Abstract

Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals were prepared by a facile solvothermal method. By adjusting the LiOH concentration, LiYF4 crystals with the size range from 16 nm to 2.0 μm were synthesized. Under the excitation by a 976 nm laser, upconversion quantum efficiency of the LiYF4: Er3+/Yb3+ samples were measured. It was observed that upconversion quantum efficiency tended to decrease with the reduction of particle size from microscale to nanoscale. A model was proposed to clarify the surface quenching mechanism influencing the size-dependent upconversion luminescence.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Zhou, Z. Liu, and F. Li, “Upconversion nanophosphors for small-animal imaging,” Chem. Soc. Rev.41(3), 1323–1349 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. B. Shan, H. Assaaoudi, and G. P. Demopoulos, “Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by utilization of an external, bifunctional layer consisting of uniform β-NaYF₄:Er³⁺/Yb³⁺ nanoplatelets,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces3(9), 3239–3243 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Xie and S. C. Rand, “Visible cooperative upconversion laser in Er:LiYF(4).,” Opt. Lett.17(17), 1198–1200 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Ghosh and A. Patra, “Tuning of crystal phase and luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped sodium yttrium fluoride nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(9), 3223–3231 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Shan, M. Uddi, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “Anomalous Raman scattering of colloidal Yb3+,Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanophosphors and dynamic probing of the upconversion luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3530–3537 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Schietinger, L. de S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. F. Lim, W. S. Ryu, and R. H. Austin, “Particle size dependence of the dynamic photophysical properties of NaYF4:Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Opt. Express18(3), 2309–2316 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. C. Boyer and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles,” Nanoscale2(8), 1417–1419 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Synthesis of NaYF4 nanocrystals with predictable phase and shape,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2757–2765 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Wei, F. Lu, X. Zhang, and D. Chen, “Synthesis of oil-dispersible hexagonal-phase and hexagonal-shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoplates,” Chem. Mater.18(24), 5733–5737 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Q. Zhang and B. Yan, “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of LiREF4 (RE = Y, Tb-Lu) nanocrystals and their core-shell nanostructures,” Inorg. Chem.49(15), 6834–6839 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, and G. F. Imbusch, “The relationship between quantum efficiency and average lifetime of Cr3+ ions in glass,” J. Lumin.58(1-6), 294–297 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphoton orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev.174(2), 429–438 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Zhou, Z. Liu, and F. Li, “Upconversion nanophosphors for small-animal imaging,” Chem. Soc. Rev.41(3), 1323–1349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

G. B. Shan, H. Assaaoudi, and G. P. Demopoulos, “Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by utilization of an external, bifunctional layer consisting of uniform β-NaYF₄:Er³⁺/Yb³⁺ nanoplatelets,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces3(9), 3239–3243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (8)

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Boyer and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles,” Nanoscale2(8), 1417–1419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang and B. Yan, “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of LiREF4 (RE = Y, Tb-Lu) nanocrystals and their core-shell nanostructures,” Inorg. Chem.49(15), 6834–6839 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “Anomalous Raman scattering of colloidal Yb3+,Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanophosphors and dynamic probing of the upconversion luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3530–3537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Lim, W. S. Ryu, and R. H. Austin, “Particle size dependence of the dynamic photophysical properties of NaYF4:Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Opt. Express18(3), 2309–2316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Schietinger, L. de S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Ghosh and A. Patra, “Tuning of crystal phase and luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped sodium yttrium fluoride nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(9), 3223–3231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Synthesis of NaYF4 nanocrystals with predictable phase and shape,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2757–2765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Wei, F. Lu, X. Zhang, and D. Chen, “Synthesis of oil-dispersible hexagonal-phase and hexagonal-shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoplates,” Chem. Mater.18(24), 5733–5737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, and G. F. Imbusch, “The relationship between quantum efficiency and average lifetime of Cr3+ ions in glass,” J. Lumin.58(1-6), 294–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1968 (1)

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphoton orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev.174(2), 429–438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ågren, H.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assaaoudi, H.

G. B. Shan, H. Assaaoudi, and G. P. Demopoulos, “Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by utilization of an external, bifunctional layer consisting of uniform β-NaYF₄:Er³⁺/Yb³⁺ nanoplatelets,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces3(9), 3239–3243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, R. H.

