Abstract

Transition metal ions such as Mn2+, Fe2+, or Co2+ provide an interesting alternative to rare earth dopants in optically active glasses. In terms of their magneto-optical properties, they are not yet very well exploited. Here, we report on the effect of Mn2+ on Faraday rotation in a metaphosphate glass matrix along the join MnxSr1-x(PO3)2 with x = 0...1. Mn2+ shows small optical extinction in the visible spectral range and, compared to other transition metal ions, a high effective magnetic moment. At high Mn- levels, however, the magneto-optical activity of Mn2+ is strongly quenched due to ionic clustering. The magnetic properties of the heavily Mn2+-loaded phosphate matrix are dominated by a superexchange interaction in the Mn2+-O-Mn2+ bridge with antiparallel spin alignment between Mn2+ and O2- species. The apparent paramagnetic potential of Mn2+ species can therefore not be exploited at room temperature.

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    [CrossRef]
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  29. H. Akamatsu, K. Tanaka, K. Fujita, and S. Murai, “Spin dynamics in oxide glass of Fe2O3–Bi2O3–B2O3 system,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.310(2), 1506–1507 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]

2011

M. A. Schmidt, L. Wondraczek, H. W. Lee, N. Granzow, N. Da, and P. St. J. Russell, “Complex Faraday rotation in microstructured magnetooptical fiber waveguides,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2681–2688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Möncke, E. I. Kamitsos, A. Herrmann, D. Ehrt, and M. Friedrich, “Bonding and ion–ion interactions of Mn2+ ions in fluoride-phosphate and boro-silicate glasses probed by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Dual-mode photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped Li,Zn-aluminosilicate glass ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B52(2), 59–63 (2011).

2010

N. Da, M. Peng, S. Krolikowski, and L. Wondraczek, “Intense red photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped (Na+; Zn2+) sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics as LED converters,” Opt. Express18(3), 2549–2557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Konidakis, C. Varsamis, E. I. Kamitsos, D. Möncke, and D. Ehrt, “Structure and properties of mixed strontium-manganese metaphosphate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(19), 9125–9138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. Akamatsu, S. Oku, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magnetic properties of mixed-valence iron phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B80(13), 134408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Lau, T. Klimczuk, F. Ronning, T. M. McQueen, and R. J. Cava, “Magnetic properties of the garnet and glass forms of Mn3Al2Si3O12,” Phys. Rev. B80(21), 214414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Akamatsu, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magneto-optical properties of transparent divalent iron phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Bingham and R. J. Hand, “Sulphate incorporation and glass formation in phosphate systems for nuclear and toxic waste immobilization,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(7), 1679–1693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Akamatsu, K. Tanaka, K. Fujita, and S. Murai, “Spin dynamics in oxide glass of Fe2O3–Bi2O3–B2O3 system,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.310(2), 1506–1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Zotov, H. Schlenz, B. Brendebach, H. Modrow, J. Hormes, F. Reinauer, R. Glaum, A. Kirfel, and C. Paulmann, “Effects of MnO-doping on the structure of sodium metaphosphate glasses,” Z. Naturforsch.58a, 419–428 (2003).

2000

R. K. Brow, “Review: the structure of simple phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263–264, 1–28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Qiu and K. Hirao, “The Faraday effect in diamagnetic glasses,” J. Magn. Reson.13(05), 1358–1362 (1998).

1984

R. Reisfeld, A. Kisilev, and C. K. Jørgensen, “Luminescence of manganese(II) in 24 phosphate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett.111(1–2), 19–24 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Pommier, J. Ferré, and S. Senoussi, “Origin of the Faraday effect in a transparent magnetic Mn2+ glass,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.17(31), 5621–5633 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. Ferré, J. Pommier, J. P. Renard, and K. Knorr, “Magnetic properties of an amorphous insulating spin glass: manganese aluminosilicate,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.13(19), 3697–3711 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

W. Nägele, K. Knorr, W. Prandtl, P. Convert, and J. L. Buevoz, “Neutron scattering study of spin correlations and phase transitions in amorphous manganese aluminosilicates,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.11(15), 3295–3305 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

K. Knorr, R. Geller, and W. Prandl, “Mössbauer and neutron diffraction investigations of magnetic effects in Fe2Ca3Si3O12 and Al2Mn3Si3O12 glasses,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.4(1-4), 258–261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

