Abstract

The potential of clear Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl based sulfide glasses transparent up to 11.5 μm to be used as new optical material for multispectral applications has been investigated. The addition of large amount of chlorine ions – above 40 mol.% of CsCl – into the chalcogenide vitreous network in order to produce colorless glasses results in a drastic increase of their water contamination. We report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the purification of cesium chloride CsCl by dynamic distillations under vacuum in order to reduce water and hydroxyl group contamination before complete melting of the glass. Besides, sulfur purification by dynamic and static distillations was also performed in the implemented method. The obtained glasses were then characterized by UV-visible and infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies, by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), thermal analysis (DSC), and their refractive indices in the visible and near infrared ranges were also measured. A large improvement of the glass transmission spectrum has been achieved with an estimated reduction of about 45 times of the OH and H2O content and 60 times of the SH content. The glass thermal molding ability and chemical durability with and without protective coating have been tested to probe their potential for fabrication of complex optics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

Y. Ledemi, M. El-Amraoui, L. Calvez, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, and Y. Messaddeq, “Colorless chalco-halide Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl glasses as new optical material,” Proc. SPIE8847, 884704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, L. Calvez, E. Petracovschi, E. Lepine, E. Bychkov, and X. Zhang, “CsCl effect on the optical properties of the 80GeS2-20Ga2S3 base glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.106(3), 697–702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Coffey, “Multispectral imaging moves into the mainstream,” Opt. & Phot. News23(4), 18–24 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. Rozé, L. Calvez, J. Rollin, P. Gallais, J. Lonnoy, S. Ollivier, M. Guilloux-Viry, and X. H. Zhang, “Optical properties of free arsenic and broadband infrared chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.98(1), 97–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

V. S. Shiryaev, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. A. Ketkova, M. F. Churbanov, J. L. Adam, and A. A. Sibirkin, “Preparation of optical fibers based on Ge-Sb-S glass system,” Opt. Mater.32(2), 362–367 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Saad, “High Purity Fluoride Glass Synthesis a review,” Proc. SPIE7228, 72280G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. G. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Ledemi, L. Calvez, M. Roze, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, and Y. Messaddeq, “Totally visible transparent chloro-sulphide glasses based on Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.9, 3751–3755 (2007).

L. Calvez, P. Lucas, M. Roze, H. L. Ma, J. Lucas, and X. H. Zhang, “Influence of gallium and alkali halide addition on the optical and thermo-mechanical properties of GeSe2-Ga2Se3 glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 183–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

X. H. Zhang, L. Calvez, V. Seznec, H. L. Ma, S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, and J. Lucas, “Infrared transmitting glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2411–2415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Germanate glass as a window for high energy laser systems,” Opt. Express14(24), 11687–11693 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Barbosa, C. L. Cesar, I. O. Mazali, and O. L. Alves, “Spectroscopic and thermal properties of Ga2S3-Na2S- CsCl glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(3), 1037–1041 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, J. Troles, H. L. Ma, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-356, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

G. A. Shaw and H.-K. Burke, “Spectral imaging for remote sensing,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 3–28 (2003).

T. Ishibashi, H. Takebe, and K. Morinaga, “Glass forming region and structure of vitreous RS-Ga2S3 (R = Ca, Sr, Ba),” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.111(1293), 308–311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zhang, Y. Guimond, and Y. Bellec, “Production of complex chalcogenide glass optics by molding for thermal imaging,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 519–523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” C. R. Chim.5(12), 873–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Eow, “Recovery of sulfur from sour acid gas: A review of the technology,” Environ. Prog.21(3), 143–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernandez, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. L. Adam, C. Ricordel, and J. Lucas, “New compositions of low phonon energy fluoride and chloro-fluoride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids213-214, 30–35 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Y. S. Tveryanovich, E. G. Nedoshovenko, V. V. Aleksandrov, E. Y. Turkina, A. S. Tveryanovich, and I. A. Sokolov, “Chalcogenide glasses containing metal chlorides,” Glass Phys. Chem.22, 9–14 (1996).

1995 (1)

H. Ebendorffheidepriem and D. Ehrt, “Determination of the OH content of glasses,” Glastech. Ber. Glass Sci. and Technol.68, 139–146 (1995).