Baik, S.-I.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, and G. F. Imbusch, “The relationship between quantum efficiency and average lifetime of Cr3+ ions in glass,” J. Lumin.58(1-6), 294–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

S. Schietinger, L. de S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, J. C.

J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Boyer and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles,” Nanoscale2(8), 1417–1419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capobianco, J. A.

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Y. Wei, F. Lu, X. Zhang, and D. Chen, “Synthesis of oil-dispersible hexagonal-phase and hexagonal-shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoplates,” Chem. Mater.18(24), 5733–5737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. H.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, J. M.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, K. R.

J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Demopoulos, G. P.

G. B. Shan, H. Assaaoudi, and G. P. Demopoulos, “Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by utilization of an external, bifunctional layer consisting of uniform β-NaYF₄:Er³⁺/Yb³⁺ nanoplatelets,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces3(9), 3239–3243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, Z.

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feng, W.

W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernández, J.

J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, and G. F. Imbusch, “The relationship between quantum efficiency and average lifetime of Cr3+ ions in glass,” J. Lumin.58(1-6), 294–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, P.

P. Ghosh and A. Patra, “Tuning of crystal phase and luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped sodium yttrium fluoride nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(9), 3223–3231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goldys, E. M.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, K.

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, M.

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hyeon, T.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Illarramendi, M. A.

J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, and G. F. Imbusch, “The relationship between quantum efficiency and average lifetime of Cr3+ ions in glass,” J. Lumin.58(1-6), 294–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Imbusch, G. F.

J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, and G. F. Imbusch, “The relationship between quantum efficiency and average lifetime of Cr3+ ions in glass,” J. Lumin.58(1-6), 294–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, K.-S.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jin, D.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ju, Y.

J. Shan, M. Uddi, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “Anomalous Raman scattering of colloidal Yb3+,Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanophosphors and dynamic probing of the upconversion luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3530–3537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kachynski, A.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawai, H.

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. M.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. W.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kong, X.

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lauritzen, B.

S. Schietinger, L. de S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. T.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, N.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

J. Zhou, Z. Liu, and F. Li, “Upconversion nanophosphors for small-animal imaging,” Chem. Soc. Rev.41(3), 1323–1349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Synthesis of NaYF4 nanocrystals with predictable phase and shape,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2757–2765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Synthesis of NaYF4 nanocrystals with predictable phase and shape,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2757–2765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. S.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, S. F.

Lin, S.

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

J. Zhou, Z. Liu, and F. Li, “Upconversion nanophosphors for small-animal imaging,” Chem. Soc. Rev.41(3), 1323–1349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, F.

Y. Wei, F. Lu, X. Zhang, and D. Chen, “Synthesis of oil-dispersible hexagonal-phase and hexagonal-shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoplates,” Chem. Mater.18(24), 5733–5737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahalingam, V.

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McRae, C.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menezes, L. de S.

S. Schietinger, L. de S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizuno, S.

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moon, W. K.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moos, H. W.

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphoton orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev.174(2), 429–438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Na, H. B.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naccache, R.

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, H.

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ohulchanskyy, T. Y.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B.-J.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. P.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. I. I.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patra, A.

P. Ghosh and A. Patra, “Tuning of crystal phase and luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped sodium yttrium fluoride nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(9), 3223–3231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Q.

X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Synthesis of NaYF4 nanocrystals with predictable phase and shape,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2757–2765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pichaandi, J.

J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, W.

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rand, S. C.

Riseberg, L. A.

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphoton orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev.174(2), 429–438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, W. S.

Schietinger, S.

S. Schietinger, L. de S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shan, G. B.

G. B. Shan, H. Assaaoudi, and G. P. Demopoulos, “Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by utilization of an external, bifunctional layer consisting of uniform β-NaYF₄:Er³⁺/Yb³⁺ nanoplatelets,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces3(9), 3239–3243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shan, J.

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “Anomalous Raman scattering of colloidal Yb3+,Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanophosphors and dynamic probing of the upconversion luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3530–3537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, I. C.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suh, Y. D.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L. D.

W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tian, L.

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, R. N.

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Uddi, M.

J. Shan, M. Uddi, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “Anomalous Raman scattering of colloidal Yb3+,Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanophosphors and dynamic probing of the upconversion luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3530–3537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Boyer and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles,” Nanoscale2(8), 1417–1419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetrone, F.

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Synthesis of NaYF4 nanocrystals with predictable phase and shape,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2757–2765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, R.

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Y.

