Abstract

Tunable broadband white upconversion (UC) luminescence has been demonstrated in Yb3+/Tm3+/Mn2+ tri-doped KZnF3 nanocrystals from the excitation of a 976 nm laser diode (LD). The white light is composed of three sharp band peaks at 480, 650 and 700 nm, originating from the UC emissions of Tm3+ ions, and one broad band centered at 585 nm, originating from exchange-coupled Yb3+–Mn2+ dimers. The effects of the concentration, pump power and temperature on the UC luminescence properties of KZnF3:Yb3+,Tm3+,Mn2+ nanocrystals have been investigated. By changing the Mn2+/Tm3+ content ratio, various colors of the UC luminescence can be easily obtained in KZnF3:Yb3+,Tm3+,Mn2+ nanocrystals, which gives these nanocrystals potential applications in the fields of lighting, displays and lasers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  23. G. Tian, Z. J. Gu, L. J. Zhou, W. Y. Yin, X. X. Liu, L. Yan, S. Jin, W. L. Ren, G. M. Xing, S. J. Li, and Y. L. Zhao, “Mn2+ dopant-controlled synthesis of NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1226–1231 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Z. N. Wu, M. Lin, S. Liang, Y. Liu, H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Hot-injection synthesis of manganese-ion-doped NaYF4: Yb,Er nanocrystals with red up-convertingemission and tunable Diameter,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact.30(4), 311–315 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Zhang, J. D. Lin, V. Vijayaragavan, K. K. Bhakoo, and T. T. Y. Tan, “Tuning sub-10 nm single-phase NaMnF3 nanocrystals as ultrasensitive hosts for pure intense fluorescence and excellent T1 magnetic resonance imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(83), 10322–10324 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Z. P. Li, B. Dong, Y. Y. He, B. S. Cao, and Z. Q. Feng, “Selective enhancement of green upconversion emissions of Er3+:Yb3Al5O12 nanocrystals by high excited state energy transfer with Yb3+-Mn2+ dimer sensitizing,” J. Lumin.132(7), 1646–1648 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. H. Song, S. Ding, M. Wu, S. Ye, F. Xiao, G. P. Dong, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Temperature-tunable upconversion luminescence of perovskite nanocrystals KZnF3:Yb3+,Mn2+,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(27), 4209–4215 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. R. D. Shannon, “Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides,”Acta Cryst. A32(5), 751–767 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. J. H. Chung, J. H. Ryu, S. W. Mhin, K. M. Kim, and K. B. Shim, “Controllable white upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped CaMoO4,” J. Mater. Chem.22(9), 3997–4002 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  32. F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(17), 5642–5643 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. U. Kambli and H. U. Güdel, “Transfer of electronic excitation energy in the antiferromagets RbMnCl3, CsMnCl3, CsMnBr3, and RbMnCl4,” Inorg. Chem.23(22), 3479–3486 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. F. Rodríguez and M. Moreno, “Thermal expansion around an impurity: study of KZnF3:Mn2+,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.19(23), L513–L517 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  37. S. A. Wade, S. F. Collins, and G. W. Baxter, “Fluorescence intensity ratio technique for optical fiber point temperature sensing,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 4743–4756 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  38. K. Z. Zheng, D. Zhao, D. Zhang, N. Liu, and W. P. Qin, “Temperature-dependent six-photon upconversion fluorescence of Er3+,” J. Fluor. Chem.132(1), 5–8 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013

Z. Wang, J. Feng, M. Pang, S. H. Pan, and H. J. Zhang, “Multicolor and bright white upconversion luminescence from rice-shaped lanthanide doped BiPO4 submicron particles,” Dalton Trans.42(34), 12101–12108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chen, V. D. Ta, F. Xiao, Q. Y. Zhang, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor hybrid upconversion nanoparticles and their improved performance as luminescence temperature sensors due to energy transfer,” Small9(7), 1052–1057 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. N. Wu, M. Lin, S. Liang, Y. Liu, H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Hot-injection synthesis of manganese-ion-doped NaYF4: Yb,Er nanocrystals with red up-convertingemission and tunable Diameter,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact.30(4), 311–315 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Song, S. Ding, M. Wu, S. Ye, F. Xiao, G. P. Dong, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Temperature-tunable upconversion luminescence of perovskite nanocrystals KZnF3:Yb3+,Mn2+,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(27), 4209–4215 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

