Abstract

The formation and evolution of metallic-silver nanoparticles capped with silver oxide, in the surface of Ag-doped waveguides produced by ion-exchange, were characterized. The samples were exposed to air atmosphere for periods lasting until 35 days and their aging process was investigated by optical and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements. The results evidence migration of the Ag+ cations from inside the glass to the surface at room temperature, followed by aggregation of the silver nanoparticles (NPs) and oxidation, creating a nanometric-thick layer over the waveguide surface. This layer was employed for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal and for the fabrication of holographic diffraction gratings (HDG), which are presented as application examples of this material as a new plasmonic template.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Tervonen and S. Honkanen, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguide technology: a review,” Opt. Eng.50, 1–15 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Gangopadhyay, P. Magudapathy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, K. G. M. Nair, and P. V. Satyam, “Growth of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda glass matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.388(4-6), 416–421 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Y. Chen, D. Liang, G. Ma, G. S. Frankel, H. C. Allen, and R. G. Kelly, “Influence of UV irradiation and ozone on atmospheric corrosion of bare silver,” Corros. Eng., Sci. Tech.45(2), 169–180 (2010).
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  17. G. J. Lee, Y. P. Lee, S. G. Jung, C. K. Hwangbo, S. S. Kim, H. Cheong, and C. S. Yoon, “Photo-structuring of silver-oxide films by using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.53(3), 1414–1418 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Lawless, S. Kapoor, P. Kennepohl, D. Meisel, and N. Serpone, “Reduction and aggregation of silver ions at the surface of colloidal silica,” J. Phys. Chem.98(38), 9619–9625 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. F. Al-Kuhaili, “Characterization of thin films produced by the thermal evaporation of silver oxide,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(9), 2847–2853 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. J. Varkey and A. F. Fort, “Some optical properties of silver peroxide (AgO) and silver oxide (Ag2O) films produced by chemical-bath deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells29(3), 253–259 (1993).
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  21. R. H. Muller, “Definitions and conventions in ellipsometry,” Surf. Sci.16, 14–33 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Towards a more accurate refractive index profile of ion-exchanged waveguides,” Thin Solid Films460(1-2), 206–210 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. X. Y. Gao, S. Y. Wang, J. Li, Y. X. Zheng, R. J. Zhang, P. Zhou, Y. M. Yang, and L. Y. Chen, “Study of structure and optical properties of silver oxide films by ellipsometry, XRD and XPS methods,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 438–442 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. A. García, M. García-Heras, E. Cano, J. M. Bastidas, M. A. Villegas, E. Montero, J. Llopis, C. Sada, G. De Marchi, G. Battaglin, and P. Mazzoldi, “Photoluminescence of silver in glassy matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(7), 3737–3740 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. Simo, V. Joseph, R. Fenger, J. Kneipp, and K. Rademann, “Long-term stable silver subsurface ion-exchanged glasses for SERS applications,” ChemPhysChem12(9), 1683–1688 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. L. A. Peyser, A. E. Vinson, A. P. Bartko, and R. M. Dickson, “Photoactivated fluorescence from individual silver nanoclusters,” Science291(5501), 103–106 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Y. Chen, L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, C. Ye, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Ag nanoparticles embedded in glass by two-step ion exchange and their SERS application,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 164–172 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Tervonen and S. Honkanen, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguide technology: a review,” Opt. Eng.50, 1–15 (2011).

A. Simo, V. Joseph, R. Fenger, J. Kneipp, and K. Rademann, “Long-term stable silver subsurface ion-exchanged glasses for SERS applications,” ChemPhysChem12(9), 1683–1688 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