Y. Wei, F. Lu, X. Zhang, and D. Chen, “Synthesis of oil-dispersible hexagonal-phase and hexagonal-shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoplates,” Chem. Mater.18(24), 5733–5737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, P.

Xu, J.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, X.

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, B.

Q. Zhang and B. Yan, “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of LiREF4 (RE = Y, Tb-Lu) nanocrystals and their core-shell nanostructures,” Inorg. Chem.49(15), 6834–6839 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, C. H.

W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, N.

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “Anomalous Raman scattering of colloidal Yb3+,Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanophosphors and dynamic probing of the upconversion luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3530–3537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yasutake, O.

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z.

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, S.-Y.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. H.

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang and B. Yan, “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of LiREF4 (RE = Y, Tb-Lu) nanocrystals and their core-shell nanostructures,” Inorg. Chem.49(15), 6834–6839 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Wei, F. Lu, X. Zhang, and D. Chen, “Synthesis of oil-dispersible hexagonal-phase and hexagonal-shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoplates,” Chem. Mater.18(24), 5733–5737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. W.

W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, B.

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, Z. Liu, and F. Li, “Upconversion nanophosphors for small-animal imaging,” Chem. Soc. Rev.41(3), 1323–1349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, J.

X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Synthesis of NaYF4 nanocrystals with predictable phase and shape,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2757–2765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

G. B. Shan, H. Assaaoudi, and G. P. Demopoulos, “Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by utilization of an external, bifunctional layer consisting of uniform β-NaYF₄:Er³⁺/Yb³⁺ nanoplatelets,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces3(9), 3239–3243 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

J. Shan, M. Uddi, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “Anomalous Raman scattering of colloidal Yb3+,Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanophosphors and dynamic probing of the upconversion luminescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(20), 3530–3537 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liang, X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Synthesis of NaYF4 nanocrystals with predictable phase and shape,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(15), 2757–2765 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. I. I. Park, J. H. Kim, K. T. Lee, K.-S. Jeon, H. B. Na, J. H. Yu, H. M. Kim, N. Lee, S. H. Choi, S.-I. Baik, H. Kim, S. P. Park, B.-J. Park, Y. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, S.-Y. Yoon, I. C. Song, W. K. Moon, Y. D. Suh, and T. Hyeon, “Nonblinking and nonbleaching upconverting nanoparticles as an optical imaging nanoprobe and T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent,” Adv. Mater.21(44), 4467–4471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Mahalingam, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Speghini, and J. A. Capobianco, “Colloidal Tm3+/Yb3+-doped LiYF4 nanocrystals: multiple luminescence spanning the UV to NIR regions via low-energy excitation,” Adv. Mater.21(40), 4025–4028 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

F. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Liu, “Direct evidence of a surface quenching effect on size-dependent luminescence of upconversion nanoparticles,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(41), 7456–7460 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Chim. (1)

J. Wang, F. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Chen, H. Chen, and X. Liu, “Lanthanide-doped LiYF4 nanoparticles: synthesis and multicolor upconversion tuning,” C. R. Chim.13(6-7), 731–736 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

Y. Wei, F. Lu, X. Zhang, and D. Chen, “Synthesis of oil-dispersible hexagonal-phase and hexagonal-shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoplates,” Chem. Mater.18(24), 5733–5737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

J. Zhou, Z. Liu, and F. Li, “Upconversion nanophosphors for small-animal imaging,” Chem. Soc. Rev.41(3), 1323–1349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemistry (1)

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, size, and phase-controlled rare-Earth fluoride nanocrystals with optical up-conversion properties,” Chemistry15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

CrystEngComm (1)

X. Xue, L. Wang, L. Huang, D. Zhao, and W. Qin, “Effect of alkali ions on the formation of rare earth fluoride by hydrothermal synthesis: structure tuning and size controlling,” CrystEngComm15(15), 2897–2903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

Q. Zhang and B. Yan, “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of LiREF4 (RE = Y, Tb-Lu) nanocrystals and their core-shell nanostructures,” Inorg. Chem.49(15), 6834–6839 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lumin. (1)

J. Fernández, R. Balda, M. A. Illarramendi, and G. F. Imbusch, “The relationship between quantum efficiency and average lifetime of Cr3+ ions in glass,” J. Lumin.58(1-6), 294–297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (5)