R. Verhelst, R. Kline, A. de Graat, and H. Hooper, “Magnetic properties of cobalt and manganese aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B11(11), 4427–4435 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

P. C. Schultz, “Optical absorption of the transition elements in vitreous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.57(7), 309–313 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

J. J. Rhyne and T. R. McGuire, “Magnetism of rare-earth elements, alloys, and compounds,” IEEE Trans. Magn.8(1), 105–130 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1965

S. H. Lin and H. Eyring, “Magneto-optical rotation of transition metal complexes,” J. Chem. Phys.42(5), 1780–1784 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964

C. B. Rubinstein, S. B. Berger, L. G. Van Uitert, and W. A. Bonner, “Faraday rotation of rare‐earth (III) borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.35(8), 2338–2340 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1951

C. Zener, “Interaction between the d-shells in the transition metals. III. Calculation of the Weiss factors in Fe, Co, and Ni,” Phys. Rev.83(2), 299–301 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1934

J. H. Van Vleck and M. H. Hebb, “On the paramagnetic rotation of tysonite,” Phys. Rev.46(1), 17–32 (1934).
[CrossRef]

1918

E. H. Williams, “The magnetic properties of some rare earth oxides as a function of the temperature,” Phys. Rev.12(2), 158–166 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Akamatsu, H.

H. Akamatsu, S. Oku, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magnetic properties of mixed-valence iron phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B80(13), 134408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Akamatsu, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magneto-optical properties of transparent divalent iron phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Akamatsu, K. Tanaka, K. Fujita, and S. Murai, “Spin dynamics in oxide glass of Fe2O3–Bi2O3–B2O3 system,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.310(2), 1506–1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berger, S. B.

C. B. Rubinstein, S. B. Berger, L. G. Van Uitert, and W. A. Bonner, “Faraday rotation of rare‐earth (III) borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.35(8), 2338–2340 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, P. A.

P. A. Bingham and R. J. Hand, “Sulphate incorporation and glass formation in phosphate systems for nuclear and toxic waste immobilization,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(7), 1679–1693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, W. A.

C. B. Rubinstein, S. B. Berger, L. G. Van Uitert, and W. A. Bonner, “Faraday rotation of rare‐earth (III) borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.35(8), 2338–2340 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Brendebach, B.

N. Zotov, H. Schlenz, B. Brendebach, H. Modrow, J. Hormes, F. Reinauer, R. Glaum, A. Kirfel, and C. Paulmann, “Effects of MnO-doping on the structure of sodium metaphosphate glasses,” Z. Naturforsch.58a, 419–428 (2003).

Brow, R. K.

R. K. Brow, “Review: the structure of simple phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263–264, 1–28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buevoz, J. L.

W. Nägele, K. Knorr, W. Prandtl, P. Convert, and J. L. Buevoz, “Neutron scattering study of spin correlations and phase transitions in amorphous manganese aluminosilicates,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.11(15), 3295–3305 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cava, R. J.

G. C. Lau, T. Klimczuk, F. Ronning, T. M. McQueen, and R. J. Cava, “Magnetic properties of the garnet and glass forms of Mn3Al2Si3O12,” Phys. Rev. B80(21), 214414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Convert, P.

W. Nägele, K. Knorr, W. Prandtl, P. Convert, and J. L. Buevoz, “Neutron scattering study of spin correlations and phase transitions in amorphous manganese aluminosilicates,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.11(15), 3295–3305 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Da, N.

M. A. Schmidt, L. Wondraczek, H. W. Lee, N. Granzow, N. Da, and P. St. J. Russell, “Complex Faraday rotation in microstructured magnetooptical fiber waveguides,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2681–2688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Da, M. Peng, S. Krolikowski, and L. Wondraczek, “Intense red photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped (Na+; Zn2+) sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics as LED converters,” Opt. Express18(3), 2549–2557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Graat, A.

R. Verhelst, R. Kline, A. de Graat, and H. Hooper, “Magnetic properties of cobalt and manganese aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B11(11), 4427–4435 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ehrt, D.

D. Möncke, E. I. Kamitsos, A. Herrmann, D. Ehrt, and M. Friedrich, “Bonding and ion–ion interactions of Mn2+ ions in fluoride-phosphate and boro-silicate glasses probed by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Konidakis, C. Varsamis, E. I. Kamitsos, D. Möncke, and D. Ehrt, “Structure and properties of mixed strontium-manganese metaphosphate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(19), 9125–9138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eyring, H.

