Abstract

An approach of fabricating pseudoperiodic antireflective subwavelength structures on silicon carbide by using self-assembled Au nanopatterns as etching mask is demonstrated. The nanopatterning process is more time-efficiency than the e-beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography process. The influences of the reactive-ion etching conditions and deposited Au film thickness to the subwavelength structure profile and its corresponding surface reflectance have been systematically investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the average reflectance of the silicon carbide in the range of 390–784 nm is dramatically suppressed from 21.0% to 1.9% after introducing the pseudoperiodic nanostructures. A luminescence enhancement of 226% was achieved at an emission angle of 20° on the fluorescent silicon carbide. Meanwhile, the angle-resolved photoluminescence study presents a considerable omnidirectional luminescence enhancement.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 151115 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 191903 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Wetzel and T. Detchprohm, “Wavelength-stable rare earth-free green light-emitting diodes for energy efficiency,” Opt. Express19, A962–A971 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19, A991–A1007 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Li, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 171105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hazu and S. F. Chichibu, “Optical polarization properties of m-plane AlxGa1−xN epitaxial films grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrates toward nonpolar ultraviolet LEDs, ” Opt. Express19, A1008–A1021 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, S. Kamiyama, C. Liu, R. W. Berg, M. Linnarsson, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, and H. Ou, “Donor-acceptor-pair emission characterization in N-B doped fluorescent SiC,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 1439–1446 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20, 259–265 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 133108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3, 163–169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded Photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3, 032103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 171105 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 1066–1072 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17, 13747–13757 (2009).
  18. W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22, 3454–3459 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 071102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 263118 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflcecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23, 122–126 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23, 5796–5800 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Najar, A. B. Slimane, M. N. Hedhili, D. Anjum, R. Sougrat, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 033502 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaiser, P. Wellmann, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, and H. Ou, “Broadband and omnidirectional light harvesting enhancement of fluorescent SiC,” Opt. Express20, 7575–7579 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. Y. Zhang, B. Shao, J. R. Dong, K. Huang, Y. M. Zhao, S. Z. Yu, and H. Yang, “Broadband quasi-omnidirectional antireflection AlGaInP window for III–V multi-junction solar cells through thermally dewetted Au nanotemplate,” Opt. Mater. Express2, 173–182 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Wafer-scale highly-transparent and superhydrophilic sapphires for high-performance optics,” Opt. Express20, 26160–26166 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and wide-angle antireflection subwavelength structures of Si by inductively coupled plasma etching using dewetted nanopatterns of Au thin films as masks,” Thin Solid Films519, 3792–3797 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, and H. Ou, “Omnidirectional luminescence enhancement of fluorescent SiC via pseudoperiodic antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Lett.37, 3816–3818 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Y. Ou, D. Corell, C. Dam-Hansen, P. Petersen, and H. Ou, “Antireflective subwavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express19, A166–A172 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. F. A. Khan and I. Adesida, “High rate etching of SiC using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in SF6-based gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 2268–2270 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (7)

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22, 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Najar, A. B. Slimane, M. N. Hedhili, D. Anjum, R. Sougrat, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 033502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaiser, P. Wellmann, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, and H. Ou, “Broadband and omnidirectional light harvesting enhancement of fluorescent SiC,” Opt. Express20, 7575–7579 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Zhang, B. Shao, J. R. Dong, K. Huang, Y. M. Zhao, S. Z. Yu, and H. Yang, “Broadband quasi-omnidirectional antireflection AlGaInP window for III–V multi-junction solar cells through thermally dewetted Au nanotemplate,” Opt. Mater. Express2, 173–182 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Wafer-scale highly-transparent and superhydrophilic sapphires for high-performance optics,” Opt. Express20, 26160–26166 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, and H. Ou, “Omnidirectional luminescence enhancement of fluorescent SiC via pseudoperiodic antireflective subwavelength structures,” Opt. Lett.37, 3816–3818 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (12)

Y. Ou, D. Corell, C. Dam-Hansen, P. Petersen, and H. Ou, “Antireflective subwavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express19, A166–A172 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and wide-angle antireflection subwavelength structures of Si by inductively coupled plasma etching using dewetted nanopatterns of Au thin films as masks,” Thin Solid Films519, 3792–3797 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflcecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23, 5796–5800 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wetzel and T. Detchprohm, “Wavelength-stable rare earth-free green light-emitting diodes for energy efficiency,” Opt. Express19, A962–A971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19, A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Hazu and S. F. Chichibu, “Optical polarization properties of m-plane AlxGa1−xN epitaxial films grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrates toward nonpolar ultraviolet LEDs, ” Opt. Express19, A1008–A1021 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, S. Kamiyama, C. Liu, R. W. Berg, M. Linnarsson, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, and H. Ou, “Donor-acceptor-pair emission characterization in N-B doped fluorescent SiC,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 1439–1446 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20, 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded Photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3, 032103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

F. A. Khan and I. Adesida, “High rate etching of SiC using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in SF6-based gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 2268–2270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3, 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17, 13747–13757 (2009).