O. Véron, J. P. Blondeau, N. Abdelkrim, and E. Ntsoenzok, “Luminescence study of silver nanoparticles obtained by annealed ionic exchange silicate glasses,” Plasmonics5(2), 213–219 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Chen, D. Liang, G. Ma, G. S. Frankel, H. C. Allen, and R. G. Kelly, “Influence of UV irradiation and ozone on atmospheric corrosion of bare silver,” Corros. Eng., Sci. Tech.45(2), 169–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. P. H. Blondeau, O. Veron, F. Catan, O. Kaitasov, N. Sbai, and C. Andreazza-Vignolle, “Clustering of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda lime glasses using ionic exchange and helium ion bombardment,” Plasmonics4(4), 245–252 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. J. Lee, Y. P. Lee, S. G. Jung, C. K. Hwangbo, S. S. Kim, H. Cheong, and C. S. Yoon, “Photo-structuring of silver-oxide films by using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.53(3), 1414–1418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, “Characterization of thin films produced by the thermal evaporation of silver oxide,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(9), 2847–2853 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Towards a more accurate refractive index profile of ion-exchanged waveguides,” Thin Solid Films460(1-2), 206–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Gao, S. Y. Wang, J. Li, Y. X. Zheng, R. J. Zhang, P. Zhou, Y. M. Yang, and L. Y. Chen, “Study of structure and optical properties of silver oxide films by ellipsometry, XRD and XPS methods,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 438–442 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. García, M. García-Heras, E. Cano, J. M. Bastidas, M. A. Villegas, E. Montero, J. Llopis, C. Sada, G. De Marchi, G. Battaglin, and P. Mazzoldi, “Photoluminescence of silver in glassy matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(7), 3737–3740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Gangopadhyay, P. Magudapathy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, K. G. M. Nair, and P. V. Satyam, “Growth of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda glass matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.388(4-6), 416–421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Pelli, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, R. Calzolai, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, A. Speghini, L. Zampedri, J. Zheng, and G. C. Righini, “Erbium doped silicate glasses for integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346, 372–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

G. C. Righini and S. Pelli, “Ion exchange in glass: a mature technology for photonic devices,” Proc. SPIE4453, 93–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Peyser, A. E. Vinson, A. P. Bartko, and R. M. Dickson, “Photoactivated fluorescence from individual silver nanoclusters,” Science291(5501), 103–106 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Broquin, “Ion exchanged integrated devices,” Proc. SPIE4277, 105–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. R. Lavers, K. Itoh, S. C. Wu, M. Murabayashi, I. Mauchline, G. Stewart, and T. Stout, “Planar optical waveguides for sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.69(1-2), 85–95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. Borsella, G. De Marchi, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, G. Battaglin, A. Quaranta, and A. Miotello, “Silver cluster formation in ion-exchanged waveguides: processing technique and phenomenological model,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids253(1-3), 261–267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Libardi and H. P. Grieneisen, “Guided-mode resonance absorption in partly oxidized thin silver films,” Thin Solid Films333(1-2), 82–87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. Lawless, S. Kapoor, P. Kennepohl, D. Meisel, and N. Serpone, “Reduction and aggregation of silver ions at the surface of colloidal silica,” J. Phys. Chem.98(38), 9619–9625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. J. Varkey and A. F. Fort, “Some optical properties of silver peroxide (AgO) and silver oxide (Ag2O) films produced by chemical-bath deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells29(3), 253–259 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(6), 984–1000 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. Kötz and E. Yeager, “Raman studies of the silver/ silver oxide electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem.111(1), 105–110 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

T. Izawa and H. Nakagome, “Optical waveguide formed by electrically induced migration of ions in glass plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.21(12), 584–586 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. H. Muller, “Definitions and conventions in ellipsometry,” Surf. Sci.16, 14–33 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abdelkrim, N.

O. Véron, J. P. Blondeau, N. Abdelkrim, and E. Ntsoenzok, “Luminescence study of silver nanoparticles obtained by annealed ionic exchange silicate glasses,” Plasmonics5(2), 213–219 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Al-Kuhaili, M. F.

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, “Characterization of thin films produced by the thermal evaporation of silver oxide,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.40(9), 2847–2853 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Allen, H. C.

Z. Y. Chen, D. Liang, G. Ma, G. S. Frankel, H. C. Allen, and R. G. Kelly, “Influence of UV irradiation and ozone on atmospheric corrosion of bare silver,” Corros. Eng., Sci. Tech.45(2), 169–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andreazza-Vignolle, C.

J. P. H. Blondeau, O. Veron, F. Catan, O. Kaitasov, N. Sbai, and C. Andreazza-Vignolle, “Clustering of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda lime glasses using ionic exchange and helium ion bombardment,” Plasmonics4(4), 245–252 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, R. A.

