Abstract

A new photo thermal refractive glass system is introduced. Glasses in the system Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 were doped with Ag2O, CeO2, KBr, SnO2 and Sb2O3. They were irradiated with UV light and subsequently thermally annealed at 530 °C, a temperature just above Tg. This led to a slightly yellow coloration. A second thermal annealing step at a temperature of 560 °C led to the crystallization of cubic CaF2 as proved by x-ray diffraction. Samples, annealed in a two step process at 530 °C for 1 h and 560 °C for 20 h without previous irradiation did not show crystallization. Furthermore, the effect of irradiation time on crystallization behavior and the role of KBr in the photoinduced crystallization process were also investigated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. B. Glebov, “Kinetics modeling in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Mater.25(4), 413–418 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. A. Borgman, L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, and A. D. Tsvetkov, “Photothermorefractive effect in silicate-glasses,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR309, 336–339 (1989).
  3. L. B. Glebov, “Photosensitive holographic glass - new approach to creation of high power lasers,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 123–128 (2007).
  4. S. D. Stookey, “Photosensitive Glass - a new photographic medium,” Ind. Eng. Chem.41(4), 856–861 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Influence of UV-exposure on the crystallization and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 425–430 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, “New potentialities of photosensitive glasses for volume phase hologram recording,” Opt. Spektrosk.73, 404–412 (1992).
  7. L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikoronov, G. T. Petrovsky, and M. V. Kharchenko, “Formation of optical-elements by the photothermoinduced crystallization of glasses,” Izv. an Sssr. Fiz.56, 133–140 (1992).
  8. M. Mortier, “Between glass and crystal: glass-ceramics, a new way for optical materials,” Philos. Mag. B82, 745–753 (2002).
  9. K. F. Kelton, “Kinetic model for nucleation in partitioning systems,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 147–154 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Bocker, C. Rüssel, and I. Avramov, “Transparent nano crystalline glass-ceramics by interface controlled crystallization,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.4(3), 174–181 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Micro and nanostructures in partially crystallised photothermorefractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B50, 311–320 (2009).
  12. L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Glebova, D. Ehrt, and L. Glebov, “Luminescence of dopants in PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 328–331 (2007).
  14. J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallisation of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 281–284 (2007).
  15. J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Lumeau and L. B. Glebov, “Modeling of the induced refractive index kinetics in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater. Express3(1), 95–104 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Fu, J. M. Parker, P. S. Flower, and R. M. Brown, “Eu2+ ions and CaF2-containing transparent glass-ceramics,” Mater. Res. Bull.37(11), 1843–1849 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Tanabe, H. Hayashi, T. Hanada, and N. Onodera, “Fluorescence properties of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater.19(3), 343–349 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Y. Sun, M. Gu, S. M. Huang, X. J. Jin, X. L. Liu, B. Liu, and C. Ni, “Luminescence behavior of Tb3+ ions in transparent glass and glass-ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin.129(8), 773–777 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. J. Dejneka, “The luminescence and structure of novel transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 149–155 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. H. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “New Transparent Vitroceramics Codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+ for Efficient Frequency up-Conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(24), 3268–3270 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. S. Kim, M. Müller, and W. Seeber, “Mixed oxide and fluoride glasses containing optically active nanocrystals,” Glass Sci. Technol.75, 330–333 (2002).
  23. C. Rüssel, “Nanocrystallization of CaF2 from Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 glasses,” Chem. Mater.17(23), 5843–5847 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. P. F. de Almeida, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Size of CaF2 crystals precipitated from glasses in the Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 system and percolation theory,” Chem. Mater.20(18), 5916–5921 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Bocker, J. Wiemert, and C. Rüssel, “The formation of strontium fluoride nano crystals from a phase separated silicate glass,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.33(10), 1737–1745 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Bocker and C. Rüssel, “Self-organized nano-crystallisation of BaF2 from Na2O/K2O/BaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.29(7), 1221–1225 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. Tauch and C. Rüssel, “Glass-ceramics with zero thermal expansion in the system BaO/Al2O3/B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(27-29), 2294–2298 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, and H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2493–2496 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. Bocker, I. Avramov, and C. Rüssel, “Viscosity and diffusion of barium and fluoride in Na2O/K2O/Al2O3/SiO2/BaF2 glasses,” Chem. Phys.369(2-3), 96–100 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Ritter, S. Gerlach, and C. Rüssel, “Photo induced surface near crystallization of a glass in the system Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(52-54), 3090–3094 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and D. Ehrt, “Formation and UV absorption of cerium, europium and terbium ions in different valencies in glasses,” Opt. Mater.15(1), 7–25 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Spectral components that form UV absorption spectrum of Ce3+ and Ce4+ valence states in matrix of photothermorefractive glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc.111(3), 426–433 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Quantitative UV-VIS spectroscopic studies of photo-thermo-refractive glasses. I. Intrinsic, bromine-related, and impurity-related UV absorption in photo-thermo-refractive glass matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(19-20), 3500–3512 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  34. N. V. Nikonorov, A. A. Savin, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Influence of ionizing radiation on the spectral properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass containing silver nanoparticles,” Glass Phys. Chem.39(3), 261–265 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  35. W. Preidel and J. Nolting, “Kinetics of demixing of silver bromide - sodium bromide mixed-crystals. 1. electrical-conductivity measurements,” Z Phys Chem Neue Fol108, 1–9 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  36. G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, C. A. Baptista, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of Bromine on NaF Crystallization in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(9), 2906–2911 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  37. S. Bhattacharyya, T. Höche, K. Hahn, and P. A. van Aken, “Various transmission electron microscopic techniques to characterize phase separation - illustrated using a LaF3 containing aluminosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(6), 393–396 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Hoell, Z. Varga, V. S. Raghuwanshi, M. Krumrey, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “ASAXS study of CaF2 nanoparticles embedded in a silicate glass matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst.47(1), 60–66 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  39. V. S. Raghuwanshi, A. Hoell, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Experimental evidence of a diffusion barrier around BaF2 nanocrystals in a silicate glass system by ASAXS,” CrystEngComm14(16), 5215–5223 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  40. N. Tsakiris, P. Argyrakis, I. Avramov, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Crystal growth model with stress development and relaxation,” Epl-Europhys. Lett.89(1), 18004 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  41. C. Bocker, I. Avramov, and C. Rüssel, “The effect of stresses during crystallization on the crystallite size distributions,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.31(15), 2861–2866 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  42. J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2014