S. H. Lin and H. Eyring, “Magneto-optical rotation of transition metal complexes,” J. Chem. Phys.42(5), 1780–1784 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ferré, J.

J. Pommier, J. Ferré, and S. Senoussi, “Origin of the Faraday effect in a transparent magnetic Mn2+ glass,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.17(31), 5621–5633 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Ferré, J. Pommier, J. P. Renard, and K. Knorr, “Magnetic properties of an amorphous insulating spin glass: manganese aluminosilicate,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.13(19), 3697–3711 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, M.

D. Möncke, E. I. Kamitsos, A. Herrmann, D. Ehrt, and M. Friedrich, “Bonding and ion–ion interactions of Mn2+ ions in fluoride-phosphate and boro-silicate glasses probed by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

H. Akamatsu, S. Oku, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magnetic properties of mixed-valence iron phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B80(13), 134408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Akamatsu, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magneto-optical properties of transparent divalent iron phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Akamatsu, K. Tanaka, K. Fujita, and S. Murai, “Spin dynamics in oxide glass of Fe2O3–Bi2O3–B2O3 system,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.310(2), 1506–1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, G.

G. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Dual-mode photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped Li,Zn-aluminosilicate glass ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B52(2), 59–63 (2011).

Geller, R.

K. Knorr, R. Geller, and W. Prandl, “Mössbauer and neutron diffraction investigations of magnetic effects in Fe2Ca3Si3O12 and Al2Mn3Si3O12 glasses,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.4(1-4), 258–261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Glaum, R.

N. Zotov, H. Schlenz, B. Brendebach, H. Modrow, J. Hormes, F. Reinauer, R. Glaum, A. Kirfel, and C. Paulmann, “Effects of MnO-doping on the structure of sodium metaphosphate glasses,” Z. Naturforsch.58a, 419–428 (2003).

Granzow, N.

M. A. Schmidt, L. Wondraczek, H. W. Lee, N. Granzow, N. Da, and P. St. J. Russell, “Complex Faraday rotation in microstructured magnetooptical fiber waveguides,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2681–2688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hand, R. J.

P. A. Bingham and R. J. Hand, “Sulphate incorporation and glass formation in phosphate systems for nuclear and toxic waste immobilization,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(7), 1679–1693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hebb, M. H.

J. H. Van Vleck and M. H. Hebb, “On the paramagnetic rotation of tysonite,” Phys. Rev.46(1), 17–32 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, A.

D. Möncke, E. I. Kamitsos, A. Herrmann, D. Ehrt, and M. Friedrich, “Bonding and ion–ion interactions of Mn2+ ions in fluoride-phosphate and boro-silicate glasses probed by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

J. Qiu and K. Hirao, “The Faraday effect in diamagnetic glasses,” J. Magn. Reson.13(05), 1358–1362 (1998).

Hooper, H.

R. Verhelst, R. Kline, A. de Graat, and H. Hooper, “Magnetic properties of cobalt and manganese aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B11(11), 4427–4435 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hormes, J.

N. Zotov, H. Schlenz, B. Brendebach, H. Modrow, J. Hormes, F. Reinauer, R. Glaum, A. Kirfel, and C. Paulmann, “Effects of MnO-doping on the structure of sodium metaphosphate glasses,” Z. Naturforsch.58a, 419–428 (2003).

Jørgensen, C. K.

R. Reisfeld, A. Kisilev, and C. K. Jørgensen, “Luminescence of manganese(II) in 24 phosphate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett.111(1–2), 19–24 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kamitsos, E. I.

D. Möncke, E. I. Kamitsos, A. Herrmann, D. Ehrt, and M. Friedrich, “Bonding and ion–ion interactions of Mn2+ ions in fluoride-phosphate and boro-silicate glasses probed by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Konidakis, C. Varsamis, E. I. Kamitsos, D. Möncke, and D. Ehrt, “Structure and properties of mixed strontium-manganese metaphosphate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(19), 9125–9138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kirfel, A.

N. Zotov, H. Schlenz, B. Brendebach, H. Modrow, J. Hormes, F. Reinauer, R. Glaum, A. Kirfel, and C. Paulmann, “Effects of MnO-doping on the structure of sodium metaphosphate glasses,” Z. Naturforsch.58a, 419–428 (2003).

