenges and opportunities,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 61, 26–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

Khin, C. C.

R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).

Kling, R.

L. Romoli, F. Fischer, and R. Kling, “A study on UV laser drilling of PEEK reinforced with carbon fibers,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50(3), 449–457 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Fischer, L. Romoli, and R. Kling, “Laser-based repair of carbon fiber reinforced plastics,” CIRP ANN.-MANUF. TECHN 59, 203–206 (2010).

Krishnaraj, V.

V. Krishnaraj, A. Prabukarthi, A. Ramanathan, N. Elanghovan, M. Senthil Kumar, R. Zitoune, and J. P. Davim, “Optimization of machining parameters at high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates,” Compos. Part B Eng. 43(4), 1791–1799 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lekner, J.

J. Lekner, “Reflection and refraction by uniaxial crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3(32), 6121–6133 (1991).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, P. L. Chu, and L. Li, “Study on UV laser machining quality of carbon fibre reinforced composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. S. 41, 1403–1408 (2010).

R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).

Li, Z. L.

R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).

Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, P. L. Chu, and L. Li, “Study on UV laser machining quality of carbon fibre reinforced composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. S. 41, 1403–1408 (2010).

Lim, G. C.

Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, P. L. Chu, and L. Li, “Study on UV laser machining quality of carbon fibre reinforced composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. S. 41, 1403–1408 (2010).

R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).

Mathew, J.

J. Mathew, G. Goswami, N. Ramakrishnan, and N. Naik, “Parametric studies on pulsed Nd: YAG laser cutting of carbon fibre reinforced plastic composites,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 89, 198–203 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mativenga, P.

R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).

Michalowski, A.

R. Weber, M. Hafner, A. Michalowski, and T. Graf, “Minimum Damage in CFRP Laser Processing,” Phys. Procedia 12, Part B, 302–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mosteller, J.

Naik, N.

J. Mathew, G. Goswami, N. Ramakrishnan, and N. Naik, “Parametric studies on pulsed Nd: YAG laser cutting of carbon fibre reinforced plastic composites,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 89, 198–203 (1999).
[Crossref]

Negarestani, R.

R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).

Pan, C. T.

C. T. Pan and H. Hocheng, “The anisotropic heat-affected zone in the laser grooving of fiber-reinforced composite material,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 62(1-3), 54–60 (1996).
[Crossref]

Prabukarthi, A.

V. Krishnaraj, A. Prabukarthi, A. Ramanathan, N. Elanghovan, M. Senthil Kumar, R. Zitoune, and J. P. Davim, “Optimization of machining parameters at high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates,” Compos. Part B Eng. 43(4), 1791–1799 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ramakrishnan, N.

J. Mathew, G. Goswami, N. Ramakrishnan, and N. Naik, “Parametric studies on pulsed Nd: YAG laser cutting of carbon fibre reinforced plastic composites,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 89, 198–203 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ramanathan, A.

V. Krishnaraj, A. Prabukarthi, A. Ramanathan, N. Elanghovan, M. Senthil Kumar, R. Zitoune, and J. P. Davim, “Optimization of machining parameters at high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates,” Compos. Part B Eng. 43(4), 1791–1799 (2012).
[Crossref]

Romoli, L.

L. Romoli, F. Fischer, and R. Kling, “A study on UV laser drilling of PEEK reinforced with carbon fibers,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50(3), 449–457 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Fischer, L. Romoli, and R. Kling, “Laser-based repair of carbon fiber reinforced plastics,” CIRP ANN.-MANUF. TECHN 59, 203–206 (2010).

Senthil Kumar, M.

V. Krishnaraj, A. Prabukarthi, A. Ramanathan, N. Elanghovan, M. Senthil Kumar, R. Zitoune, and J. P. Davim, “Optimization of machining parameters at high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates,” Compos. Part B Eng. 43(4), 1791–1799 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sheikh, M. A.

R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).

Sundar, M.

R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).

Weber, R.

C. Freitag, R. Weber, and T. Graf, “Polarization dependence of laser interaction with carbon fibers and CFRP,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1474–1479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Weber, M. Hafner, A. Michalowski, and T. Graf, “Minimum Damage in CFRP Laser Processing,” Phys. Procedia 12, Part B, 302–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wooten, F.

Young, T. M.

K. B. Katnam, L. F. M. Da Silva, and T. M. Young, “Bonded repair of composite aircraft structures: A review of scientific challenges and opportunities,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 61, 26–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H. Y.

Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, P. L. Chu, and L. Li, “Study on UV laser machining quality of carbon fibre reinforced composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. S. 41, 1403–1408 (2010).

R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).

Zitoune, R.

V. Krishnaraj, A. Prabukarthi, A. Ramanathan, N. Elanghovan, M. Senthil Kumar, R. Zitoune, and J. P. Davim, “Optimization of machining parameters at high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates,” Compos. Part B Eng. 43(4), 1791–1799 (2012).
[Crossref]

CIRP ANN.-MANUF. TECHN (1)

F. Fischer, L. Romoli, and R. Kling, “Laser-based repair of carbon fiber reinforced plastics,” CIRP ANN.-MANUF. TECHN 59, 203–206 (2010).

Compos. Part A Appl. S. (1)

Z. L. Li, H. Y. Zheng, G. C. Lim, P. L. Chu, and L. Li, “Study on UV laser machining quality of carbon fibre reinforced composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. S. 41, 1403–1408 (2010).

Compos. Part B Eng. (1)

V. Krishnaraj, A. Prabukarthi, A. Ramanathan, N. Elanghovan, M. Senthil Kumar, R. Zitoune, and J. P. Davim, “Optimization of machining parameters at high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates,” Compos. Part B Eng. 43(4), 1791–1799 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Process. Technol. (2)

J. Mathew, G. Goswami, N. Ramakrishnan, and N. Naik, “Parametric studies on pulsed Nd: YAG laser cutting of carbon fibre reinforced plastic composites,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 89, 198–203 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. T. Pan and H. Hocheng, “The anisotropic heat-affected zone in the laser grooving of fiber-reinforced composite material,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 62(1-3), 54–60 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

J. Lekner, “Reflection and refraction by uniaxial crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3(32), 6121–6133 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

L. Romoli, F. Fischer, and R. Kling, “A study on UV laser drilling of PEEK reinforced with carbon fibers,” Opt. Laser Eng. 50(3), 449–457 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG (1)

R. Negarestani, M. Sundar, M. A. Sheikh, P. Mativenga, L. Li, Z. L. Li, P. L. Chu, C. C. Khin, H. Y. Zheng, and G. C. Lim, “Numerical simulation of laser machining of carbon-fibre-reinforced composites,” P. I. MECH. ENG. B-J. ENG.  224, 1017–1027 (2010).

Prog. Aerosp. Sci. (1)

K. B. Katnam, L. F. M. Da Silva, and T. M. Young, “Bonded repair of composite aircraft structures: A review of scientific challenges and opportunities,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci. 61, 26–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

R. Weber, M. Hafner, A. Michalowski, and T. Graf, “Minimum Damage in CFRP Laser Processing,” Phys. Procedia 12, Part B, 302–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Borghesi and G. Guizzetti, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, 1991).

D. Chung, Carbon Fiber Composites (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2012).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of experimental set-up, optimal processing parameters: scanning speed 1m/s, pulse width 10ns, hatching distance 20μm, spot diameter 30μm, repetition rate 50KHZ.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reflection schematic with optical axis normal to fiber surface.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Three interaction modes (a) one reflection (b) multiple reflection (c) trapped reflection.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Local absorptivity A L of s, p components at wavelength 355nm within the laser spot.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reflectivity measurement at the machined surface of CFRP.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Absorptivity with and without multiple reflections at wavelength 355nm (a) S polarization (b) P polarization.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Absorptivity fluctuation along the scanning path.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical constants of CFRP [10, 13]

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R or = ( E z r E z i ) 2 = ( n 1 cosθ a o ) 2 + b o 2 ( n 1 cosθ+ a o ) 2 + b o 2
R ex = ( E xy r E xy i ) 2 = (ccosq a e ) 2 + (dcosθ b e ) 2 (ccosθ+ a e ) 2 + (dcosθ+ b e ) 2
{ a o 2 b o 2 }= [ ( n o 2 k o 2 n 1 2 sin 2 θ) 2 +4 n o 2 k o 2 ] 1/2 ±( n o 2 k o 2 n 1 2 sin 2 θ) 2
{ a e 2 b e 2 }= [ n 1 4 ( n e 2 k e 2 n 1 2 sin 2 θ) 2 +4 n 1 4 n e 2 k e 2 ] 1/2 ± n 1 2 ( n e 2 k e 2 n 1 2 sin 2 θ) 2
A=1 R or + R ex 2

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