Abstract

Due to its excellent electronic and photonic properties, silicon is a good candidate for mid-infrared optoelectronic devices and systems that can be used in a host of applications. In this paper we review some of the results reported recently, and we also present several new results on mid-infrared photonic devices including Mach-Zehnder interferometers, multimode interference splitters and multiplexers based on silicon-on-insulator, polysilicon, suspended silicon, and slot waveguide platforms.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. Y.  Hu, R. M.  Jenkins, F. Y.  Gardes, E. D.  Finlayson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing based on waveguide mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4488–4490 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. W.  Bogaerts, S. K.  Selvaraja, P.  Dumon, J.  Brouckaert, K.  De Vos, D.  Van Thourhout, R.  Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, Y.  Hu, G.  Mashanovich, M.  Fournier, P.  Grosse, J.-M.  Fedeli, G. T.  Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M.  Nedeljkovic, R.  Soref, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14µm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. A.  Van Camp, S.  Assefa, D. M.  Gill, T.  Barwicz, S. M.  Shank, P. M.  Rice, T.  Topuria, W. M.  Green, “Demonstration of electrooptic modulation at 2165nm using a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28009–28016 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. Y.  Hu, F. Y.  Gardes, D. J.  Thomson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Coarse wavelength division (de)multiplexer using interleaved angled multimode interferometer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251116 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

R.  Shankar, I.  Bulu, M.  Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S.  Khan, J.  Chiles, S.  Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Hu, F. Y.  Gardes, D. J.  Thomson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Coarse wavelength division (de)multiplexer using interleaved angled multimode interferometer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M.  Muneeb, X.  Chen, P.  Verheyen, G.  Lepage, S.  Pathak, E.  Ryckeboer, A.  Malik, B.  Kuyken, M.  Nedeljkovic, J.  Van Campenhout, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G.  Roelkens, “Demonstration of silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

L.  Vivien, A.  Polzer, D.  Marris-Morini, J.  Osmond, J.-M.  Hartmann, P.  Crozat, E.  Cassan, C.  Kopp, H.  Zimmermann, J.-M.  Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.  Cheng, X.  Chen, C. Y.  Wong, K.  Xu, C. K.  Fung, Y. M.  Chen, H. K.  Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S.  Orcutt, B.  Moss, C.  Sun, J.  Leu, M.  Georgas, J.  Shainline, E.  Zgraggen, H.  Li, J.  Sun, M.  Weaver, S.  Urošević, M.  Popović, R. J.  Ram, V.  Stojanović, “Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12222–12232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A.  Van Camp, S.  Assefa, D. M.  Gill, T.  Barwicz, S. M.  Shank, P. M.  Rice, T.  Topuria, W. M.  Green, “Demonstration of electrooptic modulation at 2165nm using a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28009–28016 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.  Reimer, M.  Nedeljkovic, D. J. M.  Stothard, M. O. S.  Esnault, C.  Reardon, L.  O’Faolain, M.  Dunn, G. Z.  Mashanovich, T. F.  Krauss, “Mid-infrared photonic crystal waveguides in silicon,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29361–29368 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, T. M.  Ben Masaud, E.  Jaberansary, H. M. H.  Chong, N. G.  Emerson, G. T.  Reed, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Cheng, X.  Chen, C. Y.  Wong, K.  Xu, H. K.  Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Phot. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (7)

M.  Nedeljkovic, R.  Soref, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14µm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Z.  Mashanovich, M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, N.  Owens, B.  Xiong, E.-J.  Teo, Y.  Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, Y.  Hu, G.  Mashanovich, M.  Fournier, P.  Grosse, J.-M.  Fedeli, G. T.  Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.  Li, S. D.  Jackson, C.  Grillet, E.  Magi, D.  Hudson, S. J.  Madden, Y.  Moghe, C.  O’Brien, A.  Read, S. G.  Duvall, P.  Atanackovic, B. J.  Eggleton, D. J.  Moss, “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15212–15220 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.  Wei, G.  Li, Y.  Hao, Y.  Li, J.  Yang, M.  Wang, X.  Jiang, “Long-wave infrared 1 × 2 MMI based on air-gap beneath silicon rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(17), 15803–15809 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.  Shankar, I.  Bulu, R.  Leijssen, M.  Lončar, “Study of thermally-induced optical bistability and the role of surface treatments in Si-based mid-infrared photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24828–24837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.  Hu, R. M.  Jenkins, F. Y.  Gardes, E. D.  Finlayson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing based on waveguide mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4488–4490 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