Y. Zhang, J. D. Lin, V. Vijayaragavan, K. K. Bhakoo, and T. T. Y. Tan, “Tuning sub-10 nm single-phase NaMnF3 nanocrystals as ultrasensitive hosts for pure intense fluorescence and excellent T1 magnetic resonance imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(83), 10322–10324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Li, B. Dong, Y. Y. He, B. S. Cao, and Z. Q. Feng, “Selective enhancement of green upconversion emissions of Er3+:Yb3Al5O12 nanocrystals by high excited state energy transfer with Yb3+-Mn2+ dimer sensitizing,” J. Lumin.132(7), 1646–1648 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Tian, Z. J. Gu, L. J. Zhou, W. Y. Yin, X. X. Liu, L. Yan, S. Jin, W. L. Ren, G. M. Xing, S. J. Li, and Y. L. Zhao, “Mn2+ dopant-controlled synthesis of NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1226–1231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Chung, J. H. Ryu, S. W. Mhin, K. M. Kim, and K. B. Shim, “Controllable white upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped CaMoO4,” J. Mater. Chem.22(9), 3997–4002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Niu, P. P. Yang, F. He, X. Zhang, S. L. Gai, C. X. Li, and J. Lin, “Tunable multicolor and bright white emission of one-dimensional NaLuF4:Yb3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Er, Tm, Ho, Er/Tm, Tm/Ho) microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem.22(21), 10889–10899 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

I. Etchart, M. Bérard, M. Laroche, A. Huignard, I. Hernández, W. P. Gillin, R. J. Curry, and A. K. Cheetham, “Efficient white light emission by upconversion in Yb3+-, Er3+- and Tm3+-doped Y2BaZnO5.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(22), 6263–6265 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, F. Wang, C. Wang, Z. Liu, X. G. Liu, and Angew, “Single‐band upconversion emission in lanthanide‐doped KMnF3 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50(44), 10369–10372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ye, Y. J. Li, D. C. Yu, G. P. Dong, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Room-temperature upconverted white light from GdMgB5O10:Yb3+,Mn2+,” J. Mater. Chem.21(11), 3735–3739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Z. Zheng, D. Zhao, D. Zhang, N. Liu, and W. P. Qin, “Temperature-dependent six-photon upconversion fluorescence of Er3+,” J. Fluor. Chem.132(1), 5–8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

R. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Valiente, F. Rodríguez, F. Piccinelli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Temperature dependence and temporal dynamics of Mn2+ upconversion luminescence sensitized by Yb3+ in codoped LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B82(7), 075117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Wang and P. A. Tanner, “Upconversion for white light generation by a single compound,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(3), 947–949 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Wang, J. H. Hao, and P. A. Tanner, “Luminous and tunable white-light upconversion for YAG (Yb3Al5O12) and (Yb,Y)2O3 nanopowders,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 3922–3924 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, D. Banerjee, Y. S. Liu, X. Y. Chen, and X. G. Liu, “Upconversion nanoparticles in biological labeling, imaging, and therapy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(8), 1839–1854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Recent advances in the chemistry of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(4), 976–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Yang, H. L. Han, Y. Y. Zhang, and J. X. Zhong, “White emission by frequency up-conversion in Yb3+-Ho3+-Tm3+ triply doped hexagonal NaYF4 nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 18995–18999 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, C. M. Zhang, C. Peng, C. X. Li, L. L. Wang, R. T. Chai, and J. Lin, “Controllable Red, Green, Blue (RGB) and bright white upconversion luminescence of Lu2O3:Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals through single laser excitation at 980 nm,” Chem. Eur. J.15(18), 4649–4655 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

V. Mahalingam, F. Mangiarini, F. Vetrone, V. Venkatramu, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Bright white upconversion emission from Tm3+/Yb3+/Er3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(46), 17745–17749 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dwivedi, A. Rai, and S. B. Rai, “Intense white upconversion emission in Pr/Er/Yb codoped tellurite glass,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. C. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. H. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth‐doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue‐green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra‐broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(17), 5642–5643 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, K. L. Zheng, T. L. Guo, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Bright upconversion white light emission in transparent glass ceramic embedding Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 133103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kra Mer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater.27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with F and D ions in solids,” Chem. Rev.104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S. A. Wade, S. F. Collins, and G. W. Baxter, “Fluorescence intensity ratio technique for optical fiber point temperature sensing,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 4743–4756 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Valiente, O. S. Wenger, and H. U. Güdel, “Near-infrared-to-visible photon upconversion process induced by exchange interactions in Yb3+-doped RbMnCl3,” Phys. Rev. B63(16), 165102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Gerner, O. S. Wenger, R. Valiente, and H. U. Güdel, “Green and Red Light Emission by Upconversion from the near-IR in Yb3+ Doped CsMnBr3.,” Inorg. Chem.40(18), 4534–4542 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1986