Kisilev, A.

R. Reisfeld, A. Kisilev, and C. K. Jørgensen, “Luminescence of manganese(II) in 24 phosphate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett.111(1–2), 19–24 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Klimczuk, T.

G. C. Lau, T. Klimczuk, F. Ronning, T. M. McQueen, and R. J. Cava, “Magnetic properties of the garnet and glass forms of Mn3Al2Si3O12,” Phys. Rev. B80(21), 214414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kline, R.

R. Verhelst, R. Kline, A. de Graat, and H. Hooper, “Magnetic properties of cobalt and manganese aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B11(11), 4427–4435 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Knorr, K.

J. Ferré, J. Pommier, J. P. Renard, and K. Knorr, “Magnetic properties of an amorphous insulating spin glass: manganese aluminosilicate,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.13(19), 3697–3711 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. Nägele, K. Knorr, W. Prandtl, P. Convert, and J. L. Buevoz, “Neutron scattering study of spin correlations and phase transitions in amorphous manganese aluminosilicates,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.11(15), 3295–3305 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. Knorr, R. Geller, and W. Prandl, “Mössbauer and neutron diffraction investigations of magnetic effects in Fe2Ca3Si3O12 and Al2Mn3Si3O12 glasses,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.4(1-4), 258–261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Konidakis, I.

I. Konidakis, C. Varsamis, E. I. Kamitsos, D. Möncke, and D. Ehrt, “Structure and properties of mixed strontium-manganese metaphosphate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(19), 9125–9138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, S.

Lau, G. C.

G. C. Lau, T. Klimczuk, F. Ronning, T. M. McQueen, and R. J. Cava, “Magnetic properties of the garnet and glass forms of Mn3Al2Si3O12,” Phys. Rev. B80(21), 214414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

M. A. Schmidt, L. Wondraczek, H. W. Lee, N. Granzow, N. Da, and P. St. J. Russell, “Complex Faraday rotation in microstructured magnetooptical fiber waveguides,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2681–2688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

S. H. Lin and H. Eyring, “Magneto-optical rotation of transition metal complexes,” J. Chem. Phys.42(5), 1780–1784 (1965).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, T. R.

J. J. Rhyne and T. R. McGuire, “Magnetism of rare-earth elements, alloys, and compounds,” IEEE Trans. Magn.8(1), 105–130 (1972).
[CrossRef]

McQueen, T. M.

G. C. Lau, T. Klimczuk, F. Ronning, T. M. McQueen, and R. J. Cava, “Magnetic properties of the garnet and glass forms of Mn3Al2Si3O12,” Phys. Rev. B80(21), 214414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Modrow, H.

N. Zotov, H. Schlenz, B. Brendebach, H. Modrow, J. Hormes, F. Reinauer, R. Glaum, A. Kirfel, and C. Paulmann, “Effects of MnO-doping on the structure of sodium metaphosphate glasses,” Z. Naturforsch.58a, 419–428 (2003).

Möncke, D.

D. Möncke, E. I. Kamitsos, A. Herrmann, D. Ehrt, and M. Friedrich, “Bonding and ion–ion interactions of Mn2+ ions in fluoride-phosphate and boro-silicate glasses probed by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Konidakis, C. Varsamis, E. I. Kamitsos, D. Möncke, and D. Ehrt, “Structure and properties of mixed strontium-manganese metaphosphate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(19), 9125–9138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murai, S.

H. Akamatsu, S. Oku, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magnetic properties of mixed-valence iron phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B80(13), 134408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Akamatsu, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magneto-optical properties of transparent divalent iron phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Akamatsu, K. Tanaka, K. Fujita, and S. Murai, “Spin dynamics in oxide glass of Fe2O3–Bi2O3–B2O3 system,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.310(2), 1506–1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nägele, W.

W. Nägele, K. Knorr, W. Prandtl, P. Convert, and J. L. Buevoz, “Neutron scattering study of spin correlations and phase transitions in amorphous manganese aluminosilicates,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.11(15), 3295–3305 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Oku, S.

H. Akamatsu, S. Oku, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magnetic properties of mixed-valence iron phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B80(13), 134408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paulmann, C.

N. Zotov, H. Schlenz, B. Brendebach, H. Modrow, J. Hormes, F. Reinauer, R. Glaum, A. Kirfel, and C. Paulmann, “Effects of MnO-doping on the structure of sodium metaphosphate glasses,” Z. Naturforsch.58a, 419–428 (2003).