1994 (1)

G. Ghosh, M. Endo, and T. Iwasaki, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients and chromatic dispersions for some optical-fiber glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.12(8), 1338–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

Y. Messaddeq, A. Delben, M. A. Aegerter, A. Soufiane, and M. Poulain, “New fluoroindate glass compositions,” J. Mater. Res.8(04), 885–889 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Higby and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids163(3), 303–308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Matecki and M. Poulain, “Composition adjustments in cadmium fluorochloride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids140, 82–86 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. S. Sanghera, J. Heo, and J. D. Mackenzie, “Chalcohalide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids103(2-3), 155–178 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Mitachi, G. Fonteneau, P. S. Christensen, and J. Lucas, “Molar extinction coefficients of OH in various types of fluoride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids92(2-3), 326–336 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. Poulain, “Halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids56(1-3), 1–14 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

V. S. Shiryaev, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. A. Ketkova, M. F. Churbanov, J. L. Adam, and A. A. Sibirkin, “Preparation of optical fibers based on Ge-Sb-S glass system,” Opt. Mater.32(2), 362–367 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, J. Troles, H. L. Ma, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-356, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernandez, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Adam, C. Ricordel, and J. Lucas, “New compositions of low phonon energy fluoride and chloro-fluoride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids213-214, 30–35 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, M. A.

Y. Messaddeq, A. Delben, M. A. Aegerter, A. Soufiane, and M. Poulain, “New fluoroindate glass compositions,” J. Mater. Res.8(04), 885–889 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Germanate glass as a window for high energy laser systems,” Opt. Express14(24), 11687–11693 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” C. R. Chim.5(12), 873–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Higby and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids163(3), 303–308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aleksandrov, V. V.

Y. S. Tveryanovich, E. G. Nedoshovenko, V. V. Aleksandrov, E. Y. Turkina, A. S. Tveryanovich, and I. A. Sokolov, “Chalcogenide glasses containing metal chlorides,” Glass Phys. Chem.22, 9–14 (1996).

Allix, M.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. G. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alves, O. L.

L. C. Barbosa, C. L. Cesar, I. O. Mazali, and O. L. Alves, “Spectroscopic and thermal properties of Ga2S3-Na2S- CsCl glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(3), 1037–1041 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernandez, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, L. C.

L. C. Barbosa, C. L. Cesar, I. O. Mazali, and O. L. Alves, “Spectroscopic and thermal properties of Ga2S3-Na2S- CsCl glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(3), 1037–1041 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bayya, S. S.

Bellec, Y.

X. H. Zhang, Y. Guimond, and Y. Bellec, “Production of complex chalcogenide glass optics by molding for thermal imaging,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids326-327, 519–523 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boussard-Pledel, C.

X. H. Zhang, L. Calvez, V. Seznec, H. L. Ma, S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, and J. Lucas, “Infrared transmitting glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2411–2415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, J. Troles, H. L. Ma, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-356, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bureau, B.

Y. Ledemi, M. El-Amraoui, L. Calvez, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, and Y. Messaddeq, “Colorless chalco-halide Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl glasses as new optical material,” Proc. SPIE8847, 884704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. G. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ledemi, L. Calvez, M. Roze, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, and Y. Messaddeq, “Totally visible transparent chloro-sulphide glasses based on Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.9, 3751–3755 (2007).

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, J. Troles, H. L. Ma, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-356, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burke, H.-K.

G. A. Shaw and H.-K. Burke, “Spectral imaging for remote sensing,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 3–28 (2003).

Bychkov, E.

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, L. Calvez, E. Petracovschi, E. Lepine, E. Bychkov, and X. Zhang, “CsCl effect on the optical properties of the 80GeS2-20Ga2S3 base glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.106(3), 697–702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, L.

Y. Ledemi, M. El-Amraoui, L. Calvez, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, and Y. Messaddeq, “Colorless chalco-halide Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl glasses as new optical material,” Proc. SPIE8847, 884704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, L. Calvez, E. Petracovschi, E. Lepine, E. Bychkov, and X. Zhang, “CsCl effect on the optical properties of the 80GeS2-20Ga2S3 base glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.106(3), 697–702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Rozé, L. Calvez, J. Rollin, P. Gallais, J. Lonnoy, S. Ollivier, M. Guilloux-Viry, and X. H. Zhang, “Optical properties of free arsenic and broadband infrared chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.98(1), 97–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. G. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ledemi, L. Calvez, M. Roze, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, and Y. Messaddeq, “Totally visible transparent chloro-sulphide glasses based on Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.9, 3751–3755 (2007).