H. He, Z. Ye, S. Lin, B. Zhao, J. Huang, and H. Tang, “Negative thermal quenching behavior and long luminescence lifetime of surface-state related green emission in ZnO nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(37), 14262–14265 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xue, Z. Duan, T. Suzuki, R. N. Tiwari, M. Yoshimura, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence properties of α-NaYF4:Nd3+ nanocrystals dispersed in liquid: local field effect investigation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(42), 22545–22551 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Ghosh and A. Patra, “Tuning of crystal phase and luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped sodium yttrium fluoride nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(9), 3223–3231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, M. Uddi, R. Wei, N. Yao, and Y. Ju, “The hidden effects of particle shape and criteria for evaluating the upconversion luminescence of the lanthanide doped nanophosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(6), 2452–2461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Pichaandi, J. C. Boyer, K. R. Delaney, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Two-photon upconversion laser (scanning and wide-field) microscopy using Ln3+-doped NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals: a critical evaluation of their performance and potential in bioimaging,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(39), 19054–19064 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. Schietinger, L. de S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (2)

J. Zhao, Z. Lu, Y. Yin, C. McRae, J. A. Piper, J. M. Dawes, D. Jin, and E. M. Goldys, “Upconversion luminescence with tunable lifetime in NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals: role of nanocrystal size,” Nanoscale5(3), 944–952 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Boyer and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles,” Nanoscale2(8), 1417–1419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

Y. Sun, Y. Chen, L. Tian, Y. Yu, X. Kong, J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4: Yb, Er nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology18(27), 275609 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Chen, C. Zhang, M. Hong, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis,” Nature437(7055), 121–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

T. Suzuki, H. Kawai, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, O. Yasutake, S. Mizuno, H. Ito, and K. Hasegawa, “Quantum efficiency of Nd3+-doped glasses under sunlight excitation,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1952–1957 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, “Multiphoton orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals,” Phys. Rev.174(2), 429–438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

W. Feng, L. D. Sun, Y. W. Zhang, and C. H. Yan, “Solid-to-hollow single-particle manipulation of a self-assembled luminescent NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer by electron-beam lithography,” Small5(18), 2057–2060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) XRD patterns of LiYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ crystals prepared with 25, 20, 15, and 10 mmol LiOH. (b) TEM and (c) HR-TEM images of LiYF4: Er3+/Yb3+ NCs prepared with 25 mmol LiOH. (d) The schematic graph for shape and size. (e) TEM and (f-g) SEM of LiYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ crystals prepared with 20, 15, and 10 mmol LiOH, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FTIR spectra of LiYF4: Er3+/Yb3+ with the size of (a) 16 nm, sample L1, (b) 27 nm, sample L2, (c) 220 nm, sample L3, and (d) 1.5 μm, sample L4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Emission spectra of LiYF4: Er3+/Yb3+ samples with 16, 27, 220 nm, and 1.5μm (L1-L4), respectively, under the 976 nm LD excitation of 300mW. (b) Dependence of B/G and R/G integrated intensity ratio on the average particle size. (c) Schematic energy level diagram of Er3+ and Yb3+ and possible upconversion emission processes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of absolute quantum efficiency (QE) of the total emissions and that of UC visible emissions (UC QE) on the average particle size. Inserts are the photography of LiYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ crystals under a 976 nm LD pumping.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The decay curves of (a) 408 nm, (b) 550 nm, and (c) 650 nm of LiYF4: 1%Er3+/20%Yb3+ samples with different size under the excitation of 976 nm LD.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The relation between the Surf/Vol ratio and the reciprocal of measured lifetime for the UC emissions of 408, 550, and 650 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental conditions and the grain size of the corresponding products synthesized at 180 °C for 12h

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

QE= I ems (λ)C(λ)dλ I reference (λ)C(λ)dλ I sample (λ)C(λ)dλ
1 τ m = 1 τ R + W NR
1 τ m = 1 τ R + W in + W surf + W ligand
W surf =VM w surf (Surf/Vol)
W ligand =VN w ligand (Surf/Vol)
1 τ m = 1 τ R + W in +V(M w surf +N w ligand )(Surf/Vol)
I/ I 0 = A 1 exp(t/ τ 1 )+ A 2 exp(t/ τ 2 )+ A 3 exp(t/ τ 3 )
W NR = (1+n) p
n= [exp( hω kT )1] 1
p= ΔE hω
( W NR ) 408 > ( W NR ) 650 > ( W NR ) 550

Metrics