T.  Baehr-Jones, A.  Spott, R.  Ilic, A.  Spott, B.  Penkov, W.  Asher, M.  Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J.  Thomson, Y.  Hu, G. T.  Reed, J.-M.  Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.  Bogaerts, S. K.  Selvaraja, P.  Dumon, J.  Brouckaert, K.  De Vos, D.  Van Thourhout, R.  Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G.  Roelkens, L.  Liu, D.  Liang, R.  Jones, A.  Fang, B.  Koch, J.  Bowers, “III-V/Silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnect,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R.  Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A.  Spott, Y.  Liu, T.  Baehr-Jones, R.  Ilic, M.  Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

F.  Dell’Olio, V. M.  Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4977–4993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, I.  Gomez-Morilla, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, E. J.  Teo, D. J.  Blackwood, M. B. H.  Breese, A. A.  Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. A.  Soref, S. J.  Emelett, W. R.  Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Asher, W.

Assefa, S.

Atanackovic, P.

Baehr-Jones, T.

T.  Baehr-Jones, A.  Spott, R.  Ilic, A.  Spott, B.  Penkov, W.  Asher, M.  Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Spott, Y.  Liu, T.  Baehr-Jones, R.  Ilic, M.  Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W.  Bogaerts, S. K.  Selvaraja, P.  Dumon, J.  Brouckaert, K.  De Vos, D.  Van Thourhout, R.  Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bagolini, A.

Barwicz, T.

Ben Masaud, T. M.

M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, T. M.  Ben Masaud, E.  Jaberansary, H. M. H.  Chong, N. G.  Emerson, G. T.  Reed, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

E. J.  Teo, A. A.  Bettiol, M. B. H.  Breese, P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, D. J.  Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, I.  Gomez-Morilla, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, E. J.  Teo, D. J.  Blackwood, M. B. H.  Breese, A. A.  Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blackwood, D. J.

E. J.  Teo, A. A.  Bettiol, M. B. H.  Breese, P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, D. J.  Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, I.  Gomez-Morilla, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, E. J.  Teo, D. J.  Blackwood, M. B. H.  Breese, A. A.  Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W.  Bogaerts, S. K.  Selvaraja, P.  Dumon, J.  Brouckaert, K.  De Vos, D.  Van Thourhout, R.  Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

G.  Roelkens, L.  Liu, D.  Liang, R.  Jones, A.  Fang, B.  Koch, J.  Bowers, “III-V/Silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnect,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Breese, M. B. H.

E. J.  Teo, A. A.  Bettiol, M. B. H.  Breese, P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, D. J.  Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, I.  Gomez-Morilla, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, E. J.  Teo, D. J.  Blackwood, M. B. H.  Breese, A. A.  Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

W.  Bogaerts, S. K.  Selvaraja, P.  Dumon, J.  Brouckaert, K.  De Vos, D.  Van Thourhout, R.  Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, W. R.

R. A.  Soref, S. J.  Emelett, W. R.  Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bulu, I.

Cassan, E.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y. M.

Cheng, Z.

Z.  Cheng, X.  Chen, C. Y.  Wong, K.  Xu, C. K.  Fung, Y. M.  Chen, H. K.  Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.  Cheng, X.  Chen, C. Y.  Wong, K.  Xu, H. K.  Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Phot. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chiles, J.

S.  Khan, J.  Chiles, S.  Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. M. H.

M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, T. M.  Ben Masaud, E.  Jaberansary, H. M. H.  Chong, N. G.  Emerson, G. T.  Reed, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Dai, D.

De Vos, K.

W.  Bogaerts, S. K.  Selvaraja, P.  Dumon, J.  Brouckaert, K.  De Vos, D.  Van Thourhout, R.  Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Olio, F.

Dumon, P.

W.  Bogaerts, S. K.  Selvaraja, P.  Dumon, J.  Brouckaert, K.  De Vos, D.  Van Thourhout, R.  Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, M.

Duvall, S. G.

Eggleton, B. J.

Emelett, S. J.

R. A.  Soref, S. J.  Emelett, W. R.  Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, N. G.

M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, T. M.  Ben Masaud, E.  Jaberansary, H. M. H.  Chong, N. G.  Emerson, G. T.  Reed, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Esnault, M. O. S.

Fang, A.

G.  Roelkens, L.  Liu, D.  Liang, R.  Jones, A.  Fang, B.  Koch, J.  Bowers, “III-V/Silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnect,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

S.  Khan, J.  Chiles, S.  Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, Y.  Hu, G.  Mashanovich, M.  Fournier, P.  Grosse, J.-M.  Fedeli, G. T.  Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J.  Thomson, Y.  Hu, G. T.  Reed, J.-M.  Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Finlayson, E. D.