L. Calvez, P. Lucas, M. Roze, H. L. Ma, J. Lucas, and X. H. Zhang, “Influence of gallium and alkali halide addition on the optical and thermo-mechanical properties of GeSe2-Ga2Se3 glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 183–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zhang, L. Calvez, V. Seznec, H. L. Ma, S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, and J. Lucas, “Infrared transmitting glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2411–2415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cesar, C. L.

L. C. Barbosa, C. L. Cesar, I. O. Mazali, and O. L. Alves, “Spectroscopic and thermal properties of Ga2S3-Na2S- CsCl glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(3), 1037–1041 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, G. D.

Christensen, P. S.

S. Mitachi, G. Fonteneau, P. S. Christensen, and J. Lucas, “Molar extinction coefficients of OH in various types of fluoride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids92(2-3), 326–336 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Churbanov, M. F.

V. S. Shiryaev, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. A. Ketkova, M. F. Churbanov, J. L. Adam, and A. A. Sibirkin, “Preparation of optical fibers based on Ge-Sb-S glass system,” Opt. Mater.32(2), 362–367 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, V. C.

V. C. Coffey, “Multispectral imaging moves into the mainstream,” Opt. & Phot. News23(4), 18–24 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Danto, S.

X. H. Zhang, L. Calvez, V. Seznec, H. L. Ma, S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, and J. Lucas, “Infrared transmitting glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2411–2415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delben, A.

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G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
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Y. Ledemi, M. El-Amraoui, L. Calvez, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, and Y. Messaddeq, “Colorless chalco-halide Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl glasses as new optical material,” Proc. SPIE8847, 884704 (2013).
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S. Mitachi, G. Fonteneau, P. S. Christensen, and J. Lucas, “Molar extinction coefficients of OH in various types of fluoride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids92(2-3), 326–336 (1987).
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Gallais, P.

M. Rozé, L. Calvez, J. Rollin, P. Gallais, J. Lonnoy, S. Ollivier, M. Guilloux-Viry, and X. H. Zhang, “Optical properties of free arsenic and broadband infrared chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.98(1), 97–101 (2010).
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G. Ghosh, M. Endo, and T. Iwasaki, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients and chromatic dispersions for some optical-fiber glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.12(8), 1338–1342 (1994).
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R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernandez, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144101 (2001).
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Guilloux-Viry, M.

M. Rozé, L. Calvez, J. Rollin, P. Gallais, J. Lonnoy, S. Ollivier, M. Guilloux-Viry, and X. H. Zhang, “Optical properties of free arsenic and broadband infrared chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.98(1), 97–101 (2010).
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P. L. Higby and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids163(3), 303–308 (1993).
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V. S. Shiryaev, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. A. Ketkova, M. F. Churbanov, J. L. Adam, and A. A. Sibirkin, “Preparation of optical fibers based on Ge-Sb-S glass system,” Opt. Mater.32(2), 362–367 (2009).
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X. H. Zhang, L. Calvez, V. Seznec, H. L. Ma, S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, and J. Lucas, “Infrared transmitting glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2411–2415 (2006).
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Ishibashi, T.

T. Ishibashi, H. Takebe, and K. Morinaga, “Glass forming region and structure of vitreous RS-Ga2S3 (R = Ca, Sr, Ba),” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.111(1293), 308–311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, T.

G. Ghosh, M. Endo, and T. Iwasaki, “Temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients and chromatic dispersions for some optical-fiber glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol.12(8), 1338–1342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ketkova, L. A.

V. S. Shiryaev, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. A. Ketkova, M. F. Churbanov, J. L. Adam, and A. A. Sibirkin, “Preparation of optical fibers based on Ge-Sb-S glass system,” Opt. Mater.32(2), 362–367 (2009).
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Le Coq, D.

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, L. Calvez, E. Petracovschi, E. Lepine, E. Bychkov, and X. Zhang, “CsCl effect on the optical properties of the 80GeS2-20Ga2S3 base glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.106(3), 697–702 (2012).
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B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, J. Troles, H. L. Ma, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-356, 276–283 (2004).
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Le Floch, M.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. G. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
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Ledemi, Y.

