Abstract

The interaction of focused 800 nm femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at low (1–45 kHz) and moderate (50–250 kHz) repetition rates with fluoride (ZBLAN-type) bulk glass is investigated in detail. It is shown that at repetition rates lower than ~50 kHz and low pulse energies, the refractive index change induced by pulse filamentation is mainly negative at the irradiated zone. At repetition rates above 50 kHz, structures are formed as a result of the fs laser pulse induced heat accumulation and subsequent melting of the glass. The refractive index profile of the structures produced in this regime is influenced by the laser writing conditions (repetition rate, pulse energy and translation speed). It is shown that waveguides with large circular cross sections and smooth positive index changes can be formed through a precise control of glass exposure. Those waveguides can exhibit low propagation losses (~0.4–2 dB/cm) and are thus good candidates for the development of mid-IR integrated photonic devices. Both absorbed energy and repetition rate thresholds for heat accumulation are determined experimentally.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett.26(2), 93–95 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Monolithic 100 mW Yb waveguide laser fabricated using the femtosecond-laser direct-write technique,” Opt. Lett.34(3), 247–249 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.26(1), 42–43 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser direct writing of multiwavelength Bragg grating waveguides in glass,” Opt. Lett.31(23), 3495–3497 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. Hayden, and D. Krol, “Waveguide formation in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Preparation and optical properties of fluoride glass waveguides induced by laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256-257, 212–219 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett.29(7), 748–750 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 277–285 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Bendow, I. D. Aggarwal, and G. Lu, Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1991), p. 85.
  14. D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Bernier, D. Faucher, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, G. Androz, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, “Bragg gratings photoinduced in ZBLAN fibers by femtosecond pulses at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(5), 454–456 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, G. W. Baxter, N. M. Dragomir, and S. T. Huntington, “Refractive-index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry by use of quantitative phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett.27(23), 2061–2063 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Kalal and K. A. Nugent, “Abel inversion using fast Fourier transforms,” Appl. Opt.27(10), 1956–1959 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, M. Bernier, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Self and forced periodic arrangement of multiple filaments in glass,” Opt. Express18(3), 1801–1819 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, Infrared Fiber Optics (CRC Press, 1998).
  20. S. H. Messaddeq, J. P. Bérubé, M. Bernier, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, and Y. Messaddeq, “Study of the photosensibility of GeS binary glasses to 800nm femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express20(3), 2824–2831 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W. J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express16(13), 9443–9458 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(3), 351–354 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Shah, A. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, “Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express13(6), 1999–2006 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, “Low-loss Type II waveguide writing in fused silica with single picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express14(11), 4826–4834 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W. J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express16(13), 9443–9458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

L. Shah, A. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, “Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express13(6), 1999–2006 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. Hayden, and D. Krol, “Waveguide formation in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

1999 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Preparation and optical properties of fluoride glass waveguides induced by laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256-257, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1988 (1)

Ampem-Lassen, E.

Ams, M.

Androz, G.

Arai, A.

Audouard, E.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

Baxter, G. W.

Bernier, M.

Bérubé, J. P.

Bérubé, J.-P.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Brodeur, A.

Bulgakova, N. M.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burakov, I. M.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

J. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. Hayden, and D. Krol, “Waveguide formation in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. J.

Chin, S. L.

Chiodo, N.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

De Silvestri, S.

Dekker, P.

Della Valle, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dragomir, N. M.

Eaton, S.

Eaton, S. M.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Faucher, D.

Freeman, M. J.

Fuerbach, A.

Garcia, J. F.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

García, J. F.

Gross, S.

Hayden, J.

J. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. Hayden, and D. Krol, “Waveguide formation in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P.

Herman, P. R.

Hertel, I. V.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Preparation and optical properties of fluoride glass waveguides induced by laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256-257, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S.

Hô, N.

Huntington, S. T.

Husakou, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huser, T.

J. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. Hayden, and D. Krol, “Waveguide formation in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

Kalal, M.

Kandidov, V.

Killi, A.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kluge, M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O.

Krol, D.

J. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. Hayden, and D. Krol, “Waveguide formation in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, K.

Kulkarni, O. P.

Kumar, M.

Lancaster, D. G.

Laporta, P.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lopez, C.

Marangoni, M.

Marshall, G. D.

Mazé, G.

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett.26(2), 93–95 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meshcheryakov, Yu. P.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, S. H.