Fournier, M.

Fung, C. K.

Gardes, F. Y.

Y.  Hu, F. Y.  Gardes, D. J.  Thomson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Coarse wavelength division (de)multiplexer using interleaved angled multimode interferometer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Hu, R. M.  Jenkins, F. Y.  Gardes, E. D.  Finlayson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing based on waveguide mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4488–4490 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, Y.  Hu, G.  Mashanovich, M.  Fournier, P.  Grosse, J.-M.  Fedeli, G. T.  Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgas, M.

Gill, D. M.

Gomez-Morilla, I.

P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, I.  Gomez-Morilla, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, E. J.  Teo, D. J.  Blackwood, M. B. H.  Breese, A. A.  Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M.

Grillet, C.

Grosse, P.

Hao, Y.

Hartmann, J.-M.

He, S.

Headley, W. R.

E. J.  Teo, A. A.  Bettiol, M. B. H.  Breese, P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, D. J.  Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, I.  Gomez-Morilla, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, E. J.  Teo, D. J.  Blackwood, M. B. H.  Breese, A. A.  Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

T.  Baehr-Jones, A.  Spott, R.  Ilic, A.  Spott, B.  Penkov, W.  Asher, M.  Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Spott, Y.  Liu, T.  Baehr-Jones, R.  Ilic, M.  Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y.  Hu, F. Y.  Gardes, D. J.  Thomson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Coarse wavelength division (de)multiplexer using interleaved angled multimode interferometer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Hu, R. M.  Jenkins, F. Y.  Gardes, E. D.  Finlayson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing based on waveguide mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4488–4490 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, Y.  Hu, G.  Mashanovich, M.  Fournier, P.  Grosse, J.-M.  Fedeli, G. T.  Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Z.  Mashanovich, M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, N.  Owens, B.  Xiong, E.-J.  Teo, Y.  Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J.  Thomson, Y.  Hu, G. T.  Reed, J.-M.  Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D.

Ilic, R.

T.  Baehr-Jones, A.  Spott, R.  Ilic, A.  Spott, B.  Penkov, W.  Asher, M.  Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Spott, Y.  Liu, T.  Baehr-Jones, R.  Ilic, M.  Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jaberansary, E.

M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, T. M.  Ben Masaud, E.  Jaberansary, H. M. H.  Chong, N. G.  Emerson, G. T.  Reed, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Jenkins, R. M.

Jiang, X.

Jones, R.

G.  Roelkens, L.  Liu, D.  Liang, R.  Jones, A.  Fang, B.  Koch, J.  Bowers, “III-V/Silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnect,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khan, S.

S.  Khan, J.  Chiles, S.  Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B.

G.  Roelkens, L.  Liu, D.  Liang, R.  Jones, A.  Fang, B.  Koch, J.  Bowers, “III-V/Silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnect,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, C.

Krauss, T. F.

Kuo, B. P.-P.

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuyken, B.

Leijssen, R.

Lepage, G.

Leu, J.

Li, F.

Li, G.

Li, H.

Li, Y.

Liang, D.

G.  Roelkens, L.  Liu, D.  Liang, R.  Jones, A.  Fang, B.  Koch, J.  Bowers, “III-V/Silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnect,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

G.  Roelkens, L.  Liu, D.  Liang, R.  Jones, A.  Fang, B.  Koch, J.  Bowers, “III-V/Silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnect,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

A.  Spott, Y.  Liu, T.  Baehr-Jones, R.  Ilic, M.  Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

Madden, S. J.

Magi, E.

Malik, A.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

Y.  Hu, F. Y.  Gardes, D. J.  Thomson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Coarse wavelength division (de)multiplexer using interleaved angled multimode interferometer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M.  Muneeb, X.  Chen, P.  Verheyen, G.  Lepage, S.  Pathak, E.  Ryckeboer, A.  Malik, B.  Kuyken, M.  Nedeljkovic, J.  Van Campenhout, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G.  Roelkens, “Demonstration of silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, T. M.  Ben Masaud, E.  Jaberansary, H. M. H.  Chong, N. G.  Emerson, G. T.  Reed, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.  Reimer, M.  Nedeljkovic, D. J. M.  Stothard, M. O. S.  Esnault, C.  Reardon, L.  O’Faolain, M.  Dunn, G. Z.  Mashanovich, T. F.  Krauss, “Mid-infrared photonic crystal waveguides in silicon,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29361–29368 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.  Hu, R. M.  Jenkins, F. Y.  Gardes, E. D.  Finlayson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing based on waveguide mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4488–4490 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Z.  Mashanovich, M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, N.  Owens, B.  Xiong, E.-J.  Teo, Y.  Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Nedeljkovic, R.  Soref, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14µm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M.  Milošević, P. S.  Matavulj, P. Y.  Yang, A.  Bagolini, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Rib waveguides for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), 1760–1766 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J.  Teo, A. A.  Bettiol, M. B. H.  Breese, P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, D. J.  Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, I.  Gomez-Morilla, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, E. J.  Teo, D. J.  Blackwood, M. B. H.  Breese, A. A.  Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matavulj, P. S.