Peng, M.

G. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Dual-mode photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped Li,Zn-aluminosilicate glass ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B52(2), 59–63 (2011).

N. Da, M. Peng, S. Krolikowski, and L. Wondraczek, “Intense red photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped (Na+; Zn2+) sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics as LED converters,” Opt. Express18(3), 2549–2557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pommier, J.

J. Pommier, J. Ferré, and S. Senoussi, “Origin of the Faraday effect in a transparent magnetic Mn2+ glass,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.17(31), 5621–5633 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Ferré, J. Pommier, J. P. Renard, and K. Knorr, “Magnetic properties of an amorphous insulating spin glass: manganese aluminosilicate,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.13(19), 3697–3711 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Prandl, W.

K. Knorr, R. Geller, and W. Prandl, “Mössbauer and neutron diffraction investigations of magnetic effects in Fe2Ca3Si3O12 and Al2Mn3Si3O12 glasses,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.4(1-4), 258–261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Prandtl, W.

W. Nägele, K. Knorr, W. Prandtl, P. Convert, and J. L. Buevoz, “Neutron scattering study of spin correlations and phase transitions in amorphous manganese aluminosilicates,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.11(15), 3295–3305 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

J. Qiu and K. Hirao, “The Faraday effect in diamagnetic glasses,” J. Magn. Reson.13(05), 1358–1362 (1998).

Reibstein, S.

G. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Dual-mode photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped Li,Zn-aluminosilicate glass ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B52(2), 59–63 (2011).

Reinauer, F.

N. Zotov, H. Schlenz, B. Brendebach, H. Modrow, J. Hormes, F. Reinauer, R. Glaum, A. Kirfel, and C. Paulmann, “Effects of MnO-doping on the structure of sodium metaphosphate glasses,” Z. Naturforsch.58a, 419–428 (2003).

Reisfeld, R.

R. Reisfeld, A. Kisilev, and C. K. Jørgensen, “Luminescence of manganese(II) in 24 phosphate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett.111(1–2), 19–24 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Renard, J. P.

J. Ferré, J. Pommier, J. P. Renard, and K. Knorr, “Magnetic properties of an amorphous insulating spin glass: manganese aluminosilicate,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.13(19), 3697–3711 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rhyne, J. J.

J. J. Rhyne and T. R. McGuire, “Magnetism of rare-earth elements, alloys, and compounds,” IEEE Trans. Magn.8(1), 105–130 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ronning, F.

G. C. Lau, T. Klimczuk, F. Ronning, T. M. McQueen, and R. J. Cava, “Magnetic properties of the garnet and glass forms of Mn3Al2Si3O12,” Phys. Rev. B80(21), 214414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rubinstein, C. B.

C. B. Rubinstein, S. B. Berger, L. G. Van Uitert, and W. A. Bonner, “Faraday rotation of rare‐earth (III) borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.35(8), 2338–2340 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

M. A. Schmidt, L. Wondraczek, H. W. Lee, N. Granzow, N. Da, and P. St. J. Russell, “Complex Faraday rotation in microstructured magnetooptical fiber waveguides,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2681–2688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schlenz, H.

N. Zotov, H. Schlenz, B. Brendebach, H. Modrow, J. Hormes, F. Reinauer, R. Glaum, A. Kirfel, and C. Paulmann, “Effects of MnO-doping on the structure of sodium metaphosphate glasses,” Z. Naturforsch.58a, 419–428 (2003).

Schmidt, M. A.

M. A. Schmidt, L. Wondraczek, H. W. Lee, N. Granzow, N. Da, and P. St. J. Russell, “Complex Faraday rotation in microstructured magnetooptical fiber waveguides,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2681–2688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, P. C.

P. C. Schultz, “Optical absorption of the transition elements in vitreous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.57(7), 309–313 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Senoussi, S.

J. Pommier, J. Ferré, and S. Senoussi, “Origin of the Faraday effect in a transparent magnetic Mn2+ glass,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.17(31), 5621–5633 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

H. Akamatsu, S. Oku, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magnetic properties of mixed-valence iron phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B80(13), 134408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Akamatsu, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magneto-optical properties of transparent divalent iron phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Akamatsu, K. Tanaka, K. Fujita, and S. Murai, “Spin dynamics in oxide glass of Fe2O3–Bi2O3–B2O3 system,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.310(2), 1506–1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Uitert, L. G.