F. Rodríguez and M. Moreno, “Thermal expansion around an impurity: study of KZnF3:Mn2+,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.19(23), L513–L517 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

U. Kambli and H. U. Güdel, “Transfer of electronic excitation energy in the antiferromagets RbMnCl3, CsMnCl3, CsMnBr3, and RbMnCl4,” Inorg. Chem.23(22), 3479–3486 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. A. Antipin, A. V. Vinokurov, M. P. Davydova, S. L. Korableva, A. L. Stolov, and A. A. Fedii, “Optical spectra, EPR, and spin–lattice relaxation of Yb3+ ions in crystals having perovskite‐type structure,” Phys. Status Solidi B81(1), 287–293 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

R. D. Shannon, “Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides,”Acta Cryst. A32(5), 751–767 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aebischer, A.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kra Mer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater.27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Angew,

J. Wang, F. Wang, C. Wang, Z. Liu, X. G. Liu, and Angew, “Single‐band upconversion emission in lanthanide‐doped KMnF3 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50(44), 10369–10372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Antipin, A. A.

A. A. Antipin, A. V. Vinokurov, M. P. Davydova, S. L. Korableva, A. L. Stolov, and A. A. Fedii, “Optical spectra, EPR, and spin–lattice relaxation of Yb3+ ions in crystals having perovskite‐type structure,” Phys. Status Solidi B81(1), 287–293 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with F and D ions in solids,” Chem. Rev.104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, D.

F. Wang, D. Banerjee, Y. S. Liu, X. Y. Chen, and X. G. Liu, “Upconversion nanoparticles in biological labeling, imaging, and therapy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(8), 1839–1854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baxter, G. W.

S. A. Wade, S. F. Collins, and G. W. Baxter, “Fluorescence intensity ratio technique for optical fiber point temperature sensing,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 4743–4756 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bérard, M.

I. Etchart, M. Bérard, M. Laroche, A. Huignard, I. Hernández, W. P. Gillin, R. J. Curry, and A. K. Cheetham, “Efficient white light emission by upconversion in Yb3+-, Er3+- and Tm3+-doped Y2BaZnO5.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(22), 6263–6265 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bettinelli, M.

R. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Valiente, F. Rodríguez, F. Piccinelli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Temperature dependence and temporal dynamics of Mn2+ upconversion luminescence sensitized by Yb3+ in codoped LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B82(7), 075117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Mahalingam, F. Mangiarini, F. Vetrone, V. Venkatramu, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Bright white upconversion emission from Tm3+/Yb3+/Er3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(46), 17745–17749 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhakoo, K. K.

Y. Zhang, J. D. Lin, V. Vijayaragavan, K. K. Bhakoo, and T. T. Y. Tan, “Tuning sub-10 nm single-phase NaMnF3 nanocrystals as ultrasensitive hosts for pure intense fluorescence and excellent T1 magnetic resonance imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(83), 10322–10324 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biner, D.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kra Mer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater.27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, B. S.

Z. P. Li, B. Dong, Y. Y. He, B. S. Cao, and Z. Q. Feng, “Selective enhancement of green upconversion emissions of Er3+:Yb3Al5O12 nanocrystals by high excited state energy transfer with Yb3+-Mn2+ dimer sensitizing,” J. Lumin.132(7), 1646–1648 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, J. A.