Y. Ledemi, M. El-Amraoui, L. Calvez, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, and Y. Messaddeq, “Colorless chalco-halide Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl glasses as new optical material,” Proc. SPIE8847, 884704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. G. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ledemi, L. Calvez, M. Roze, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, and Y. Messaddeq, “Totally visible transparent chloro-sulphide glasses based on Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.9, 3751–3755 (2007).

Lepine, E.

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, L. Calvez, E. Petracovschi, E. Lepine, E. Bychkov, and X. Zhang, “CsCl effect on the optical properties of the 80GeS2-20Ga2S3 base glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.106(3), 697–702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. G.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. G. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Rozé, L. Calvez, J. Rollin, P. Gallais, J. Lonnoy, S. Ollivier, M. Guilloux-Viry, and X. H. Zhang, “Optical properties of free arsenic and broadband infrared chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.98(1), 97–101 (2010).
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L. Calvez, P. Lucas, M. Roze, H. L. Ma, J. Lucas, and X. H. Zhang, “Influence of gallium and alkali halide addition on the optical and thermo-mechanical properties of GeSe2-Ga2Se3 glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 183–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zhang, L. Calvez, V. Seznec, H. L. Ma, S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, and J. Lucas, “Infrared transmitting glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2411–2415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, J. Troles, H. L. Ma, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-356, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Adam, C. Ricordel, and J. Lucas, “New compositions of low phonon energy fluoride and chloro-fluoride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids213-214, 30–35 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Mitachi, G. Fonteneau, P. S. Christensen, and J. Lucas, “Molar extinction coefficients of OH in various types of fluoride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids92(2-3), 326–336 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, P.

L. Calvez, P. Lucas, M. Roze, H. L. Ma, J. Lucas, and X. H. Zhang, “Influence of gallium and alkali halide addition on the optical and thermo-mechanical properties of GeSe2-Ga2Se3 glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 183–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, J. Troles, H. L. Ma, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-356, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. L.

L. Calvez, P. Lucas, M. Roze, H. L. Ma, J. Lucas, and X. H. Zhang, “Influence of gallium and alkali halide addition on the optical and thermo-mechanical properties of GeSe2-Ga2Se3 glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 183–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zhang, L. Calvez, V. Seznec, H. L. Ma, S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, and J. Lucas, “Infrared transmitting glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2411–2415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, J. Troles, H. L. Ma, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-356, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. D.

J. S. Sanghera, J. Heo, and J. D. Mackenzie, “Chalcohalide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids103(2-3), 155–178 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Masselin, P.

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, L. Calvez, E. Petracovschi, E. Lepine, E. Bychkov, and X. Zhang, “CsCl effect on the optical properties of the 80GeS2-20Ga2S3 base glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.106(3), 697–702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matecki, M.

M. Matecki and M. Poulain, “Composition adjustments in cadmium fluorochloride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids140, 82–86 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matzen, G.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. G. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
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Mazali, I. O.

L. C. Barbosa, C. L. Cesar, I. O. Mazali, and O. L. Alves, “Spectroscopic and thermal properties of Ga2S3-Na2S- CsCl glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.89(3), 1037–1041 (2006).
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Mendioroz, A.

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernandez, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, S. H.

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

Y. Ledemi, M. El-Amraoui, L. Calvez, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, and Y. Messaddeq, “Colorless chalco-halide Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl glasses as new optical material,” Proc. SPIE8847, 884704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. G. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ledemi, L. Calvez, M. Roze, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, and Y. Messaddeq, “Totally visible transparent chloro-sulphide glasses based on Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.9, 3751–3755 (2007).

Y. Messaddeq, A. Delben, M. A. Aegerter, A. Soufiane, and M. Poulain, “New fluoroindate glass compositions,” J. Mater. Res.8(04), 885–889 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mitachi, S.

S. Mitachi, G. Fonteneau, P. S. Christensen, and J. Lucas, “Molar extinction coefficients of OH in various types of fluoride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids92(2-3), 326–336 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Morinaga, K.

T. Ishibashi, H. Takebe, and K. Morinaga, “Glass forming region and structure of vitreous RS-Ga2S3 (R = Ca, Sr, Ba),” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.111(1293), 308–311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nedoshovenko, E. G.