Bartko, A. P.

L. A. Peyser, A. E. Vinson, A. P. Bartko, and R. M. Dickson, “Photoactivated fluorescence from individual silver nanoclusters,” Science291(5501), 103–106 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastidas, J. M.

M. A. García, M. García-Heras, E. Cano, J. M. Bastidas, M. A. Villegas, E. Montero, J. Llopis, C. Sada, G. De Marchi, G. Battaglin, and P. Mazzoldi, “Photoluminescence of silver in glassy matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(7), 3737–3740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Battaglin, G.

M. A. García, M. García-Heras, E. Cano, J. M. Bastidas, M. A. Villegas, E. Montero, J. Llopis, C. Sada, G. De Marchi, G. Battaglin, and P. Mazzoldi, “Photoluminescence of silver in glassy matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(7), 3737–3740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Borsella, G. De Marchi, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, G. Battaglin, A. Quaranta, and A. Miotello, “Silver cluster formation in ion-exchanged waveguides: processing technique and phenomenological model,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids253(1-3), 261–267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

S. Pelli, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, R. Calzolai, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, A. Speghini, L. Zampedri, J. Zheng, and G. C. Righini, “Erbium doped silicate glasses for integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346, 372–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blondeau, J. P.

O. Véron, J. P. Blondeau, N. Abdelkrim, and E. Ntsoenzok, “Luminescence study of silver nanoparticles obtained by annealed ionic exchange silicate glasses,” Plasmonics5(2), 213–219 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blondeau, J. P. H.

J. P. H. Blondeau, O. Veron, F. Catan, O. Kaitasov, N. Sbai, and C. Andreazza-Vignolle, “Clustering of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda lime glasses using ionic exchange and helium ion bombardment,” Plasmonics4(4), 245–252 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Borsella, E.

E. Borsella, G. De Marchi, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, G. Battaglin, A. Quaranta, and A. Miotello, “Silver cluster formation in ion-exchanged waveguides: processing technique and phenomenological model,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids253(1-3), 261–267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brenci, M.

S. Pelli, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, R. Calzolai, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, A. Speghini, L. Zampedri, J. Zheng, and G. C. Righini, “Erbium doped silicate glasses for integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346, 372–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Broquin, J. E.

J. E. Broquin, “Ion exchanged integrated devices,” Proc. SPIE4277, 105–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Caccavale, F.

E. Borsella, G. De Marchi, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, G. Battaglin, A. Quaranta, and A. Miotello, “Silver cluster formation in ion-exchanged waveguides: processing technique and phenomenological model,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids253(1-3), 261–267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Calzolai, R.

S. Pelli, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, R. Calzolai, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, A. Speghini, L. Zampedri, J. Zheng, and G. C. Righini, “Erbium doped silicate glasses for integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346, 372–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cano, E.

M. A. García, M. García-Heras, E. Cano, J. M. Bastidas, M. A. Villegas, E. Montero, J. Llopis, C. Sada, G. De Marchi, G. Battaglin, and P. Mazzoldi, “Photoluminescence of silver in glassy matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(7), 3737–3740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Catan, F.

J. P. H. Blondeau, O. Veron, F. Catan, O. Kaitasov, N. Sbai, and C. Andreazza-Vignolle, “Clustering of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda lime glasses using ionic exchange and helium ion bombardment,” Plasmonics4(4), 245–252 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. H.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. Y.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. J.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. Y.

X. Y. Gao, S. Y. Wang, J. Li, Y. X. Zheng, R. J. Zhang, P. Zhou, Y. M. Yang, and L. Y. Chen, “Study of structure and optical properties of silver oxide films by ellipsometry, XRD and XPS methods,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 438–442 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Chen, D. Liang, G. Ma, G. S. Frankel, H. C. Allen, and R. G. Kelly, “Influence of UV irradiation and ozone on atmospheric corrosion of bare silver,” Corros. Eng., Sci. Tech.45(2), 169–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, H.

G. J. Lee, Y. P. Lee, S. G. Jung, C. K. Hwangbo, S. S. Kim, H. Cheong, and C. S. Yoon, “Photo-structuring of silver-oxide films by using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.53(3), 1414–1418 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiasera, A.

