Abstract

We report on fluorescence and second-harmonic generation correlative microscopy of femtosecond direct laser-induced structures in a tailored silver-containing phosphate glass. We compare the spatial distributions of the related permanent electric field and silver clusters. The latter appear to be co-localized where the associated electric potential ensures favorable reduction-oxidation conditions for their formation and stabilization. Space charge separation is shown to occur prior the cluster formation. The associated electric field is a key parameter for silver clustering, thanks to electric field assisted silver ion motion. Future photonic structures combining 3D laser-structured fluorescence and nonlinear optical properties in such tailored glass will require an optimal control of the induced electric field distribution.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(5), 857–860 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Bellouard, “On the bending strength of fused silica flexures fabricated by ultrafast lasers [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(5), 816–831 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced microfeatures in glasses and their applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(12-13), 1100–1111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser induced photochemistry in materials tailored with photosensitive agents,” Opt. Mater. Express1(5), 866–882 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater.22(46), 5282–5286 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using third-harmonic generation in silver zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett.33(4), 360–362 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Takebe, P. G. Kazansky, P. S. Russell, and K. Morinaga, “Effect of poling conditions on second-harmonic generation in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 468–470 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and H. Takebe, “Glass fiber poling and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1484–1493 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science3(4), 309–320 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1029–1031 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Papon, N. Marquestaut, Y. Petit, A. Royon, M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond direct laser poling of sub-micron, stable and efficient second-order optical properties in a tailored silver phosphate glass,” submitted to (2013).
  14. M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045328 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012

M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science3(4), 309–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1029–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater.22(46), 5282–5286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced microfeatures in glasses and their applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(12-13), 1100–1111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using third-harmonic generation in silver zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett.33(4), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and H. Takebe, “Glass fiber poling and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1484–1493 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Adamietz, F.

M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science3(4), 309–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, N.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ascázubi, R.

R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bellec, M.

J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1029–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater.22(46), 5282–5286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using third-harmonic generation in silver zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett.33(4), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellouard, Y.

Bourhis, K.

J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1029–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater.22(46), 5282–5286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, B.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater.22(46), 5282–5286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using third-harmonic generation in silver zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett.33(4), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canioni, L.

J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1029–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser induced photochemistry in materials tailored with photosensitive agents,” Opt. Mater. Express1(5), 866–882 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater.22(46), 5282–5286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using third-harmonic generation in silver zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett.33(4), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardinal, T.

J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1029–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science3(4), 309–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater.22(46), 5282–5286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using third-harmonic generation in silver zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett.33(4), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1029–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cremoux, T.

M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science3(4), 309–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deshayes, Y.

A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater.22(46), 5282–5286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dussauze, M.

M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science3(4), 309–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, P.

R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fargin, E.

M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science3(4), 309–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fargues, A.

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Helvajian, H.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced microfeatures in glasses and their applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(12-13), 1100–1111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and H. Takebe, “Glass fiber poling and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1484–1493 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Takebe, P. G. Kazansky, P. S. Russell, and K. Morinaga, “Effect of poling conditions on second-harmonic generation in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 468–470 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masuda, M.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced microfeatures in glasses and their applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(12-13), 1100–1111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morinaga, K.

Papon, G.

Petit, Y.

Pino, R.

R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced microfeatures in glasses and their applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(12-13), 1100–1111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1029–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser induced photochemistry in materials tailored with photosensitive agents,” Opt. Mater. Express1(5), 866–882 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, V.

M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science3(4), 309–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Royon, A.

J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1029–1031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser induced photochemistry in materials tailored with photosensitive agents,” Opt. Mater. Express1(5), 866–882 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater.22(46), 5282–5286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using third-harmonic generation in silver zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett.33(4), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russel, P. St. J.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and H. Takebe, “Glass fiber poling and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1484–1493 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S.

Shihoyama, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shneider, C.

R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takebe, H.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and H. Takebe, “Glass fiber poling and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1484–1493 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Takebe, P. G. Kazansky, P. S. Russell, and K. Morinaga, “Effect of poling conditions on second-harmonic generation in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 468–470 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talaga, D.

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

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K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
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K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
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M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science3(4), 309–320 (2012).
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M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science3(4), 309–320 (2012).
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K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
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M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
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Other

G. Papon, N. Marquestaut, Y. Petit, A. Royon, M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond direct laser poling of sub-micron, stable and efficient second-order optical properties in a tailored silver phosphate glass,” submitted to (2013).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Correlative microscopy setup for silver cluster fluorescence and EFISHG response.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DLW of an individual point with fixed sample (4.53 J.cm−2, 103 pulses), observed in the plane perpendicular to light propagation: (a) single-ring fluorescence pattern; (b) and (c) double-ring EFISHG pattern, giving new insight with respect to previously reported EFISHG observation [12], for either horizontal linearly polarized or unpolarized incident fs near infrared (NIR) probe beam, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DLW of a single linear structure with sample translation (5.15 J.cm−2, 180 μm.s−1), observed in the plane perpendicular to light propagation: (a) double-line fluorescence pattern; (b) four-line EFISHG pattern; and (c) both fluorescence & EFISHG spatially correlated patterns. Only the edges of the writing beam create structures, turning single/double rings at fixed DLW position into double-line/four-line structures under sample translation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transverse spatial distributions: (a) fluorescence and EFISHG profiles, showing distinct but correlated topologies; (b) modeled buried static electric field from the EFISHG profiles, and associated electric potential modification; (c) spatial overlapping of fluorescence and electric potential profiles, demonstrating the co-localization of silver cluster stabilization and local reduction-oxidation condition modifications.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correlative EFISHG and fluorescence relative intensities versus DLW incident fluence for 1.1 × 105 laser pulses (speed of 180 μm.s−1). EFISHG shows a threshold behavior between 3 and 3.5 J/cm2, a very steep increase followed by a plateau above 4 J/cm2 corresponding to the saturation of the buried static electric field. Compared EFISHG and fluorescence signals show different build-up behaviors: EFISHG appears prior the fluorescence, demonstrating that the net space charge separation is not the consequence of the silver cluster existence, but rather the cause of the reduction/oxidation stabilization of such chemical species.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sketch of build-up mechanisms, consisting first in a net space charge separation with a saturation plateau, subsequently followed by the growth and stabilization of silver fluorescent clusters with no visible saturation plateau here. We depict the electric field driven growth of silver clusters, and their reduction/oxidation stabilization with the associated electric potential.

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