A. Hoell, Z. Varga, V. S. Raghuwanshi, M. Krumrey, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “ASAXS study of CaF2 nanoparticles embedded in a silicate glass matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst.47(1), 60–66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

N. V. Nikonorov, A. A. Savin, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Influence of ionizing radiation on the spectral properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass containing silver nanoparticles,” Glass Phys. Chem.39(3), 261–265 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, J. Wiemert, and C. Rüssel, “The formation of strontium fluoride nano crystals from a phase separated silicate glass,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.33(10), 1737–1745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, C. Rüssel, and I. Avramov, “Transparent nano crystalline glass-ceramics by interface controlled crystallization,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.4(3), 174–181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau and L. B. Glebov, “Modeling of the induced refractive index kinetics in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater. Express3(1), 95–104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

V. S. Raghuwanshi, A. Hoell, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Experimental evidence of a diffusion barrier around BaF2 nanocrystals in a silicate glass system by ASAXS,” CrystEngComm14(16), 5215–5223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, C. A. Baptista, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of Bromine on NaF Crystallization in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(9), 2906–2911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Spectral components that form UV absorption spectrum of Ce3+ and Ce4+ valence states in matrix of photothermorefractive glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc.111(3), 426–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Quantitative UV-VIS spectroscopic studies of photo-thermo-refractive glasses. I. Intrinsic, bromine-related, and impurity-related UV absorption in photo-thermo-refractive glass matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(19-20), 3500–3512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, I. Avramov, and C. Rüssel, “The effect of stresses during crystallization on the crystallite size distributions,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.31(15), 2861–2866 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

N. Tsakiris, P. Argyrakis, I. Avramov, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Crystal growth model with stress development and relaxation,” Epl-Europhys. Lett.89(1), 18004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, I. Avramov, and C. Rüssel, “Viscosity and diffusion of barium and fluoride in Na2O/K2O/Al2O3/SiO2/BaF2 glasses,” Chem. Phys.369(2-3), 96–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Ritter, S. Gerlach, and C. Rüssel, “Photo induced surface near crystallization of a glass in the system Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(52-54), 3090–3094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Bocker and C. Rüssel, “Self-organized nano-crystallisation of BaF2 from Na2O/K2O/BaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.29(7), 1221–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhattacharyya, T. Höche, K. Hahn, and P. A. van Aken, “Various transmission electron microscopic techniques to characterize phase separation - illustrated using a LaF3 containing aluminosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(6), 393–396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Sun, M. Gu, S. M. Huang, X. J. Jin, X. L. Liu, B. Liu, and C. Ni, “Luminescence behavior of Tb3+ ions in transparent glass and glass-ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin.129(8), 773–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Micro and nanostructures in partially crystallised photothermorefractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B50, 311–320 (2009).

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, and H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2493–2496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Influence of UV-exposure on the crystallization and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 425–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. P. F. de Almeida, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Size of CaF2 crystals precipitated from glasses in the Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 system and percolation theory,” Chem. Mater.20(18), 5916–5921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. B. Glebov, “Photosensitive holographic glass - new approach to creation of high power lasers,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 123–128 (2007).

L. Glebova, D. Ehrt, and L. Glebov, “Luminescence of dopants in PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 328–331 (2007).

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallisation of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 281–284 (2007).

2005

C. Rüssel, “Nanocrystallization of CaF2 from Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 glasses,” Chem. Mater.17(23), 5843–5847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Tauch and C. Rüssel, “Glass-ceramics with zero thermal expansion in the system BaO/Al2O3/B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(27-29), 2294–2298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. B. Glebov, “Kinetics modeling in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Mater.25(4), 413–418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Mortier, “Between glass and crystal: glass-ceramics, a new way for optical materials,” Philos. Mag. B82, 745–753 (2002).