S. Pelli, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, R. Calzolai, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, A. Speghini, L. Zampedri, J. Zheng, and G. C. Righini, “Erbium doped silicate glasses for integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346, 372–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dabidian, N.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Marchi, G.

M. A. García, M. García-Heras, E. Cano, J. M. Bastidas, M. A. Villegas, E. Montero, J. Llopis, C. Sada, G. De Marchi, G. Battaglin, and P. Mazzoldi, “Photoluminescence of silver in glassy matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(7), 3737–3740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Borsella, G. De Marchi, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, G. Battaglin, A. Quaranta, and A. Miotello, “Silver cluster formation in ion-exchanged waveguides: processing technique and phenomenological model,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids253(1-3), 261–267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dickson, R. M.

L. A. Peyser, A. E. Vinson, A. P. Bartko, and R. M. Dickson, “Photoactivated fluorescence from individual silver nanoclusters,” Science291(5501), 103–106 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fenger, R.

A. Simo, V. Joseph, R. Fenger, J. Kneipp, and K. Rademann, “Long-term stable silver subsurface ion-exchanged glasses for SERS applications,” ChemPhysChem12(9), 1683–1688 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, M.

S. Pelli, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, R. Calzolai, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, A. Speghini, L. Zampedri, J. Zheng, and G. C. Righini, “Erbium doped silicate glasses for integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346, 372–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fort, A. F.

A. J. Varkey and A. F. Fort, “Some optical properties of silver peroxide (AgO) and silver oxide (Ag2O) films produced by chemical-bath deposition,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells29(3), 253–259 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, G. S.

Z. Y. Chen, D. Liang, G. Ma, G. S. Frankel, H. C. Allen, and R. G. Kelly, “Influence of UV irradiation and ozone on atmospheric corrosion of bare silver,” Corros. Eng., Sci. Tech.45(2), 169–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, P.

P. Gangopadhyay, P. Magudapathy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, K. G. M. Nair, and P. V. Satyam, “Growth of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda glass matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.388(4-6), 416–421 (2004).
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X. Y. Gao, S. Y. Wang, J. Li, Y. X. Zheng, R. J. Zhang, P. Zhou, Y. M. Yang, and L. Y. Chen, “Study of structure and optical properties of silver oxide films by ellipsometry, XRD and XPS methods,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 438–442 (2004).
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Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
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F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Towards a more accurate refractive index profile of ion-exchanged waveguides,” Thin Solid Films460(1-2), 206–210 (2004).
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G. J. Lee, Y. P. Lee, S. G. Jung, C. K. Hwangbo, S. S. Kim, H. Cheong, and C. S. Yoon, “Photo-structuring of silver-oxide films by using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.53(3), 1414–1418 (2008).
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C. R. Lavers, K. Itoh, S. C. Wu, M. Murabayashi, I. Mauchline, G. Stewart, and T. Stout, “Planar optical waveguides for sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.69(1-2), 85–95 (2000).
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T. Izawa and H. Nakagome, “Optical waveguide formed by electrically induced migration of ions in glass plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.21(12), 584–586 (1972).
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A. Simo, V. Joseph, R. Fenger, J. Kneipp, and K. Rademann, “Long-term stable silver subsurface ion-exchanged glasses for SERS applications,” ChemPhysChem12(9), 1683–1688 (2011).
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G. J. Lee, Y. P. Lee, S. G. Jung, C. K. Hwangbo, S. S. Kim, H. Cheong, and C. S. Yoon, “Photo-structuring of silver-oxide films by using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.53(3), 1414–1418 (2008).
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J. P. H. Blondeau, O. Veron, F. Catan, O. Kaitasov, N. Sbai, and C. Andreazza-Vignolle, “Clustering of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda lime glasses using ionic exchange and helium ion bombardment,” Plasmonics4(4), 245–252 (2009).
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Kelly, R. G.