C. B. Rubinstein, S. B. Berger, L. G. Van Uitert, and W. A. Bonner, “Faraday rotation of rare‐earth (III) borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.35(8), 2338–2340 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Van Vleck, J. H.

J. H. Van Vleck and M. H. Hebb, “On the paramagnetic rotation of tysonite,” Phys. Rev.46(1), 17–32 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Varsamis, C.

I. Konidakis, C. Varsamis, E. I. Kamitsos, D. Möncke, and D. Ehrt, “Structure and properties of mixed strontium-manganese metaphosphate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(19), 9125–9138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verhelst, R.

R. Verhelst, R. Kline, A. de Graat, and H. Hooper, “Magnetic properties of cobalt and manganese aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B11(11), 4427–4435 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Williams, E. H.

E. H. Williams, “The magnetic properties of some rare earth oxides as a function of the temperature,” Phys. Rev.12(2), 158–166 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Wondraczek, L.

M. A. Schmidt, L. Wondraczek, H. W. Lee, N. Granzow, N. Da, and P. St. J. Russell, “Complex Faraday rotation in microstructured magnetooptical fiber waveguides,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2681–2688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Dual-mode photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped Li,Zn-aluminosilicate glass ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B52(2), 59–63 (2011).

N. Da, M. Peng, S. Krolikowski, and L. Wondraczek, “Intense red photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped (Na+; Zn2+) sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics as LED converters,” Opt. Express18(3), 2549–2557 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zener, C.

C. Zener, “Interaction between the d-shells in the transition metals. III. Calculation of the Weiss factors in Fe, Co, and Ni,” Phys. Rev.83(2), 299–301 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Zotov, N.

N. Zotov, H. Schlenz, B. Brendebach, H. Modrow, J. Hormes, F. Reinauer, R. Glaum, A. Kirfel, and C. Paulmann, “Effects of MnO-doping on the structure of sodium metaphosphate glasses,” Z. Naturforsch.58a, 419–428 (2003).

Adv. Mater.

M. A. Schmidt, L. Wondraczek, H. W. Lee, N. Granzow, N. Da, and P. St. J. Russell, “Complex Faraday rotation in microstructured magnetooptical fiber waveguides,” Adv. Mater.23(22-23), 2681–2688 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Akamatsu, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magneto-optical properties of transparent divalent iron phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

R. Reisfeld, A. Kisilev, and C. K. Jørgensen, “Luminescence of manganese(II) in 24 phosphate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett.111(1–2), 19–24 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn.

J. J. Rhyne and T. R. McGuire, “Magnetism of rare-earth elements, alloys, and compounds,” IEEE Trans. Magn.8(1), 105–130 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

P. C. Schultz, “Optical absorption of the transition elements in vitreous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.57(7), 309–313 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. B. Rubinstein, S. B. Berger, L. G. Van Uitert, and W. A. Bonner, “Faraday rotation of rare‐earth (III) borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.35(8), 2338–2340 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

S. H. Lin and H. Eyring, “Magneto-optical rotation of transition metal complexes,” J. Chem. Phys.42(5), 1780–1784 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater.

H. Akamatsu, K. Tanaka, K. Fujita, and S. Murai, “Spin dynamics in oxide glass of Fe2O3–Bi2O3–B2O3 system,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.310(2), 1506–1507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Knorr, R. Geller, and W. Prandl, “Mössbauer and neutron diffraction investigations of magnetic effects in Fe2Ca3Si3O12 and Al2Mn3Si3O12 glasses,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater.4(1-4), 258–261 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Reson.

J. Qiu and K. Hirao, “The Faraday effect in diamagnetic glasses,” J. Magn. Reson.13(05), 1358–1362 (1998).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

R. K. Brow, “Review: the structure of simple phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids263–264, 1–28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Möncke, E. I. Kamitsos, A. Herrmann, D. Ehrt, and M. Friedrich, “Bonding and ion–ion interactions of Mn2+ ions in fluoride-phosphate and boro-silicate glasses probed by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(14), 2542–2551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.