V. Mahalingam, F. Mangiarini, F. Vetrone, V. Venkatramu, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Bright white upconversion emission from Tm3+/Yb3+/Er3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(46), 17745–17749 (2008).
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G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 133103 (2007).
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F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
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F. Wang, D. Banerjee, Y. S. Liu, X. Y. Chen, and X. G. Liu, “Upconversion nanoparticles in biological labeling, imaging, and therapy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(8), 1839–1854 (2010).
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J. H. Chung, J. H. Ryu, S. W. Mhin, K. M. Kim, and K. B. Shim, “Controllable white upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped CaMoO4,” J. Mater. Chem.22(9), 3997–4002 (2012).
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N. Niu, P. P. Yang, F. He, X. Zhang, S. L. Gai, C. X. Li, and J. Lin, “Tunable multicolor and bright white emission of one-dimensional NaLuF4:Yb3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Er, Tm, Ho, Er/Tm, Tm/Ho) microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem.22(21), 10889–10899 (2012).
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P. Gerner, O. S. Wenger, R. Valiente, and H. U. Güdel, “Green and Red Light Emission by Upconversion from the near-IR in Yb3+ Doped CsMnBr3.,” Inorg. Chem.40(18), 4534–4542 (2001).
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G. Tian, Z. J. Gu, L. J. Zhou, W. Y. Yin, X. X. Liu, L. Yan, S. Jin, W. L. Ren, G. M. Xing, S. J. Li, and Y. L. Zhao, “Mn2+ dopant-controlled synthesis of NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1226–1231 (2012).
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J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kra Mer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater.27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
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U. Kambli and H. U. Güdel, “Transfer of electronic excitation energy in the antiferromagets RbMnCl3, CsMnCl3, CsMnBr3, and RbMnCl4,” Inorg. Chem.23(22), 3479–3486 (1984).
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Guo, T. L.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, K. L. Zheng, T. L. Guo, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Bright upconversion white light emission in transparent glass ceramic embedding Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251903 (2007).
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L. W. Yang, H. L. Han, Y. Y. Zhang, and J. X. Zhong, “White emission by frequency up-conversion in Yb3+-Ho3+-Tm3+ triply doped hexagonal NaYF4 nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 18995–18999 (2009).
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F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
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J. W. Wang, J. H. Hao, and P. A. Tanner, “Luminous and tunable white-light upconversion for YAG (Yb3Al5O12) and (Yb,Y)2O3 nanopowders,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 3922–3924 (2010).
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S. F. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. C. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. H. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth‐doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue‐green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra‐broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
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He, F.

N. Niu, P. P. Yang, F. He, X. Zhang, S. L. Gai, C. X. Li, and J. Lin, “Tunable multicolor and bright white emission of one-dimensional NaLuF4:Yb3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Er, Tm, Ho, Er/Tm, Tm/Ho) microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem.22(21), 10889–10899 (2012).
[CrossRef]

He, Y. Y.

Z. P. Li, B. Dong, Y. Y. He, B. S. Cao, and Z. Q. Feng, “Selective enhancement of green upconversion emissions of Er3+:Yb3Al5O12 nanocrystals by high excited state energy transfer with Yb3+-Mn2+ dimer sensitizing,” J. Lumin.132(7), 1646–1648 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kra Mer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater.27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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I. Etchart, M. Bérard, M. Laroche, A. Huignard, I. Hernández, W. P. Gillin, R. J. Curry, and A. K. Cheetham, “Efficient white light emission by upconversion in Yb3+-, Er3+- and Tm3+-doped Y2BaZnO5.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(22), 6263–6265 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, M. H.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, K. L. Zheng, T. L. Guo, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Bright upconversion white light emission in transparent glass ceramic embedding Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, A.

I. Etchart, M. Bérard, M. Laroche, A. Huignard, I. Hernández, W. P. Gillin, R. J. Curry, and A. K. Cheetham, “Efficient white light emission by upconversion in Yb3+-, Er3+- and Tm3+-doped Y2BaZnO5.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(22), 6263–6265 (2011).
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S. F. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. C. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. H. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth‐doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue‐green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra‐broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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G. Tian, Z. J. Gu, L. J. Zhou, W. Y. Yin, X. X. Liu, L. Yan, S. Jin, W. L. Ren, G. M. Xing, S. J. Li, and Y. L. Zhao, “Mn2+ dopant-controlled synthesis of NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1226–1231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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U. Kambli and H. U. Güdel, “Transfer of electronic excitation energy in the antiferromagets RbMnCl3, CsMnCl3, CsMnBr3, and RbMnCl4,” Inorg. Chem.23(22), 3479–3486 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. M.

J. H. Chung, J. H. Ryu, S. W. Mhin, K. M. Kim, and K. B. Shim, “Controllable white upconversion luminescence in Ho3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped CaMoO4,” J. Mater. Chem.22(9), 3997–4002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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A. A. Antipin, A. V. Vinokurov, M. P. Davydova, S. L. Korableva, A. L. Stolov, and A. A. Fedii, “Optical spectra, EPR, and spin–lattice relaxation of Yb3+ ions in crystals having perovskite‐type structure,” Phys. Status Solidi B81(1), 287–293 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kra Mer, K. W.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, D. Biner, P. Gerner, J. Grimm, S. Heer, K. W. Kra Mer, C. Reinhard, and H. U. Güdel, “Novel materials doped with trivalent lanthanides and transition metal ions showing near-infrared to visible photon upconversion,” Opt. Mater.27(6), 1111–1130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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S. F. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. C. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. H. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth‐doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue‐green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra‐broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laroche, M.