J. Fu, J. M. Parker, P. S. Flower, and R. M. Brown, “Eu2+ ions and CaF2-containing transparent glass-ceramics,” Mater. Res. Bull.37(11), 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, H. Hayashi, T. Hanada, and N. Onodera, “Fluorescence properties of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater.19(3), 343–349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, M. Müller, and W. Seeber, “Mixed oxide and fluoride glasses containing optically active nanocrystals,” Glass Sci. Technol.75, 330–333 (2002).

2000

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and D. Ehrt, “Formation and UV absorption of cerium, europium and terbium ions in different valencies in glasses,” Opt. Mater.15(1), 7–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Kelton, “Kinetic model for nucleation in partitioning systems,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 147–154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. J. Dejneka, “The luminescence and structure of novel transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 149–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

Y. H. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “New Transparent Vitroceramics Codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+ for Efficient Frequency up-Conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(24), 3268–3270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, “New potentialities of photosensitive glasses for volume phase hologram recording,” Opt. Spektrosk.73, 404–412 (1992).

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikoronov, G. T. Petrovsky, and M. V. Kharchenko, “Formation of optical-elements by the photothermoinduced crystallization of glasses,” Izv. an Sssr. Fiz.56, 133–140 (1992).

1989

V. A. Borgman, L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, and A. D. Tsvetkov, “Photothermorefractive effect in silicate-glasses,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR309, 336–339 (1989).

1977

W. Preidel and J. Nolting, “Kinetics of demixing of silver bromide - sodium bromide mixed-crystals. 1. electrical-conductivity measurements,” Z Phys Chem Neue Fol108, 1–9 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1949

S. D. Stookey, “Photosensitive Glass - a new photographic medium,” Ind. Eng. Chem.41(4), 856–861 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Argyrakis, P.

N. Tsakiris, P. Argyrakis, I. Avramov, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Crystal growth model with stress development and relaxation,” Epl-Europhys. Lett.89(1), 18004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Avramov, I.

C. Bocker, C. Rüssel, and I. Avramov, “Transparent nano crystalline glass-ceramics by interface controlled crystallization,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.4(3), 174–181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, I. Avramov, and C. Rüssel, “The effect of stresses during crystallization on the crystallite size distributions,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.31(15), 2861–2866 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsakiris, P. Argyrakis, I. Avramov, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Crystal growth model with stress development and relaxation,” Epl-Europhys. Lett.89(1), 18004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, I. Avramov, and C. Rüssel, “Viscosity and diffusion of barium and fluoride in Na2O/K2O/Al2O3/SiO2/BaF2 glasses,” Chem. Phys.369(2-3), 96–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, C. A.

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, C. A. Baptista, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of Bromine on NaF Crystallization in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(9), 2906–2911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, S.

S. Bhattacharyya, T. Höche, K. Hahn, and P. A. van Aken, “Various transmission electron microscopic techniques to characterize phase separation - illustrated using a LaF3 containing aluminosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(6), 393–396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, and H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2493–2496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bocker, C.

A. Hoell, Z. Varga, V. S. Raghuwanshi, M. Krumrey, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “ASAXS study of CaF2 nanoparticles embedded in a silicate glass matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst.47(1), 60–66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, J. Wiemert, and C. Rüssel, “The formation of strontium fluoride nano crystals from a phase separated silicate glass,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.33(10), 1737–1745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, C. Rüssel, and I. Avramov, “Transparent nano crystalline glass-ceramics by interface controlled crystallization,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.4(3), 174–181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Raghuwanshi, A. Hoell, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Experimental evidence of a diffusion barrier around BaF2 nanocrystals in a silicate glass system by ASAXS,” CrystEngComm14(16), 5215–5223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, I. Avramov, and C. Rüssel, “The effect of stresses during crystallization on the crystallite size distributions,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.31(15), 2861–2866 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, I. Avramov, and C. Rüssel, “Viscosity and diffusion of barium and fluoride in Na2O/K2O/Al2O3/SiO2/BaF2 glasses,” Chem. Phys.369(2-3), 96–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsakiris, P. Argyrakis, I. Avramov, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Crystal growth model with stress development and relaxation,” Epl-Europhys. Lett.89(1), 18004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker and C. Rüssel, “Self-organized nano-crystallisation of BaF2 from Na2O/K2O/BaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.29(7), 1221–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, and H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2493–2496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. F. de Almeida, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Size of CaF2 crystals precipitated from glasses in the Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 system and percolation theory,” Chem. Mater.20(18), 5916–5921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borgman, V. A.

V. A. Borgman, L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, and A. D. Tsvetkov, “Photothermorefractive effect in silicate-glasses,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR309, 336–339 (1989).

Brown, R. M.

J. Fu, J. M. Parker, P. S. Flower, and R. M. Brown, “Eu2+ ions and CaF2-containing transparent glass-ceramics,” Mater. Res. Bull.37(11), 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Almeida, R. P. F.

R. P. F. de Almeida, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Size of CaF2 crystals precipitated from glasses in the Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 system and percolation theory,” Chem. Mater.20(18), 5916–5921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dejneka, M. J.

M. J. Dejneka, “The luminescence and structure of novel transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 149–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and D. Ehrt, “Formation and UV absorption of cerium, europium and terbium ions in different valencies in glasses,” Opt. Mater.15(1), 7–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, A. M.