2008 (1)

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, S.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adesida, I.

F. A. Khan and I. Adesida, “High rate etching of SiC using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in SF6-based gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 2268–2270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allsopp, D. W. E.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anjum, D.

A. Najar, A. B. Slimane, M. N. Hedhili, D. Anjum, R. Sougrat, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 033502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17, 13747–13757 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aura, S.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflcecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baek, S.

H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23, 5796–5800 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagnall, D. M.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R. W.

Bergman, J. P.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boden, S. A.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

K. Hazu and S. F. Chichibu, “Optical polarization properties of m-plane AlxGa1−xN epitaxial films grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrates toward nonpolar ultraviolet LEDs, ” Opt. Express19, A1008–A1021 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chua, C.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clifton, P. H.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Corell, D.

Dam-Hansen, C.

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3, 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

Dierolf, V.

Dong, J. R.

Ee, Y.

X. Li, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y. K.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17, 13747–13757 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Einfeldt, S.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, B.

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded Photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3, 032103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Franssila, S.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflcecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Furusho, T.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20, 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

X. Li, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17, 13747–13757 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20, 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hazu, K.

Hedhili, M. N.

A. Najar, A. B. Slimane, M. N. Hedhili, D. Anjum, R. Sougrat, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 033502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Henry, A.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hens, P.

Hu, E.

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded Photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3, 032103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.-L.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.

Huang, S.-C.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, G.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, I. G.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwaya, M.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jokinen, V.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflcecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jokubavicius, V.

Kaiser, M.

Kamiyama, S.

Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, S. Kamiyama, C. Liu, R. W. Berg, M. Linnarsson, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, and H. Ou, “Donor-acceptor-pair emission characterization in N-B doped fluorescent SiC,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 1439–1446 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, Y.

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, G.

H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23, 5796–5800 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawai, R.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khan, F. A.

F. A. Khan and I. Adesida, “High rate etching of SiC using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in SF6-based gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 2268–2270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23, 5796–5800 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimoto, T.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, H.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kitano, T.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, A.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kolbe, T.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22, 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

X. Li, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17, 13747–13757 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leem, J. W.

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Wafer-scale highly-transparent and superhydrophilic sapphires for high-performance optics,” Opt. Express20, 26160–26166 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and wide-angle antireflection subwavelength structures of Si by inductively coupled plasma etching using dewetted nanopatterns of Au thin films as masks,” Thin Solid Films519, 3792–3797 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, A.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20, 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.-H.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22, 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Linnarsson, M.

Liu, C.

Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, S. Kamiyama, C. Liu, R. W. Berg, M. Linnarsson, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, and H. Ou, “Donor-acceptor-pair emission characterization in N-B doped fluorescent SiC,” Opt. Mater. Express1, 1439–1446 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19, A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mabuchi, S.

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, T.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded Photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3, 032103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3, 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Melo, T.

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded Photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3, 032103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Najar, A.

A. Najar, A. B. Slimane, M. N. Hedhili, D. Anjum, R. Sougrat, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 033502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Y.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, T. K.

A. Najar, A. B. Slimane, M. N. Hedhili, D. Anjum, R. Sougrat, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 033502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, T.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ooi, B. S.

A. Najar, A. B. Slimane, M. N. Hedhili, D. Anjum, R. Sougrat, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 033502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ou, H.

Ou, Y.

Padilla, W. J.

H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23, 5796–5800 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23, 5796–5800 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, P.

Poplawsky, J. D.

Prosa, T. J.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rangel, E.

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded Photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3, 032103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sainiemi, L.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflcecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, H.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seko, T.

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflcecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shao, B.

Shields, P. A.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.

H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23, 5796–5800 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shivaraman, R.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shpak, M.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflcecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simeonov, D.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Slimane, A. B.

A. Najar, A. B. Slimane, M. N. Hedhili, D. Anjum, R. Sougrat, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 033502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22, 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

X. Li, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sougrat, R.

A. Najar, A. B. Slimane, M. N. Hedhili, D. Anjum, R. Sougrat, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 033502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded Photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3, 032103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Su, K.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suda, J.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suvanto, P.

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflcecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Syväjärvi, M.

Tamura, K.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22, 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19, A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17, 13747–13757 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teramae, F.

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tong, H.

Tyagi, A.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vinci, R. P.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, P.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. N.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded Photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3, 032103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wellmann, P.

Wetzel, C.

Weyers, M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3, 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xue, L.

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20, 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yakimova, R.

Yang, H.

Yang, Z.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, M.

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Youn, W.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22, 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Wafer-scale highly-transparent and superhydrophilic sapphires for high-performance optics,” Opt. Express20, 26160–26166 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and wide-angle antireflection subwavelength structures of Si by inductively coupled plasma etching using dewetted nanopatterns of Au thin films as masks,” Thin Solid Films519, 3792–3797 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. Z.