I. Etchart, M. Bérard, M. Laroche, A. Huignard, I. Hernández, W. P. Gillin, R. J. Curry, and A. K. Cheetham, “Efficient white light emission by upconversion in Yb3+-, Er3+- and Tm3+-doped Y2BaZnO5.,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(22), 6263–6265 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C. X.

N. Niu, P. P. Yang, F. He, X. Zhang, S. L. Gai, C. X. Li, and J. Lin, “Tunable multicolor and bright white emission of one-dimensional NaLuF4:Yb3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Er, Tm, Ho, Er/Tm, Tm/Ho) microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem.22(21), 10889–10899 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, C. M. Zhang, C. Peng, C. X. Li, L. L. Wang, R. T. Chai, and J. Lin, “Controllable Red, Green, Blue (RGB) and bright white upconversion luminescence of Lu2O3:Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals through single laser excitation at 980 nm,” Chem. Eur. J.15(18), 4649–4655 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S. J.

G. Tian, Z. J. Gu, L. J. Zhou, W. Y. Yin, X. X. Liu, L. Yan, S. Jin, W. L. Ren, G. M. Xing, S. J. Li, and Y. L. Zhao, “Mn2+ dopant-controlled synthesis of NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1226–1231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. J.

S. Ye, Y. J. Li, D. C. Yu, G. P. Dong, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Room-temperature upconverted white light from GdMgB5O10:Yb3+,Mn2+,” J. Mater. Chem.21(11), 3735–3739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. P.

Z. P. Li, B. Dong, Y. Y. He, B. S. Cao, and Z. Q. Feng, “Selective enhancement of green upconversion emissions of Er3+:Yb3Al5O12 nanocrystals by high excited state energy transfer with Yb3+-Mn2+ dimer sensitizing,” J. Lumin.132(7), 1646–1648 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liang, S.

Z. N. Wu, M. Lin, S. Liang, Y. Liu, H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Hot-injection synthesis of manganese-ion-doped NaYF4: Yb,Er nanocrystals with red up-convertingemission and tunable Diameter,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact.30(4), 311–315 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. S.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

N. Niu, P. P. Yang, F. He, X. Zhang, S. L. Gai, C. X. Li, and J. Lin, “Tunable multicolor and bright white emission of one-dimensional NaLuF4:Yb3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Er, Tm, Ho, Er/Tm, Tm/Ho) microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem.22(21), 10889–10899 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, C. M. Zhang, C. Peng, C. X. Li, L. L. Wang, R. T. Chai, and J. Lin, “Controllable Red, Green, Blue (RGB) and bright white upconversion luminescence of Lu2O3:Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals through single laser excitation at 980 nm,” Chem. Eur. J.15(18), 4649–4655 (2009).
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Lin, J. D.

Y. Zhang, J. D. Lin, V. Vijayaragavan, K. K. Bhakoo, and T. T. Y. Tan, “Tuning sub-10 nm single-phase NaMnF3 nanocrystals as ultrasensitive hosts for pure intense fluorescence and excellent T1 magnetic resonance imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(83), 10322–10324 (2012).
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Lin, M.

Z. N. Wu, M. Lin, S. Liang, Y. Liu, H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Hot-injection synthesis of manganese-ion-doped NaYF4: Yb,Er nanocrystals with red up-convertingemission and tunable Diameter,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact.30(4), 311–315 (2013).
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K. Z. Zheng, D. Zhao, D. Zhang, N. Liu, and W. P. Qin, “Temperature-dependent six-photon upconversion fluorescence of Er3+,” J. Fluor. Chem.132(1), 5–8 (2011).
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Liu, X. G.

J. Wang, F. Wang, C. Wang, Z. Liu, X. G. Liu, and Angew, “Single‐band upconversion emission in lanthanide‐doped KMnF3 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50(44), 10369–10372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, D. Banerjee, Y. S. Liu, X. Y. Chen, and X. G. Liu, “Upconversion nanoparticles in biological labeling, imaging, and therapy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(8), 1839–1854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
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F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Recent advances in the chemistry of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev.38(4), 976–989 (2009).
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F. Wang and X. G. Liu, “Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(17), 5642–5643 (2008).
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Liu, X. X.