Y. S. Tveryanovich, E. G. Nedoshovenko, V. V. Aleksandrov, E. Y. Turkina, A. S. Tveryanovich, and I. A. Sokolov, “Chalcogenide glasses containing metal chlorides,” Glass Phys. Chem.22, 9–14 (1996).

Ollivier, S.

M. Rozé, L. Calvez, J. Rollin, P. Gallais, J. Lonnoy, S. Ollivier, M. Guilloux-Viry, and X. H. Zhang, “Optical properties of free arsenic and broadband infrared chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.98(1), 97–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petracovschi, E.

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, L. Calvez, E. Petracovschi, E. Lepine, E. Bychkov, and X. Zhang, “CsCl effect on the optical properties of the 80GeS2-20Ga2S3 base glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.106(3), 697–702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poulain, M.

Y. Ledemi, L. Calvez, M. Roze, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, and Y. Messaddeq, “Totally visible transparent chloro-sulphide glasses based on Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.9, 3751–3755 (2007).

Y. Messaddeq, A. Delben, M. A. Aegerter, A. Soufiane, and M. Poulain, “New fluoroindate glass compositions,” J. Mater. Res.8(04), 885–889 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Matecki and M. Poulain, “Composition adjustments in cadmium fluorochloride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids140, 82–86 (1992).
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M. Poulain, “Halide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids56(1-3), 1–14 (1983).
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Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ricordel, C.

J. L. Adam, C. Ricordel, and J. Lucas, “New compositions of low phonon energy fluoride and chloro-fluoride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids213-214, 30–35 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riley, M. R.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, J. Troles, H. L. Ma, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-356, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rollin, J.

M. Rozé, L. Calvez, J. Rollin, P. Gallais, J. Lonnoy, S. Ollivier, M. Guilloux-Viry, and X. H. Zhang, “Optical properties of free arsenic and broadband infrared chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.98(1), 97–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roze, M.

L. Calvez, P. Lucas, M. Roze, H. L. Ma, J. Lucas, and X. H. Zhang, “Influence of gallium and alkali halide addition on the optical and thermo-mechanical properties of GeSe2-Ga2Se3 glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(1), 183–188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, L. Calvez, M. Roze, X. H. Zhang, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, and Y. Messaddeq, “Totally visible transparent chloro-sulphide glasses based on Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.9, 3751–3755 (2007).

Rozé, M.

M. Rozé, L. Calvez, J. Rollin, P. Gallais, J. Lonnoy, S. Ollivier, M. Guilloux-Viry, and X. H. Zhang, “Optical properties of free arsenic and broadband infrared chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.98(1), 97–101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. G. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
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M. Saad, “High Purity Fluoride Glass Synthesis a review,” Proc. SPIE7228, 72280G (2009).
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Sanghera, J. S.

S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Germanate glass as a window for high energy laser systems,” Opt. Express14(24), 11687–11693 (2006).
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J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” C. R. Chim.5(12), 873–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, J. Heo, and J. D. Mackenzie, “Chalcohalide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids103(2-3), 155–178 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sanz, M.

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernandez, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B64(14), 144101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seznec, V.

X. H. Zhang, L. Calvez, V. Seznec, H. L. Ma, S. Danto, P. Houizot, C. Boussard-Pledel, and J. Lucas, “Infrared transmitting glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids352(23-25), 2411–2415 (2006).
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G. A. Shaw and H.-K. Burke, “Spectral imaging for remote sensing,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 3–28 (2003).

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” C. R. Chim.5(12), 873–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shiryaev, V. S.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Shiryaev, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. A. Ketkova, M. F. Churbanov, J. L. Adam, and A. A. Sibirkin, “Preparation of optical fibers based on Ge-Sb-S glass system,” Opt. Mater.32(2), 362–367 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sibirkin, A. A.

V. S. Shiryaev, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. A. Ketkova, M. F. Churbanov, J. L. Adam, and A. A. Sibirkin, “Preparation of optical fibers based on Ge-Sb-S glass system,” Opt. Mater.32(2), 362–367 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. H.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, J. Troles, H. L. Ma, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-356, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skhripachev, I.

Y. Ledemi, S. H. Messaddeq, I. Skhripachev, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeq, “Influence of Ga incorporation on photoinduced phenomena in Ge-S based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(37-42), 1884–1889 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, J. Troles, H. L. Ma, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-356, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Snopatin, G. E.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, I. A.