Zhang, J.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19, A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R. Y.

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19, A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. M.

Zhong, H.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22, 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

X. Li, J. Gao, L. Xue, and Y. Han, “Porous polymer films with gradient-refractive-index structure for broadband and omnidirectional antireflection coatings,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20, 259–265 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22, 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

L. Sainiemi, V. Jokinen, A. Shah, M. Shpak, S. Aura, P. Suvanto, and S. Franssila, “Non-reflcecting silicon and polymer surfaces by plasma etching and replication,” Adv. Mater.23, 122–126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, D. Shin, G. Kang, S. Baek, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband optical antireflection enhancement by integrating antireflective nanoislands with silicon nanoconical-frustum arrays,” Adv. Mater.23, 5796–5800 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

E. Matioli, B. Fleury, E. Rangel, T. Melo, E. Hu, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency GaN-based photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes: comparison of extraction lengths between surface and embedded Photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express3, 032103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 171105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91, 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011¯) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 171105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Khan and I. Adesida, “High rate etching of SiC using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in SF6-based gas mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75, 2268–2270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J (1)

X. Li, R. Song, Y. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Najar, A. B. Slimane, M. N. Hedhili, D. Anjum, R. Sougrat, T. K. Ng, and B. S. Ooi, “Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 033502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kamiyama, T. Maeda, Y. Nakamura, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, T. Furusho, M. Yoshimoto, T. Kimoto, J. Suda, A. Henry, I. G. Ivanov, J. P. Bergman, B. Monemar, T. Onuma, and S. F. Chichibu, “Extremely high quantum efficiency of donor-acceptor-pair emission in N-and-B-doped 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys.99, 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3, 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express17, 13747–13757 (2009).

K. Hazu and S. F. Chichibu, “Optical polarization properties of m-plane AlxGa1−xN epitaxial films grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrates toward nonpolar ultraviolet LEDs, ” Opt. Express19, A1008–A1021 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wetzel and T. Detchprohm, “Wavelength-stable rare earth-free green light-emitting diodes for energy efficiency,” Opt. Express19, A962–A971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19, A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaiser, P. Wellmann, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, and H. Ou, “Broadband and omnidirectional light harvesting enhancement of fluorescent SiC,” Opt. Express20, 7575–7579 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Wafer-scale highly-transparent and superhydrophilic sapphires for high-performance optics,” Opt. Express20, 26160–26166 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ou, D. Corell, C. Dam-Hansen, P. Petersen, and H. Ou, “Antireflective subwavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express19, A166–A172 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

R. Kawai, T. Kondo, A. Suzuki, F. Teramae, T. Kitano, K. Tamura, H. Sakurai, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, M. Chen, A. Li, and K. Su, “Realization of extreme light extraction efficiency for moth-eye LEDs on SiC substrate using high-reflection electrode,” Phys. Status Solidi C7, 2180–2182 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Seko, S. Mabuchi, F. Teramae, A. Suzuki, Y. Kaneko, R. Kawai, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Fabrication technique for moth-eye structure using low-energy electron-beam projection lithography for high-performance blue-lightemitting diode on SiC substrate,” Proc. SPIE7216, 721628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and wide-angle antireflection subwavelength structures of Si by inductively coupled plasma etching using dewetted nanopatterns of Au thin films as masks,” Thin Solid Films519, 3792–3797 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustrations of the pseudoperiodic SiC ARS fabrication process steps: (a) Au film deposition, (b) rapid thermal processing, (c)–(e) reactive-ion etching, and (f) remove of residual Au.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance measurements on the SiC substrates for the optimization of (a) SF6 flow rate, (b) RF power, and (c) chamber pressure; inset two SEM figures in (a), (b), and (c) show the cross-sectional view of fabricated pseudoperiodic SiC ARS with the corresponding parameter which have the highest (upper figure) and lowest (lower figure) measured reflectance after the optimization process of SF6 flow rate, RF power, and chamber pressure respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top-view SEM figures of the SiC substrates annealed at 350°C with different deposited Au film thickness and cross-sectional view SEM figures of its corresponding fabricated pseudoperiodic ARS after etching process: (a, e) 5 nm Au, (b, f) 7.5 nm Au, (c, g) 10 nm Au, and (d, h) 12.5 nm Au; (i) measured reflectance of the processed samples with different deposited Au film thickness.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparision of the measured reflectance spectra for the fluorescent sample processed with the optimized etching conditions and a bare sample as a reference; inset SEM figure shows the fabricated pseudoperiodic ARS on the processed sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Luminescence spectra of the fluorescent SiC with and without pseudoperiodic ARS at an emission angle of 20°, (b) angle-resolved emission intensities of the fluorescent SiC with and without pseudoperiodic ARS in the emission angle range of 20° to 80°.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimization range and step of RIE conditions and deposited Au film thickness (fixed SF6/O2 flow rate ratio of 4/1 was applied during the whole process)

Metrics