A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Spectral components that form UV absorption spectrum of Ce3+ and Ce4+ valence states in matrix of photothermorefractive glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc.111(3), 426–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Quantitative UV-VIS spectroscopic studies of photo-thermo-refractive glasses. I. Intrinsic, bromine-related, and impurity-related UV absorption in photo-thermo-refractive glass matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(19-20), 3500–3512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ehrt, D.

L. Glebova, D. Ehrt, and L. Glebov, “Luminescence of dopants in PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 328–331 (2007).

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and D. Ehrt, “Formation and UV absorption of cerium, europium and terbium ions in different valencies in glasses,” Opt. Mater.15(1), 7–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flower, P. S.

J. Fu, J. M. Parker, P. S. Flower, and R. M. Brown, “Eu2+ ions and CaF2-containing transparent glass-ceramics,” Mater. Res. Bull.37(11), 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fokin, V. M.

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, C. A. Baptista, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of Bromine on NaF Crystallization in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(9), 2906–2911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Micro and nanostructures in partially crystallised photothermorefractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B50, 311–320 (2009).

Fu, J.

J. Fu, J. M. Parker, P. S. Flower, and R. M. Brown, “Eu2+ ions and CaF2-containing transparent glass-ceramics,” Mater. Res. Bull.37(11), 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gerlach, S.

K. Ritter, S. Gerlach, and C. Rüssel, “Photo induced surface near crystallization of a glass in the system Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(52-54), 3090–3094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L.

L. Glebova, D. Ehrt, and L. Glebov, “Luminescence of dopants in PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 328–331 (2007).

Glebov, L. B.

J. Lumeau and L. B. Glebov, “Modeling of the induced refractive index kinetics in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater. Express3(1), 95–104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, C. A. Baptista, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of Bromine on NaF Crystallization in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(9), 2906–2911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Micro and nanostructures in partially crystallised photothermorefractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B50, 311–320 (2009).

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Influence of UV-exposure on the crystallization and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 425–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Glebov, “Photosensitive holographic glass - new approach to creation of high power lasers,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 123–128 (2007).

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallisation of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 281–284 (2007).

L. B. Glebov, “Kinetics modeling in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Mater.25(4), 413–418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikoronov, G. T. Petrovsky, and M. V. Kharchenko, “Formation of optical-elements by the photothermoinduced crystallization of glasses,” Izv. an Sssr. Fiz.56, 133–140 (1992).

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, “New potentialities of photosensitive glasses for volume phase hologram recording,” Opt. Spektrosk.73, 404–412 (1992).

V. A. Borgman, L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, and A. D. Tsvetkov, “Photothermorefractive effect in silicate-glasses,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR309, 336–339 (1989).

Glebova, L.

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, C. A. Baptista, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of Bromine on NaF Crystallization in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(9), 2906–2911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Micro and nanostructures in partially crystallised photothermorefractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B50, 311–320 (2009).

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Influence of UV-exposure on the crystallization and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 425–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallisation of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 281–284 (2007).

L. Glebova, D. Ehrt, and L. Glebov, “Luminescence of dopants in PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 328–331 (2007).

Golubkov, V.

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

X. Y. Sun, M. Gu, S. M. Huang, X. J. Jin, X. L. Liu, B. Liu, and C. Ni, “Luminescence behavior of Tb3+ ions in transparent glass and glass-ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin.129(8), 773–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, K.

S. Bhattacharyya, T. Höche, K. Hahn, and P. A. van Aken, “Various transmission electron microscopic techniques to characterize phase separation - illustrated using a LaF3 containing aluminosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(6), 393–396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, T.

S. Tanabe, H. Hayashi, T. Hanada, and N. Onodera, “Fluorescence properties of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater.19(3), 343–349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, H.

S. Tanabe, H. Hayashi, T. Hanada, and N. Onodera, “Fluorescence properties of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater.19(3), 343–349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heil, T.

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, and H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2493–2496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höche, T.

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, and H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2493–2496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bhattacharyya, T. Höche, K. Hahn, and P. A. van Aken, “Various transmission electron microscopic techniques to characterize phase separation - illustrated using a LaF3 containing aluminosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(6), 393–396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoell, A.

A. Hoell, Z. Varga, V. S. Raghuwanshi, M. Krumrey, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “ASAXS study of CaF2 nanoparticles embedded in a silicate glass matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst.47(1), 60–66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Raghuwanshi, A. Hoell, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Experimental evidence of a diffusion barrier around BaF2 nanocrystals in a silicate glass system by ASAXS,” CrystEngComm14(16), 5215–5223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. M.

X. Y. Sun, M. Gu, S. M. Huang, X. J. Jin, X. L. Liu, B. Liu, and C. Ni, “Luminescence behavior of Tb3+ ions in transparent glass and glass-ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin.129(8), 773–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ignatev, A. I.

A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Spectral components that form UV absorption spectrum of Ce3+ and Ce4+ valence states in matrix of photothermorefractive glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc.111(3), 426–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ignatiev, A. I.

A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Quantitative UV-VIS spectroscopic studies of photo-thermo-refractive glasses. I. Intrinsic, bromine-related, and impurity-related UV absorption in photo-thermo-refractive glass matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(19-20), 3500–3512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, X. J.