Z. Y. Chen, D. Liang, G. Ma, G. S. Frankel, H. C. Allen, and R. G. Kelly, “Influence of UV irradiation and ozone on atmospheric corrosion of bare silver,” Corros. Eng., Sci. Tech.45(2), 169–180 (2010).
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P. Gangopadhyay, P. Magudapathy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, K. G. M. Nair, and P. V. Satyam, “Growth of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda glass matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.388(4-6), 416–421 (2004).
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Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
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G. J. Lee, Y. P. Lee, S. G. Jung, C. K. Hwangbo, S. S. Kim, H. Cheong, and C. S. Yoon, “Photo-structuring of silver-oxide films by using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.53(3), 1414–1418 (2008).
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A. Simo, V. Joseph, R. Fenger, J. Kneipp, and K. Rademann, “Long-term stable silver subsurface ion-exchanged glasses for SERS applications,” ChemPhysChem12(9), 1683–1688 (2011).
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K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
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C. R. Lavers, K. Itoh, S. C. Wu, M. Murabayashi, I. Mauchline, G. Stewart, and T. Stout, “Planar optical waveguides for sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.69(1-2), 85–95 (2000).
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D. Lawless, S. Kapoor, P. Kennepohl, D. Meisel, and N. Serpone, “Reduction and aggregation of silver ions at the surface of colloidal silica,” J. Phys. Chem.98(38), 9619–9625 (1994).
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G. J. Lee, Y. P. Lee, S. G. Jung, C. K. Hwangbo, S. S. Kim, H. Cheong, and C. S. Yoon, “Photo-structuring of silver-oxide films by using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.53(3), 1414–1418 (2008).
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G. J. Lee, Y. P. Lee, S. G. Jung, C. K. Hwangbo, S. S. Kim, H. Cheong, and C. S. Yoon, “Photo-structuring of silver-oxide films by using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.53(3), 1414–1418 (2008).
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Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
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X. Y. Gao, S. Y. Wang, J. Li, Y. X. Zheng, R. J. Zhang, P. Zhou, Y. M. Yang, and L. Y. Chen, “Study of structure and optical properties of silver oxide films by ellipsometry, XRD and XPS methods,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 438–442 (2004).
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Z. Y. Chen, D. Liang, G. Ma, G. S. Frankel, H. C. Allen, and R. G. Kelly, “Influence of UV irradiation and ozone on atmospheric corrosion of bare silver,” Corros. Eng., Sci. Tech.45(2), 169–180 (2010).
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H. Libardi and H. P. Grieneisen, “Guided-mode resonance absorption in partly oxidized thin silver films,” Thin Solid Films333(1-2), 82–87 (1998).
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M. A. García, M. García-Heras, E. Cano, J. M. Bastidas, M. A. Villegas, E. Montero, J. Llopis, C. Sada, G. De Marchi, G. Battaglin, and P. Mazzoldi, “Photoluminescence of silver in glassy matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(7), 3737–3740 (2004).
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Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
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Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
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Z. Y. Chen, D. Liang, G. Ma, G. S. Frankel, H. C. Allen, and R. G. Kelly, “Influence of UV irradiation and ozone on atmospheric corrosion of bare silver,” Corros. Eng., Sci. Tech.45(2), 169–180 (2010).
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P. Gangopadhyay, P. Magudapathy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, K. G. M. Nair, and P. V. Satyam, “Growth of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda glass matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.388(4-6), 416–421 (2004).
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E. Borsella, G. De Marchi, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, G. Battaglin, A. Quaranta, and A. Miotello, “Silver cluster formation in ion-exchanged waveguides: processing technique and phenomenological model,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids253(1-3), 261–267 (1999).
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C. R. Lavers, K. Itoh, S. C. Wu, M. Murabayashi, I. Mauchline, G. Stewart, and T. Stout, “Planar optical waveguides for sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.69(1-2), 85–95 (2000).
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M. A. García, M. García-Heras, E. Cano, J. M. Bastidas, M. A. Villegas, E. Montero, J. Llopis, C. Sada, G. De Marchi, G. Battaglin, and P. Mazzoldi, “Photoluminescence of silver in glassy matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(7), 3737–3740 (2004).
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E. Borsella, G. De Marchi, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, G. Battaglin, A. Quaranta, and A. Miotello, “Silver cluster formation in ion-exchanged waveguides: processing technique and phenomenological model,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids253(1-3), 261–267 (1999).
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D. Lawless, S. Kapoor, P. Kennepohl, D. Meisel, and N. Serpone, “Reduction and aggregation of silver ions at the surface of colloidal silica,” J. Phys. Chem.98(38), 9619–9625 (1994).
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E. Borsella, G. De Marchi, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, G. Battaglin, A. Quaranta, and A. Miotello, “Silver cluster formation in ion-exchanged waveguides: processing technique and phenomenological model,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids253(1-3), 261–267 (1999).
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M. A. García, M. García-Heras, E. Cano, J. M. Bastidas, M. A. Villegas, E. Montero, J. Llopis, C. Sada, G. De Marchi, G. Battaglin, and P. Mazzoldi, “Photoluminescence of silver in glassy matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(7), 3737–3740 (2004).
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C. R. Lavers, K. Itoh, S. C. Wu, M. Murabayashi, I. Mauchline, G. Stewart, and T. Stout, “Planar optical waveguides for sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.69(1-2), 85–95 (2000).
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Nair, K. G. M.