G. Tian, Z. J. Gu, L. J. Zhou, W. Y. Yin, X. X. Liu, L. Yan, S. Jin, W. L. Ren, G. M. Xing, S. J. Li, and Y. L. Zhao, “Mn2+ dopant-controlled synthesis of NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1226–1231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Z. N. Wu, M. Lin, S. Liang, Y. Liu, H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Hot-injection synthesis of manganese-ion-doped NaYF4: Yb,Er nanocrystals with red up-convertingemission and tunable Diameter,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact.30(4), 311–315 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 133103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

F. Wang, D. Banerjee, Y. S. Liu, X. Y. Chen, and X. G. Liu, “Upconversion nanoparticles in biological labeling, imaging, and therapy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(8), 1839–1854 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. Wang, F. Wang, C. Wang, Z. Liu, X. G. Liu, and Angew, “Single‐band upconversion emission in lanthanide‐doped KMnF3 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50(44), 10369–10372 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. H.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
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S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
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V. Mahalingam, F. Mangiarini, F. Vetrone, V. Venkatramu, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Bright white upconversion emission from Tm3+/Yb3+/Er3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(46), 17745–17749 (2008).
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Z. Wang, J. Feng, M. Pang, S. H. Pan, and H. J. Zhang, “Multicolor and bright white upconversion luminescence from rice-shaped lanthanide doped BiPO4 submicron particles,” Dalton Trans.42(34), 12101–12108 (2013).
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S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
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Z. Wang, J. Feng, M. Pang, S. H. Pan, and H. J. Zhang, “Multicolor and bright white upconversion luminescence from rice-shaped lanthanide doped BiPO4 submicron particles,” Dalton Trans.42(34), 12101–12108 (2013).
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S. F. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. C. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. H. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth‐doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue‐green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra‐broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
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G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 133103 (2007).
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V. Mahalingam, F. Mangiarini, F. Vetrone, V. Venkatramu, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Bright white upconversion emission from Tm3+/Yb3+/Er3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(46), 17745–17749 (2008).
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R. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Valiente, F. Rodríguez, F. Piccinelli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Temperature dependence and temporal dynamics of Mn2+ upconversion luminescence sensitized by Yb3+ in codoped LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B82(7), 075117 (2010).
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V. Mahalingam, F. Mangiarini, F. Vetrone, V. Venkatramu, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Bright white upconversion emission from Tm3+/Yb3+/Er3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(46), 17745–17749 (2008).
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V. Mahalingam, F. Mangiarini, F. Vetrone, V. Venkatramu, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Bright white upconversion emission from Tm3+/Yb3+/Er3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(46), 17745–17749 (2008).
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Y. Zhang, J. D. Lin, V. Vijayaragavan, K. K. Bhakoo, and T. T. Y. Tan, “Tuning sub-10 nm single-phase NaMnF3 nanocrystals as ultrasensitive hosts for pure intense fluorescence and excellent T1 magnetic resonance imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)48(83), 10322–10324 (2012).
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J. Wang, F. Wang, C. Wang, Z. Liu, X. G. Liu, and Angew, “Single‐band upconversion emission in lanthanide‐doped KMnF3 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50(44), 10369–10372 (2011).
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G. Y. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, “Bright white upconversion luminescence in rare-earth-ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 133103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, F. Wang, C. Wang, Z. Liu, X. G. Liu, and Angew, “Single‐band upconversion emission in lanthanide‐doped KMnF3 nanocrystals,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.50(44), 10369–10372 (2011).
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F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. W.

Wang, L. L.

J. Yang, C. M. Zhang, C. Peng, C. X. Li, L. L. Wang, R. T. Chai, and J. Lin, “Controllable Red, Green, Blue (RGB) and bright white upconversion luminescence of Lu2O3:Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals through single laser excitation at 980 nm,” Chem. Eur. J.15(18), 4649–4655 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. S.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, K. L. Zheng, T. L. Guo, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Bright upconversion white light emission in transparent glass ceramic embedding Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, J. Feng, M. Pang, S. H. Pan, and H. J. Zhang, “Multicolor and bright white upconversion luminescence from rice-shaped lanthanide doped BiPO4 submicron particles,” Dalton Trans.42(34), 12101–12108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Gerner, O. S. Wenger, R. Valiente, and H. U. Güdel, “Green and Red Light Emission by Upconversion from the near-IR in Yb3+ Doped CsMnBr3.,” Inorg. Chem.40(18), 4534–4542 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Valiente, O. S. Wenger, and H. U. Güdel, “Near-infrared-to-visible photon upconversion process induced by exchange interactions in Yb3+-doped RbMnCl3,” Phys. Rev. B63(16), 165102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

E. H. Song, S. Ding, M. Wu, S. Ye, F. Xiao, G. P. Dong, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Temperature-tunable upconversion luminescence of perovskite nanocrystals KZnF3:Yb3+,Mn2+,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(27), 4209–4215 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. N.