X. Y. Sun, M. Gu, S. M. Huang, X. J. Jin, X. L. Liu, B. Liu, and C. Ni, “Luminescence behavior of Tb3+ ions in transparent glass and glass-ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin.129(8), 773–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jinschek, J. R.

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, and H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2493–2496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelton, K. F.

K. F. Kelton, “Kinetic model for nucleation in partitioning systems,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 147–154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kharchenko, M. V.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikoronov, G. T. Petrovsky, and M. V. Kharchenko, “Formation of optical-elements by the photothermoinduced crystallization of glasses,” Izv. an Sssr. Fiz.56, 133–140 (1992).

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, M. Müller, and W. Seeber, “Mixed oxide and fluoride glasses containing optically active nanocrystals,” Glass Sci. Technol.75, 330–333 (2002).

Klimov, M.

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, H.

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, and H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2493–2496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krumrey, M.

A. Hoell, Z. Varga, V. S. Raghuwanshi, M. Krumrey, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “ASAXS study of CaF2 nanoparticles embedded in a silicate glass matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst.47(1), 60–66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

X. Y. Sun, M. Gu, S. M. Huang, X. J. Jin, X. L. Liu, B. Liu, and C. Ni, “Luminescence behavior of Tb3+ ions in transparent glass and glass-ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin.129(8), 773–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. L.

X. Y. Sun, M. Gu, S. M. Huang, X. J. Jin, X. L. Liu, B. Liu, and C. Ni, “Luminescence behavior of Tb3+ ions in transparent glass and glass-ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin.129(8), 773–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lumeau, J.

J. Lumeau and L. B. Glebov, “Modeling of the induced refractive index kinetics in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater. Express3(1), 95–104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, C. A. Baptista, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of Bromine on NaF Crystallization in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(9), 2906–2911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Micro and nanostructures in partially crystallised photothermorefractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B50, 311–320 (2009).

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Influence of UV-exposure on the crystallization and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 425–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallisation of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 281–284 (2007).

Mortier, M.

M. Mortier, “Between glass and crystal: glass-ceramics, a new way for optical materials,” Philos. Mag. B82, 745–753 (2002).

Müller, M.

J. S. Kim, M. Müller, and W. Seeber, “Mixed oxide and fluoride glasses containing optically active nanocrystals,” Glass Sci. Technol.75, 330–333 (2002).

Ni, C.

X. Y. Sun, M. Gu, S. M. Huang, X. J. Jin, X. L. Liu, B. Liu, and C. Ni, “Luminescence behavior of Tb3+ ions in transparent glass and glass-ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin.129(8), 773–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikonorov, N. V.

N. V. Nikonorov, A. A. Savin, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Influence of ionizing radiation on the spectral properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass containing silver nanoparticles,” Glass Phys. Chem.39(3), 261–265 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Spectral components that form UV absorption spectrum of Ce3+ and Ce4+ valence states in matrix of photothermorefractive glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc.111(3), 426–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Quantitative UV-VIS spectroscopic studies of photo-thermo-refractive glasses. I. Intrinsic, bromine-related, and impurity-related UV absorption in photo-thermo-refractive glass matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(19-20), 3500–3512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, “New potentialities of photosensitive glasses for volume phase hologram recording,” Opt. Spektrosk.73, 404–412 (1992).

V. A. Borgman, L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, and A. D. Tsvetkov, “Photothermorefractive effect in silicate-glasses,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR309, 336–339 (1989).

Nikoronov, N. V.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikoronov, G. T. Petrovsky, and M. V. Kharchenko, “Formation of optical-elements by the photothermoinduced crystallization of glasses,” Izv. an Sssr. Fiz.56, 133–140 (1992).

Nolting, J.

W. Preidel and J. Nolting, “Kinetics of demixing of silver bromide - sodium bromide mixed-crystals. 1. electrical-conductivity measurements,” Z Phys Chem Neue Fol108, 1–9 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ohwaki, J.

Y. H. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “New Transparent Vitroceramics Codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+ for Efficient Frequency up-Conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(24), 3268–3270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Onodera, N.

S. Tanabe, H. Hayashi, T. Hanada, and N. Onodera, “Fluorescence properties of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater.19(3), 343–349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Panysheva, E. I.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, “New potentialities of photosensitive glasses for volume phase hologram recording,” Opt. Spektrosk.73, 404–412 (1992).

Parker, J. M.

J. Fu, J. M. Parker, P. S. Flower, and R. M. Brown, “Eu2+ ions and CaF2-containing transparent glass-ceramics,” Mater. Res. Bull.37(11), 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petrovskii, G. T.

V. A. Borgman, L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, and A. D. Tsvetkov, “Photothermorefractive effect in silicate-glasses,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR309, 336–339 (1989).

Petrovsky, G. T.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, “New potentialities of photosensitive glasses for volume phase hologram recording,” Opt. Spektrosk.73, 404–412 (1992).

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikoronov, G. T. Petrovsky, and M. V. Kharchenko, “Formation of optical-elements by the photothermoinduced crystallization of glasses,” Izv. an Sssr. Fiz.56, 133–140 (1992).

Postnikov, E. S.