Messaddeq, Y.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Preparation and optical properties of fluoride glass waveguides induced by laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256-257, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Preparation and optical properties of fluoride glass waveguides induced by laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256-257, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monro, T. M.

Morgner, U.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M. L.

Nugent, K. A.

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Panov, N.

Polli, D.

Poulain, M.

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Preparation and optical properties of fluoride glass waveguides induced by laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256-257, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Risbud, S.

J. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. Hayden, and D. Krol, “Waveguide formation in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

Roberts, A.

Rosenfeld, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saliminia, A.

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett.26(2), 93–95 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreder, B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

Shah, L.

Sheng, Y.

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Skripachev, I.

Stoian, R.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Svelto, O.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Terry, F. L.

Vallée, R.

Withford, M. J.

Xia, C.

Zhang, H.

Zimmer, J.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. Hayden, and D. Krol, “Waveguide formation in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.97(8), 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Preparation and optical properties of fluoride glass waveguides induced by laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids256-257, 212–219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (10)

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Mazé, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Lett.31(17), 2553–2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bernier, D. Faucher, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, G. Androz, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, “Bragg gratings photoinduced in ZBLAN fibers by femtosecond pulses at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett.32(5), 454–456 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roberts, E. Ampem-Lassen, A. Barty, K. A. Nugent, G. W. Baxter, N. M. Dragomir, and S. T. Huntington, “Refractive-index profiling of optical fibers with axial symmetry by use of quantitative phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett.27(23), 2061–2063 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, J. Li, and P. R. Herman, “Femtosecond laser direct writing of multiwavelength Bragg grating waveguides in glass,” Opt. Lett.31(23), 3495–3497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett.29(7), 748–750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett.26(2), 93–95 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Monolithic 100 mW Yb waveguide laser fabricated using the femtosecond-laser direct-write technique,” Opt. Lett.34(3), 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.26(1), 42–43 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B77(10), 104205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

B. Bendow, I. D. Aggarwal, and G. Lu, Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1991), p. 85.

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, Infrared Fiber Optics (CRC Press, 1998).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microscope phase contrast images of single-pulse-induced structures obtained with different pulse energies. a) cross sections, b) side views (beam propagation direction is from right to left).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index profile of a single-pulse-induced structure inscribed with a pulse energy of 0.5 μJ. a) Brightfield image, b) corresponding phase image c) refractive index profile measured along the transverse x and y directions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase contrast microscope image of the cross sections of index-modified structures for different pulse energies and repetition rates at N = 104 pulses in the static regime.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diameter of the refractive index modified structures for 104 shots at different repetition rates as a function of the pulse energy. The horizontal black line represents the beam spot diameter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Incident pulse energy threshold (left axis) and the corresponding fluence threshold (right axis) for heat accumulation (red circle) and index modification (yellow square) as a function of the laser repetition rate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated temperature at r = 2.3 μm as a function of the number of pulses for repetition rates of a) 10 and 100 kHz, b) 50 kHz. The dashed line represents the ZBLAN glass transition temperature (Tg~265°C). Physical constants used in the calculation: cp = 0.596 J/g K, ρ = 4.35 g/cm3 and α = 2.4 x 10−3 cm2/s are the specific heat capacity, density and thermal diffusivity of ZBLAN, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Microscope phase contrast images of the cross section and side view of tracks inscribed with a repetition rate of 10 kHz, a translation speed of 0.5 mm/s and pulse energy of 0.5 μJ and b) the radial refractive index profile measured along the blue line.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical microscope images (cross section and side view) of the waveguides written with different translation speeds, pulse energies and repetition rates.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diameter of the refractive index modified outer region for different incident pulse energies as a function of a) repetition rate at a translation speed of 50 μm/s b) translation speed at a repetition rate of 250 kHz.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

a) Refractive index change profiles for different fluences. The dashed vertical lines delimit three different irradiation regimes. b) Radial refractive index profiles of representative tracks inscribed at different laser fluences.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

a) Near field intensity profile of guided 633 nm light, b) phase contrast images of side view and cross sections and c) the refractive index profile of an optimized waveguide written under heat accumulation regime, at a repetition rate of 175 kHz, a moderate energy (1μJ) and a low translation speed (0.1 mm/s).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 mol% Compositions of the Fluoride Components of the Glass Samples Used in the Experiment

Metrics