Y. S. Tveryanovich, E. G. Nedoshovenko, V. V. Aleksandrov, E. Y. Turkina, A. S. Tveryanovich, and I. A. Sokolov, “Chalcogenide glasses containing metal chlorides,” Glass Phys. Chem.22, 9–14 (1996).

Soufiane, A.

Y. Messaddeq, A. Delben, M. A. Aegerter, A. Soufiane, and M. Poulain, “New fluoroindate glass compositions,” J. Mater. Res.8(04), 885–889 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takebe, H.

T. Ishibashi, H. Takebe, and K. Morinaga, “Glass forming region and structure of vitreous RS-Ga2S3 (R = Ca, Sr, Ba),” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.111(1293), 308–311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Troles, J.

V. S. Shiryaev, J. Troles, P. Houizot, L. A. Ketkova, M. F. Churbanov, J. L. Adam, and A. A. Sibirkin, “Preparation of optical fibers based on Ge-Sb-S glass system,” Opt. Mater.32(2), 362–367 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, J. Troles, H. L. Ma, C. Boussard-Pledel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, and J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-356, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turkina, E. Y.

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Tveryanovich, A. S.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum of a (Ga2S3)25 - (GeS2)30 - (CsCl)45 glass sample. Sample thickness is 2 mm. In background: schematic representation of the three main transmission bands of atmosphere, including the visible, NIR, SWIR, MWIR and LWIR bands.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the experimental setup implemented to purify the raw materials prior to the sealing off of synthesis ampoule for the (Ga2S3)25 - (GeS2)30 - (CsCl)45 glass. The successive seals are numbered from 1 to 9: 1 and 2 just after the loading of CsCl and sulfur and just before starting the vacuum pumping; 3 to 5 for the three successive dynamic distillations of CsCl up to the synthesis ampoule; 6 to 7 for the double dynamic distillation of sulfur; 8 to permit the sulfur loading by static distillation; and 9 to seal off the synthesis ampoule.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Visible and infrared transmission spectra of the (Ga2S3)25 – (GeS2)35 – (CsCl)45 glasses prepared directly from the commercial raw materials (red line) and after the multiple sulfur and CsCl distillations process described in this work (black line). For comparison purposes, one shows the spectra of the (Ga2S3)25 – (GeS2)25 – (CsCl)50 glass studied in ref [10] where a single sulfur distillation was performed prior to the glass synthesis (blue line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of a of (Ga2S3)25-(GeS2)30-(CsCl)45 glass rod of 150 g weight.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scheme showing the hot-pressing setup used for molding tests (a). Images of a 7.5 mm thick (Ga2S3)25-(GeS2)30-(CsCl)45 glass piece (b) pressed down to a 2.3 mm thick slice (c). Images of a polished (Ga2S3)25-(GeS2)30-(CsCl)45 glass slice before (c) and after hot-pressing test (f) with the Laserax silica stamp (e). 3D profilometry scans of the used Laser silica stamp (g) and of the imprinted glass (h) slice (corresponding to sample shown in (f)).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Linear refractive index of glass sample 2 as a function of wavelength and its fit according to the Sellmeier function.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Infrared transmission spectra of a freshly polished (Ga2S3)25-(GeS2)30-(CsCl)45 glass slice, after several durations in ambient air piece and after surfaces repolishing. (b) Infrared transmission spectra of a freshly polished (Ga2S3)25-(GeS2)30-(CsCl)45 glass slice and after about 9 months storing under dry nitrogen (glove box with H2O level below 1 ppm).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Position of absorption band maxima observed in the transmission spectra of the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl glasses and their attribution according to reference [14].

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Table 2 Measured absorption coefficients for the OH, SH and H2O absorption bands and estimated corresponding concentrations in the blank and purified (Ga2S3)25-(GeS2)30-(CsCl)45 glasses.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Electron probe quantitative microanalysis (EPMA) of the (Ga2S3)25 - (GeS2)30 - (CsCl)45 glass samples. Precision measurement is ± 0.3 at.% after 5 measurements per sample).

Tables Icon

Table 4 Main physical characteristics of the (Ga2S3)25-(GeS2)30-(CsCl)45 glass sample 2 and comparison with values reported in literature on different vitreous materials.

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