A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Spectral components that form UV absorption spectrum of Ce3+ and Ce4+ valence states in matrix of photothermorefractive glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc.111(3), 426–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Quantitative UV-VIS spectroscopic studies of photo-thermo-refractive glasses. I. Intrinsic, bromine-related, and impurity-related UV absorption in photo-thermo-refractive glass matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(19-20), 3500–3512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Preidel, W.

W. Preidel and J. Nolting, “Kinetics of demixing of silver bromide - sodium bromide mixed-crystals. 1. electrical-conductivity measurements,” Z Phys Chem Neue Fol108, 1–9 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Raghuwanshi, V. S.

A. Hoell, Z. Varga, V. S. Raghuwanshi, M. Krumrey, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “ASAXS study of CaF2 nanoparticles embedded in a silicate glass matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst.47(1), 60–66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Raghuwanshi, A. Hoell, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Experimental evidence of a diffusion barrier around BaF2 nanocrystals in a silicate glass system by ASAXS,” CrystEngComm14(16), 5215–5223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, K.

K. Ritter, S. Gerlach, and C. Rüssel, “Photo induced surface near crystallization of a glass in the system Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(52-54), 3090–3094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rüssel, C.

A. Hoell, Z. Varga, V. S. Raghuwanshi, M. Krumrey, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “ASAXS study of CaF2 nanoparticles embedded in a silicate glass matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst.47(1), 60–66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, J. Wiemert, and C. Rüssel, “The formation of strontium fluoride nano crystals from a phase separated silicate glass,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.33(10), 1737–1745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, C. Rüssel, and I. Avramov, “Transparent nano crystalline glass-ceramics by interface controlled crystallization,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.4(3), 174–181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Raghuwanshi, A. Hoell, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Experimental evidence of a diffusion barrier around BaF2 nanocrystals in a silicate glass system by ASAXS,” CrystEngComm14(16), 5215–5223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, I. Avramov, and C. Rüssel, “The effect of stresses during crystallization on the crystallite size distributions,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.31(15), 2861–2866 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Ritter, S. Gerlach, and C. Rüssel, “Photo induced surface near crystallization of a glass in the system Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(52-54), 3090–3094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, I. Avramov, and C. Rüssel, “Viscosity and diffusion of barium and fluoride in Na2O/K2O/Al2O3/SiO2/BaF2 glasses,” Chem. Phys.369(2-3), 96–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsakiris, P. Argyrakis, I. Avramov, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Crystal growth model with stress development and relaxation,” Epl-Europhys. Lett.89(1), 18004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker and C. Rüssel, “Self-organized nano-crystallisation of BaF2 from Na2O/K2O/BaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.29(7), 1221–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, and H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2493–2496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. F. de Almeida, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Size of CaF2 crystals precipitated from glasses in the Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 system and percolation theory,” Chem. Mater.20(18), 5916–5921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Tauch and C. Rüssel, “Glass-ceramics with zero thermal expansion in the system BaO/Al2O3/B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(27-29), 2294–2298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Rüssel, “Nanocrystallization of CaF2 from Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 glasses,” Chem. Mater.17(23), 5843–5847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Savin, A. A.

N. V. Nikonorov, A. A. Savin, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Influence of ionizing radiation on the spectral properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass containing silver nanoparticles,” Glass Phys. Chem.39(3), 261–265 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Savvin, V. V.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, “New potentialities of photosensitive glasses for volume phase hologram recording,” Opt. Spektrosk.73, 404–412 (1992).

V. A. Borgman, L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, and A. D. Tsvetkov, “Photothermorefractive effect in silicate-glasses,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR309, 336–339 (1989).

Seeber, W.

J. S. Kim, M. Müller, and W. Seeber, “Mixed oxide and fluoride glasses containing optically active nanocrystals,” Glass Sci. Technol.75, 330–333 (2002).

Sinitskii, A.

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallisation of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 281–284 (2007).

Souza, G. P.

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, C. A. Baptista, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of Bromine on NaF Crystallization in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(9), 2906–2911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Micro and nanostructures in partially crystallised photothermorefractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B50, 311–320 (2009).

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stookey, S. D.

S. D. Stookey, “Photosensitive Glass - a new photographic medium,” Ind. Eng. Chem.41(4), 856–861 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. Y.

X. Y. Sun, M. Gu, S. M. Huang, X. J. Jin, X. L. Liu, B. Liu, and C. Ni, “Luminescence behavior of Tb3+ ions in transparent glass and glass-ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin.129(8), 773–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, S.

S. Tanabe, H. Hayashi, T. Hanada, and N. Onodera, “Fluorescence properties of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater.19(3), 343–349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tauch, D.

D. Tauch and C. Rüssel, “Glass-ceramics with zero thermal expansion in the system BaO/Al2O3/B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(27-29), 2294–2298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsakiris, N.

N. Tsakiris, P. Argyrakis, I. Avramov, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Crystal growth model with stress development and relaxation,” Epl-Europhys. Lett.89(1), 18004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsekhomskii, V. A.

N. V. Nikonorov, A. A. Savin, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Influence of ionizing radiation on the spectral properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass containing silver nanoparticles,” Glass Phys. Chem.39(3), 261–265 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tsekhomsky, V. A.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, “New potentialities of photosensitive glasses for volume phase hologram recording,” Opt. Spektrosk.73, 404–412 (1992).