Miloševic, M.

Miloševic, M. M.

M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, T. M.  Ben Masaud, E.  Jaberansary, H. M. H.  Chong, N. G.  Emerson, G. T.  Reed, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Z.  Mashanovich, M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, N.  Owens, B.  Xiong, E.-J.  Teo, Y.  Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moghe, Y.

Moss, B.

Moss, D. J.

Muneeb, M.

Myslivets, E.

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nedeljkovic, M.

O’Brien, C.

O’Faolain, L.

Orcutt, J. S.

Osmond, J.

Owens, N.

Passaro, V. M.

Pathak, S.

Penkov, B.

Polzer, A.

Popovic, M.

Radic, S.

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

Read, A.

Reardon, C.

Reed, G. T.

Y.  Hu, F. Y.  Gardes, D. J.  Thomson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Coarse wavelength division (de)multiplexer using interleaved angled multimode interferometer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, T. M.  Ben Masaud, E.  Jaberansary, H. M. H.  Chong, N. G.  Emerson, G. T.  Reed, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Hu, R. M.  Jenkins, F. Y.  Gardes, E. D.  Finlayson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Wavelength division (de)multiplexing based on waveguide mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4488–4490 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, Y.  Hu, G.  Mashanovich, M.  Fournier, P.  Grosse, J.-M.  Fedeli, G. T.  Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J.  Thomson, Y.  Hu, G. T.  Reed, J.-M.  Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. J.  Teo, A. A.  Bettiol, M. B. H.  Breese, P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, D. J.  Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, I.  Gomez-Morilla, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, E. J.  Teo, D. J.  Blackwood, M. B. H.  Breese, A. A.  Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
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Reimer, C.

Rice, P. M.

Roelkens, G.

Ryckeboer, E.

Selvaraja, S. K.

W.  Bogaerts, S. K.  Selvaraja, P.  Dumon, J.  Brouckaert, K.  De Vos, D.  Van Thourhout, R.  Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shainline, J.

Shank, S. M.

Shankar, R.

Soref, R.

M.  Nedeljkovic, R.  Soref, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14µm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R.  Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A.  Soref, S. J.  Emelett, W. R.  Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spott, A.

Stojanovic, V.

Stothard, D. J. M.

Sun, C.

Sun, J.

Tang, Y.

Teo, E. J.

E. J.  Teo, A. A.  Bettiol, M. B. H.  Breese, P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, D. J.  Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, I.  Gomez-Morilla, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, E. J.  Teo, D. J.  Blackwood, M. B. H.  Breese, A. A.  Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teo, E.-J.

Thomson, D. J.

Y.  Hu, F. Y.  Gardes, D. J.  Thomson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Coarse wavelength division (de)multiplexer using interleaved angled multimode interferometer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, Y.  Hu, G.  Mashanovich, M.  Fournier, P.  Grosse, J.-M.  Fedeli, G. T.  Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J.  Thomson, Y.  Hu, G. T.  Reed, J.-M.  Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Topuria, T.

Tsang, H. K.

Z.  Cheng, X.  Chen, C. Y.  Wong, K.  Xu, H. K.  Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Phot. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Cheng, X.  Chen, C. Y.  Wong, K.  Xu, C. K.  Fung, Y. M.  Chen, H. K.  Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uroševic, S.

Van Camp, M. A.

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

W.  Bogaerts, S. K.  Selvaraja, P.  Dumon, J.  Brouckaert, K.  De Vos, D.  Van Thourhout, R.  Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

Vivien, L.

Wang, M.

Wang, Z.

Weaver, M.

Wei, Y.

Wong, C. Y.

Z.  Cheng, X.  Chen, C. Y.  Wong, K.  Xu, C. K.  Fung, Y. M.  Chen, H. K.  Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.  Cheng, X.  Chen, C. Y.  Wong, K.  Xu, H. K.  Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Phot. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

Xiong, B.

Xu, K.