P. Gangopadhyay, P. Magudapathy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, K. G. M. Nair, and P. V. Satyam, “Growth of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda glass matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.388(4-6), 416–421 (2004).
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T. Izawa and H. Nakagome, “Optical waveguide formed by electrically induced migration of ions in glass plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.21(12), 584–586 (1972).
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S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
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O. Véron, J. P. Blondeau, N. Abdelkrim, and E. Ntsoenzok, “Luminescence study of silver nanoparticles obtained by annealed ionic exchange silicate glasses,” Plasmonics5(2), 213–219 (2010).
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S. Pelli, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, R. Calzolai, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, A. Speghini, L. Zampedri, J. Zheng, and G. C. Righini, “Erbium doped silicate glasses for integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346, 372–376 (2004).
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P. Gangopadhyay, P. Magudapathy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, K. G. M. Nair, and P. V. Satyam, “Growth of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda glass matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.388(4-6), 416–421 (2004).
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S. Pelli, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, R. Calzolai, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, A. Speghini, L. Zampedri, J. Zheng, and G. C. Righini, “Erbium doped silicate glasses for integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346, 372–376 (2004).
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F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Towards a more accurate refractive index profile of ion-exchanged waveguides,” Thin Solid Films460(1-2), 206–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righini and S. Pelli, “Ion exchange in glass: a mature technology for photonic devices,” Proc. SPIE4453, 93–99 (2001).
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F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Towards a more accurate refractive index profile of ion-exchanged waveguides,” Thin Solid Films460(1-2), 206–210 (2004).
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K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
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L. A. Peyser, A. E. Vinson, A. P. Bartko, and R. M. Dickson, “Photoactivated fluorescence from individual silver nanoclusters,” Science291(5501), 103–106 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Borsella, G. De Marchi, F. Caccavale, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, G. Battaglin, A. Quaranta, and A. Miotello, “Silver cluster formation in ion-exchanged waveguides: processing technique and phenomenological model,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids253(1-3), 261–267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rademann, K.

A. Simo, V. Joseph, R. Fenger, J. Kneipp, and K. Rademann, “Long-term stable silver subsurface ion-exchanged glasses for SERS applications,” ChemPhysChem12(9), 1683–1688 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(6), 984–1000 (1988).
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Righini, G. C.

S. Pelli, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, R. Calzolai, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, A. Speghini, L. Zampedri, J. Zheng, and G. C. Righini, “Erbium doped silicate glasses for integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346, 372–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz, M. B. Pereira, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Towards a more accurate refractive index profile of ion-exchanged waveguides,” Thin Solid Films460(1-2), 206–210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Righini and S. Pelli, “Ion exchange in glass: a mature technology for photonic devices,” Proc. SPIE4453, 93–99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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M. A. García, M. García-Heras, E. Cano, J. M. Bastidas, M. A. Villegas, E. Montero, J. Llopis, C. Sada, G. De Marchi, G. Battaglin, and P. Mazzoldi, “Photoluminescence of silver in glassy matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(7), 3737–3740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Gangopadhyay, P. Magudapathy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, K. G. M. Nair, and P. V. Satyam, “Growth of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda glass matrix,” Chem. Phys. Lett.388(4-6), 416–421 (2004).
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Säynätjoki, A.