Z. N. Wu, M. Lin, S. Liang, Y. Liu, H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Hot-injection synthesis of manganese-ion-doped NaYF4: Yb,Er nanocrystals with red up-convertingemission and tunable Diameter,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact.30(4), 311–315 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, F.

R. Chen, V. D. Ta, F. Xiao, Q. Y. Zhang, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor hybrid upconversion nanoparticles and their improved performance as luminescence temperature sensors due to energy transfer,” Small9(7), 1052–1057 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Song, S. Ding, M. Wu, S. Ye, F. Xiao, G. P. Dong, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Temperature-tunable upconversion luminescence of perovskite nanocrystals KZnF3:Yb3+,Mn2+,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(27), 4209–4215 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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G. Tian, Z. J. Gu, L. J. Zhou, W. Y. Yin, X. X. Liu, L. Yan, S. Jin, W. L. Ren, G. M. Xing, S. J. Li, and Y. L. Zhao, “Mn2+ dopant-controlled synthesis of NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1226–1231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, L.

G. Tian, Z. J. Gu, L. J. Zhou, W. Y. Yin, X. X. Liu, L. Yan, S. Jin, W. L. Ren, G. M. Xing, S. J. Li, and Y. L. Zhao, “Mn2+ dopant-controlled synthesis of NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1226–1231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

Z. N. Wu, M. Lin, S. Liang, Y. Liu, H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Hot-injection synthesis of manganese-ion-doped NaYF4: Yb,Er nanocrystals with red up-convertingemission and tunable Diameter,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact.30(4), 311–315 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. C.

S. F. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. C. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. H. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth‐doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue‐green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra‐broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, C. M. Zhang, C. Peng, C. X. Li, L. L. Wang, R. T. Chai, and J. Lin, “Controllable Red, Green, Blue (RGB) and bright white upconversion luminescence of Lu2O3:Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals through single laser excitation at 980 nm,” Chem. Eur. J.15(18), 4649–4655 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L. W.

L. W. Yang, H. L. Han, Y. Y. Zhang, and J. X. Zhong, “White emission by frequency up-conversion in Yb3+-Ho3+-Tm3+ triply doped hexagonal NaYF4 nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(44), 18995–18999 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. P.

N. Niu, P. P. Yang, F. He, X. Zhang, S. L. Gai, C. X. Li, and J. Lin, “Tunable multicolor and bright white emission of one-dimensional NaLuF4:Yb3+,Ln3+ (Ln = Er, Tm, Ho, Er/Tm, Tm/Ho) microstructures,” J. Mater. Chem.22(21), 10889–10899 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ye, S.

E. H. Song, S. Ding, M. Wu, S. Ye, F. Xiao, G. P. Dong, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Temperature-tunable upconversion luminescence of perovskite nanocrystals KZnF3:Yb3+,Mn2+,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(27), 4209–4215 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Ye, Y. J. Li, D. C. Yu, G. P. Dong, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Room-temperature upconverted white light from GdMgB5O10:Yb3+,Mn2+,” J. Mater. Chem.21(11), 3735–3739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. C. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. H. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth‐doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue‐green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra‐broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yin, W. Y.

G. Tian, Z. J. Gu, L. J. Zhou, W. Y. Yin, X. X. Liu, L. Yan, S. Jin, W. L. Ren, G. M. Xing, S. J. Li, and Y. L. Zhao, “Mn2+ dopant-controlled synthesis of NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo imaging and drug delivery,” Adv. Mater.24(9), 1226–1231 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, D. C.

S. Ye, Y. J. Li, D. C. Yu, G. P. Dong, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Room-temperature upconverted white light from GdMgB5O10:Yb3+,Mn2+,” J. Mater. Chem.21(11), 3735–3739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. L.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, K. L. Zheng, T. L. Guo, Y. L. Yu, and P. Huang, “Bright upconversion white light emission in transparent glass ceramic embedding Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+:β-YF3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C. M.