Tsvetkov, A. D.

V. A. Borgman, L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, and A. D. Tsvetkov, “Photothermorefractive effect in silicate-glasses,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR309, 336–339 (1989).

Tunimanova, I. V.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, “New potentialities of photosensitive glasses for volume phase hologram recording,” Opt. Spektrosk.73, 404–412 (1992).

van Aken, P. A.

S. Bhattacharyya, T. Höche, K. Hahn, and P. A. van Aken, “Various transmission electron microscopic techniques to characterize phase separation - illustrated using a LaF3 containing aluminosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(6), 393–396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Varga, Z.

A. Hoell, Z. Varga, V. S. Raghuwanshi, M. Krumrey, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “ASAXS study of CaF2 nanoparticles embedded in a silicate glass matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst.47(1), 60–66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. H.

Y. H. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “New Transparent Vitroceramics Codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+ for Efficient Frequency up-Conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(24), 3268–3270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wiemert, J.

C. Bocker, J. Wiemert, and C. Rüssel, “The formation of strontium fluoride nano crystals from a phase separated silicate glass,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.33(10), 1737–1745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zanotto, E. D.

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, C. A. Baptista, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of Bromine on NaF Crystallization in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(9), 2906–2911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Micro and nanostructures in partially crystallised photothermorefractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B50, 311–320 (2009).

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallisation of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 281–284 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. H. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “New Transparent Vitroceramics Codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+ for Efficient Frequency up-Conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(24), 3268–3270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

C. Rüssel, “Nanocrystallization of CaF2 from Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 glasses,” Chem. Mater.17(23), 5843–5847 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. P. F. de Almeida, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Size of CaF2 crystals precipitated from glasses in the Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 system and percolation theory,” Chem. Mater.20(18), 5916–5921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

C. Bocker, I. Avramov, and C. Rüssel, “Viscosity and diffusion of barium and fluoride in Na2O/K2O/Al2O3/SiO2/BaF2 glasses,” Chem. Phys.369(2-3), 96–100 (2010).
[CrossRef]

CrystEngComm

V. S. Raghuwanshi, A. Hoell, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Experimental evidence of a diffusion barrier around BaF2 nanocrystals in a silicate glass system by ASAXS,” CrystEngComm14(16), 5215–5223 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR

V. A. Borgman, L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, V. V. Savvin, and A. D. Tsvetkov, “Photothermorefractive effect in silicate-glasses,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR309, 336–339 (1989).

Epl-Europhys. Lett.

N. Tsakiris, P. Argyrakis, I. Avramov, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “Crystal growth model with stress development and relaxation,” Epl-Europhys. Lett.89(1), 18004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Glass Phys. Chem.

N. V. Nikonorov, A. A. Savin, and V. A. Tsekhomskii, “Influence of ionizing radiation on the spectral properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass containing silver nanoparticles,” Glass Phys. Chem.39(3), 261–265 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Glass Sci. Technol.

J. S. Kim, M. Müller, and W. Seeber, “Mixed oxide and fluoride glasses containing optically active nanocrystals,” Glass Sci. Technol.75, 330–333 (2002).

Ind. Eng. Chem.

S. D. Stookey, “Photosensitive Glass - a new photographic medium,” Ind. Eng. Chem.41(4), 856–861 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.

C. Bocker, C. Rüssel, and I. Avramov, “Transparent nano crystalline glass-ceramics by interface controlled crystallization,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci.4(3), 174–181 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Izv. an Sssr. Fiz.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikoronov, G. T. Petrovsky, and M. V. Kharchenko, “Formation of optical-elements by the photothermoinduced crystallization of glasses,” Izv. an Sssr. Fiz.56, 133–140 (1992).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, C. A. Baptista, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of Bromine on NaF Crystallization in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.94(9), 2906–2911 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Cryst.

A. Hoell, Z. Varga, V. S. Raghuwanshi, M. Krumrey, C. Bocker, and C. Rüssel, “ASAXS study of CaF2 nanoparticles embedded in a silicate glass matrix,” J. Appl. Cryst.47(1), 60–66 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.

C. Bocker, J. Wiemert, and C. Rüssel, “The formation of strontium fluoride nano crystals from a phase separated silicate glass,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.33(10), 1737–1745 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker and C. Rüssel, “Self-organized nano-crystallisation of BaF2 from Na2O/K2O/BaF2/Al2O3/SiO2 glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.29(7), 1221–1225 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Bocker, I. Avramov, and C. Rüssel, “The effect of stresses during crystallization on the crystallite size distributions,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.31(15), 2861–2866 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

X. Y. Sun, M. Gu, S. M. Huang, X. J. Jin, X. L. Liu, B. Liu, and C. Ni, “Luminescence behavior of Tb3+ ions in transparent glass and glass-ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Lumin.129(8), 773–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