Sbai, N.

J. P. H. Blondeau, O. Veron, F. Catan, O. Kaitasov, N. Sbai, and C. Andreazza-Vignolle, “Clustering of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda lime glasses using ionic exchange and helium ion bombardment,” Plasmonics4(4), 245–252 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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D. Lawless, S. Kapoor, P. Kennepohl, D. Meisel, and N. Serpone, “Reduction and aggregation of silver ions at the surface of colloidal silica,” J. Phys. Chem.98(38), 9619–9625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
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Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Simo, V. Joseph, R. Fenger, J. Kneipp, and K. Rademann, “Long-term stable silver subsurface ion-exchanged glasses for SERS applications,” ChemPhysChem12(9), 1683–1688 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Pelli, M. Bettinelli, M. Brenci, R. Calzolai, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, A. Speghini, L. Zampedri, J. Zheng, and G. C. Righini, “Erbium doped silicate glasses for integrated optical amplifiers and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids345-346, 372–376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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R. V. Ramaswamy and R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(6), 984–1000 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, G.

C. R. Lavers, K. Itoh, S. C. Wu, M. Murabayashi, I. Mauchline, G. Stewart, and T. Stout, “Planar optical waveguides for sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.69(1-2), 85–95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stout, T.

C. R. Lavers, K. Itoh, S. C. Wu, M. Murabayashi, I. Mauchline, G. Stewart, and T. Stout, “Planar optical waveguides for sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.69(1-2), 85–95 (2000).
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J. P. H. Blondeau, O. Veron, F. Catan, O. Kaitasov, N. Sbai, and C. Andreazza-Vignolle, “Clustering of silver nanoclusters embedded in soda lime glasses using ionic exchange and helium ion bombardment,” Plasmonics4(4), 245–252 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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O. Véron, J. P. Blondeau, N. Abdelkrim, and E. Ntsoenzok, “Luminescence study of silver nanoparticles obtained by annealed ionic exchange silicate glasses,” Plasmonics5(2), 213–219 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. A. García, M. García-Heras, E. Cano, J. M. Bastidas, M. A. Villegas, E. Montero, J. Llopis, C. Sada, G. De Marchi, G. Battaglin, and P. Mazzoldi, “Photoluminescence of silver in glassy matrices,” J. Appl. Phys.96(7), 3737–3740 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vinson, A. E.

L. A. Peyser, A. E. Vinson, A. P. Bartko, and R. M. Dickson, “Photoactivated fluorescence from individual silver nanoclusters,” Science291(5501), 103–106 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. Y.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. Y.

X. Y. Gao, S. Y. Wang, J. Li, Y. X. Zheng, R. J. Zhang, P. Zhou, Y. M. Yang, and L. Y. Chen, “Study of structure and optical properties of silver oxide films by ellipsometry, XRD and XPS methods,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 438–442 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Picture of the samples after 35 days of aging and, in comparison, a region cleaned by a soft scrub with distilled water. Also are shown the ΔAbs spectra (bare glass discounted) from Samples 05 (b), 30 (c) 120 (d) for the following cases: waveguide as exchanged (labeled “new”), aged and after it has been cleaned (labeled “clean”).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion curves: (a) from soda-lime glass, Ag-doped waveguide surface as exchanged and cleaned after 35 days of aging (sample 120); (b) from the layer formed over waveguide surface (10, 20 and 35 days of aging).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM images of the Sample 120 (2.0 µm x 2.0 µm): (a) waveguide as exchanged, (b) 35 days of aging and (c) cleaned.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SERS signal collected from Raman measurements of Rh6G for bare glass (black line) compared to sample 120 after 35 days of aging (blue line) and after to be heated at 80 °C for 20 min. (red line) (spectra are presented with identical scales, however they are shifted for a better comparison).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup used to fabricate the holographic diffraction gratings: a NdYAG laser beam passing through a Fresnel bi-prism creating an interference pattern with period of 57µm over the sample surface. As result, a HDG is produced in the layer surface as can be seen in the picture obtained from a Microscope (magnification of 50x). Three Nd:YAG laser pulses of 2.2 mJ were used to heat the sample and transform the silver oxide into metallic silver (clear regions in the picture).

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