J. Ferré, J. Pommier, J. P. Renard, and K. Knorr, “Magnetic properties of an amorphous insulating spin glass: manganese aluminosilicate,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.13(19), 3697–3711 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Pommier, J. Ferré, and S. Senoussi, “Origin of the Faraday effect in a transparent magnetic Mn2+ glass,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.17(31), 5621–5633 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. Nägele, K. Knorr, W. Prandtl, P. Convert, and J. L. Buevoz, “Neutron scattering study of spin correlations and phase transitions in amorphous manganese aluminosilicates,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys.11(15), 3295–3305 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

I. Konidakis, C. Varsamis, E. I. Kamitsos, D. Möncke, and D. Ehrt, “Structure and properties of mixed strontium-manganese metaphosphate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(19), 9125–9138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull.

P. A. Bingham and R. J. Hand, “Sulphate incorporation and glass formation in phosphate systems for nuclear and toxic waste immobilization,” Mater. Res. Bull.43(7), 1679–1693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B

G. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Dual-mode photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped Li,Zn-aluminosilicate glass ceramics,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B52(2), 59–63 (2011).

Phys. Rev.

J. H. Van Vleck and M. H. Hebb, “On the paramagnetic rotation of tysonite,” Phys. Rev.46(1), 17–32 (1934).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Williams, “The magnetic properties of some rare earth oxides as a function of the temperature,” Phys. Rev.12(2), 158–166 (1918).
[CrossRef]

C. Zener, “Interaction between the d-shells in the transition metals. III. Calculation of the Weiss factors in Fe, Co, and Ni,” Phys. Rev.83(2), 299–301 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

R. Verhelst, R. Kline, A. de Graat, and H. Hooper, “Magnetic properties of cobalt and manganese aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B11(11), 4427–4435 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Lau, T. Klimczuk, F. Ronning, T. M. McQueen, and R. J. Cava, “Magnetic properties of the garnet and glass forms of Mn3Al2Si3O12,” Phys. Rev. B80(21), 214414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Akamatsu, S. Oku, K. Fujita, S. Murai, and K. Tanaka, “Magnetic properties of mixed-valence iron phosphate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B80(13), 134408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Naturforsch.

N. Zotov, H. Schlenz, B. Brendebach, H. Modrow, J. Hormes, F. Reinauer, R. Glaum, A. Kirfel, and C. Paulmann, “Effects of MnO-doping on the structure of sodium metaphosphate glasses,” Z. Naturforsch.58a, 419–428 (2003).

Other

N. Wiberg, E. Wiberg, and A. F. Holleman, Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (Walther de Gruyter, 2007).

S. J. M. Liu, Photonic Devices (Cambridge University Press, 2009).

M. Yamane and Y. Asahara, Glasses for Photonics (Cambridge University Press, 2005).

C. Kittel, Einführung in die Festkörperphysik (Oldenburg Verlag, 1995).

Landolt-Börnstein, Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology New Series, III/19, Subvolumes a to i2, Magnetic Properties of Metals (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1986–1992).

Landolt-Börnstein, Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology New Series, II/2, II/8, II/10, II/11 and II/12a, Coordination and Organometallic Transition Metal Compounds (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1966–1984).

Tables de Constantes et Données Numérique, Relaxation Paramagnetique (Masson, Paris, 1957), Vol. 7.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) UV-VIS optical absorption of MnxSr1-x(PO3)2 glasses normalized to sample thickness. (b) Exemplary Gaussian deconvolution of the data for the sample with x = 1, dots represent the experimental, lines the fitted spectrum. Labels in (b) indicate the active electronic level for each transition; transitions A-D are assigned to residual Mn3+-species. Photographs of each sample are displayed above the spectra.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Molar susceptibility as a function of temperature for MnxSr1-x(PO3)2 glasses. The inverse molar susceptibility and the graphical determination of the Weiss temperature θW are shown in the inset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the structure of manganese metaphosphate (a) and individual clusters of MnO6 octahedra (b, from top to bottom: corner-sharing, edge-sharing, face-sharing).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Verdet constant of MnxSr1-x(PO3)2 glasses for x = 0, 0.5 and 1.0 as obtained at room temperature and corresponding FOM. The inset depicts the linear fit of V at a wavelength of 500 nm to the molar content of Mn2+ in comparison to vitreous SiO2 [20].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Inverse Verdet constant as a function of the squared transition wavelength (van Vleck - plot, data obtained at room temperature).

Equations (2)

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1 χ = T  θ W C
C= N µ eff 2 3 k B

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