M. J. Dejneka, “The luminescence and structure of novel transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 149–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, G. P. Souza, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Effect of cooling on the optical properties and crystallization of UV-exposed photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(42-44), 4730–4736 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Glebova, J. Lumeau, M. Klimov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Role of bromine on the thermal and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 456–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Kelton, “Kinetic model for nucleation in partitioning systems,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids274(1-3), 147–154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Influence of UV-exposure on the crystallization and optical properties of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(2-9), 425–430 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Tauch and C. Rüssel, “Glass-ceramics with zero thermal expansion in the system BaO/Al2O3/B2O3,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(27-29), 2294–2298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ritter, S. Gerlach, and C. Rüssel, “Photo induced surface near crystallization of a glass in the system Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(52-54), 3090–3094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatiev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Quantitative UV-VIS spectroscopic studies of photo-thermo-refractive glasses. I. Intrinsic, bromine-related, and impurity-related UV absorption in photo-thermo-refractive glass matrices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(19-20), 3500–3512 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhattacharyya, T. Höche, K. Hahn, and P. A. van Aken, “Various transmission electron microscopic techniques to characterize phase separation - illustrated using a LaF3 containing aluminosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(6), 393–396 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull.

J. Fu, J. M. Parker, P. S. Flower, and R. M. Brown, “Eu2+ ions and CaF2-containing transparent glass-ceramics,” Mater. Res. Bull.37(11), 1843–1849 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Bocker, T. Heil, J. R. Jinschek, T. Höche, C. Rüssel, and H. Kohl, “Experimental evidence of self-limited growth of nanocrystals in glass,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2493–2496 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and D. Ehrt, “Formation and UV absorption of cerium, europium and terbium ions in different valencies in glasses,” Opt. Mater.15(1), 7–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, H. Hayashi, T. Hanada, and N. Onodera, “Fluorescence properties of Er3+ ions in glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater.19(3), 343–349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Glebov, “Kinetics modeling in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Mater.25(4), 413–418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, V. Golubkov, E. D. Zanotto, and L. B. Glebov, “Origin of crystallization-induced refractive index changes in photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. Express

Opt. Spectrosc.

A. M. Efimov, A. I. Ignatev, N. V. Nikonorov, and E. S. Postnikov, “Spectral components that form UV absorption spectrum of Ce3+ and Ce4+ valence states in matrix of photothermorefractive glasses,” Opt. Spectrosc.111(3), 426–433 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spektrosk.

L. B. Glebov, N. V. Nikonorov, E. I. Panysheva, G. T. Petrovsky, V. V. Savvin, I. V. Tunimanova, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, “New potentialities of photosensitive glasses for volume phase hologram recording,” Opt. Spektrosk.73, 404–412 (1992).

Philos. Mag. B

M. Mortier, “Between glass and crystal: glass-ceramics, a new way for optical materials,” Philos. Mag. B82, 745–753 (2002).

Phys. Chem. Glasses-B

L. B. Glebov, “Photosensitive holographic glass - new approach to creation of high power lasers,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 123–128 (2007).

L. Glebova, D. Ehrt, and L. Glebov, “Luminescence of dopants in PTR glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 328–331 (2007).

J. Lumeau, A. Sinitskii, L. Glebova, L. B. Glebov, and E. D. Zanotto, “Spontaneous and photo-induced crystallisation of photo-thermo-refractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B48, 281–284 (2007).

G. P. Souza, V. M. Fokin, E. D. Zanotto, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Micro and nanostructures in partially crystallised photothermorefractive glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses-B50, 311–320 (2009).

Z Phys Chem Neue Fol

W. Preidel and J. Nolting, “Kinetics of demixing of silver bromide - sodium bromide mixed-crystals. 1. electrical-conductivity measurements,” Z Phys Chem Neue Fol108, 1–9 (1977).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra recorded of the non-irradiated base glass (sample 0) and after exposure to radiation (30 min, sample 30) using a high pressure Xe/Hg lamp emitting a continuous spectrum in UV region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of glass samples after thermal treatment: (0AB) non-irradiated, annealed at 530 °C/ 1 h + 560 °C/ 20 h, (30A) irradiated (for 30 min), annealed at 530 °C/1 h, (30AB)) irradiated (for 30 min), annealed at 530 °C/ 1 h + 560 °C/ 20 h

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

XRD-patterns of samples after thermal treatment without prior irradiation: (0) base glass, (0A) 530 °C/ 1 h, (0AB) 530 °C/ 1 h + 560 °C/ 20 h.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XRD-patterns of samples after thermal treatment with previous irradiation for 30 min: (30A) irradiated, annealed at 530 °C/ 1 h, (30B) irradiated, annealed at 560 °C/ 20 h, (30AB) irradiated, annealed at 530 °C/ 1 h + 560 °C/ 20 h

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectra recorded after irradiation for different times and subsequent thermal treatment (530 °C/ 1 h + 560 °C/ 20 h): (10AB) 10 min irradiation, (30AB) 30 min irradiation, (60AB) 60 min irradiation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

XRD-patterns of samples first irradiated for different periods of time, then annealed at 530 °C for 1 h and finally annealed at 560 °C for another 20 h: (10AB) 10 min irradiation, (30AB) 30 min irradiation, (60AB) 60 min irradiation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

XRD-patterns of samples without KBr in glass composition: (30AB-Br0) pre-irradiated (30 min) and (0AB-Br0) non-irradiated and thermal treated at 530 °C for 1 h and 560 °C for 20 h:

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Chemical composition of the glasses in wt%

Tables Icon

Table 2 Conditions of sample preparation

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