J. Yang, C. M. Zhang, C. Peng, C. X. Li, L. L. Wang, R. T. Chai, and J. Lin, “Controllable Red, Green, Blue (RGB) and bright white upconversion luminescence of Lu2O3:Yb3+/Er3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals through single laser excitation at 980 nm,” Chem. Eur. J.15(18), 4649–4655 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

K. Z. Zheng, D. Zhao, D. Zhang, N. Liu, and W. P. Qin, “Temperature-dependent six-photon upconversion fluorescence of Er3+,” J. Fluor. Chem.132(1), 5–8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Z. N. Wu, M. Lin, S. Liang, Y. Liu, H. Zhang, and B. Yang, “Hot-injection synthesis of manganese-ion-doped NaYF4: Yb,Er nanocrystals with red up-convertingemission and tunable Diameter,” Part. Part. Syst. Charact.30(4), 311–315 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

Z. Wang, J. Feng, M. Pang, S. H. Pan, and H. J. Zhang, “Multicolor and bright white upconversion luminescence from rice-shaped lanthanide doped BiPO4 submicron particles,” Dalton Trans.42(34), 12101–12108 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q. Y.

R. Chen, V. D. Ta, F. Xiao, Q. Y. Zhang, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor hybrid upconversion nanoparticles and their improved performance as luminescence temperature sensors due to energy transfer,” Small9(7), 1052–1057 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Song, S. Ding, M. Wu, S. Ye, F. Xiao, G. P. Dong, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Temperature-tunable upconversion luminescence of perovskite nanocrystals KZnF3:Yb3+,Mn2+,” J. Mater. Chem. C1(27), 4209–4215 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Ye, Y. J. Li, D. C. Yu, G. P. Dong, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Room-temperature upconverted white light from GdMgB5O10:Yb3+,Mn2+,” J. Mater. Chem.21(11), 3735–3739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD pattern (a), TEM image (b), HR-TEM image (c) and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns (d) of KZnF3:1%Yb3+,0.1%Tm3+,1%Mn2+.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The UC emission spectra of KZnF3:1%Yb3+,2.5%Mn2+ (a), and KZnF3:1%Yb3+, 0.1%Tm3+ (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The UC emission spectra of KZnF3:1%Yb3+,x%Tm3+,2.5%Mn2+(x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5) (a), and KZnF3:1%Yb3+,0.1%Tm3+,y%Mn2+ (y = 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20) (b). UC emission intensity of KZnF3:1%Yb3+,0.1%Tm3+,y%Mn2+ as function of Mn2+ content (c) and CIE chromaticity coordinates (d) of KZnF3:1%Yb3+,x%Tm3+,y%Mn2+ (1-5: for x = 0.1, y = 0, 1, 5.0, 2.5 and 10, respectively; 6: for x = 0, y = 2.5).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pump-power dependence of UC emission spectra (a) and CIE chromaticity coordinates (b) of KZnF3:1%Yb3+,0.1%Tm3+,1%Mn2+.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Double-logarithmic plots of the pump-power dependent UC emission intensity of the KZnF3:1%Yb3+,0.1%Tm3+,1%Mn2+ sample.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Excitation spectrum of KZnF3:1%Yb3+,2.5%Mn2+ (monitored at 585 nm) and UC emission spectrum (excited by 976 nm LD) of KZnF3:1%Yb3+,0.1%Tm3+ (a), UC energy levels diagram of Yb3+/Tm3+/Mn2+ tri-doped KZnF3 (b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The UC emission spectra of KZnF3:1%Yb3+,0.1%Tm3+ (a) and KZnF3:1%Yb3+, 0.1%Tm3+,1%Mn2+ (c) at various temperatures, and UC emission intensity of the KZnF3:1%Yb3+,0.1%Tm3+ (b) and KZnF3:1%Yb3+,0.1%Tm3+,1%Mn2+ samples of as a function of temperature (d).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 CIE chromaticity coordinates for KZnF3:1%Yb3+,x%Tm3+,y%Mn2+ under 976 nm LD excitation.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I u p P n
1 G 4 ( Tm 3 + ) + | 2 F 7 / 2 , 6 A 1g ( S > ( Yb 3 + Mn 2 + dimer ) 3 H 6 ( Tm 3 + ) + | 2 F 7 / 2 , 4 T 1g ( G ) > ( Yb 3 + Mn 2 + dimer )            
| | 2 F 7 / 2 , 4 T 1g ( G ) > ( Yb 3 + Mn 2 + dimer ) +   3 H 6 ( Tm 3 + ) | 2 F 7 / 2 , 6 A 1g ( S ) > ( Yb 3 + Mn 2 + dimer ) + 3 F 2 , 3 ( Tm 3 + )            
W NR = W NR (0) (1+n) ΔE / w = W NR (0) [1+ 1 exp( w / k B T )1 ] ΔE / w

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