Z.  Cheng, X.  Chen, C. Y.  Wong, K.  Xu, H. K.  Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Phot. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Cheng, X.  Chen, C. Y.  Wong, K.  Xu, C. K.  Fung, Y. M.  Chen, H. K.  Tsang, “Focusing subwavelength grating coupler for mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1217–1219 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Yang, P. Y.

Zgraggen, E.

Zhu, N.

Zimmermann, H.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A.  Spott, Y.  Liu, T.  Baehr-Jones, R.  Ilic, M.  Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R.  Shankar, I.  Bulu, M.  Lončar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Y.  Yang, G. Z.  Mashanovich, I.  Gomez-Morilla, W. R.  Headley, G. T.  Reed, E. J.  Teo, D. J.  Blackwood, M. B. H.  Breese, A. A.  Bettiol, “Free standing waveguides in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.  Khan, J.  Chiles, S.  Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, T. M.  Ben Masaud, E.  Jaberansary, H. M. H.  Chong, N. G.  Emerson, G. T.  Reed, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Hu, F. Y.  Gardes, D. J.  Thomson, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “Coarse wavelength division (de)multiplexer using interleaved angled multimode interferometer structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251116 (2013).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

W.  Bogaerts, S. K.  Selvaraja, P.  Dumon, J.  Brouckaert, K.  De Vos, D.  Van Thourhout, R.  Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator spectral filters fabricated with CMOS technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 16(1), 33–44 (2010).
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IEEE Phot. J. (1)

Z.  Cheng, X.  Chen, C. Y.  Wong, K.  Xu, H. K.  Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Phot. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, J.-M.  Fedeli, S.  Zlatanovic, Y.  Hu, B. P.-P.  Kuo, E.  Myslivets, N.  Alic, S.  Radic, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G. T.  Reed, “50 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J.  Thomson, Y.  Hu, G. T.  Reed, J.-M.  Fedeli, “Low loss MMI couplers for high performance MZI modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(20), 1485–1487 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

M.  Nedeljkovic, R.  Soref, G. Z.  Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electrorefraction and electroabsorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14µm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
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R. A.  Soref, S. J.  Emelett, W. R.  Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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R.  Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
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T.  Baehr-Jones, A.  Spott, R.  Ilic, A.  Spott, B.  Penkov, W.  Asher, M.  Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
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G. Z.  Mashanovich, M. M.  Milošević, M.  Nedeljkovic, N.  Owens, B.  Xiong, E.-J.  Teo, Y.  Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
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D. J.  Thomson, F. Y.  Gardes, Y.  Hu, G.  Mashanovich, M.  Fournier, P.  Grosse, J.-M.  Fedeli, G. T.  Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
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F.  Li, S. D.  Jackson, C.  Grillet, E.  Magi, D.  Hudson, S. J.  Madden, Y.  Moghe, C.  O’Brien, A.  Read, S. G.  Duvall, P.  Atanackovic, B. J.  Eggleton, D. J.  Moss, “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15212–15220 (2011).
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J. S.  Orcutt, B.  Moss, C.  Sun, J.  Leu, M.  Georgas, J.  Shainline, E.  Zgraggen, H.  Li, J.  Sun, M.  Weaver, S.  Urošević, M.  Popović, R. J.  Ram, V.  Stojanović, “Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12222–12232 (2012).
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M.  Muneeb, X.  Chen, P.  Verheyen, G.  Lepage, S.  Pathak, E.  Ryckeboer, A.  Malik, B.  Kuyken, M.  Nedeljkovic, J.  Van Campenhout, G. Z.  Mashanovich, G.  Roelkens, “Demonstration of silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8μm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 11659–11669 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (4)

M. M. Milošević, D. J. Thomson, X. Chen, D. Cox, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides for the 3-4 μm wavelength range,” in Proceedings of the 8th IEEE Conference on Group IV Photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2011), pp. 208–210.
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cut back propagation loss measurement for 400nm × 1350nm rib SOI waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of a rib-slot waveguide interface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of a poly Si-on-SOI waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated effective index and propagation loss for 500 nm thick suspended rib waveguides with 150 nm etch depth, 5 µm width, and 3µm BOX.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM image of a fabricated 1 × 2 MIR SOI MMI with tapered input and output ports.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Insertion loss measurement for 400 nm thick SOI MIR MMIs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cross sectional dimension of the slot waveguide.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Response of a Mach-Zehnder asymmetric interferometer based on slot waveguides.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of an AMMI.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental response of a 3-channel MIR angled MMI.

Equations (1)

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L i = 4 n eff,AMMI × W AMMI 2 λ i .

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