Abstract

The nonlinear properties of a new type of liquid crystal (LC) heterogeneous system that contains hydrogen-bonded polymer-azo-dye complexes at a low concentration were revealed and studied. Possessing the unique self-orienting property the suspension showed a strong nonlinear response at very low light power. The complex-doped LC suspension can be used as a new nonlinear photosensitive material that does not require any additional alignment processing or treatment.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry Peculiarities of Surface-Mediated Liquid Crystals Gratings Recorded Due to Light-Induced Anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. A. Budagovsky, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, S. A. Shvetsov, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, N. I. Boiko, V. P. Shibaev, and M. I. Barnik, “Orientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals induced by high-molecular-mass azo-containing compounds,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A53(8), 655–665 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong Cubic Optical Nonlinearity of Gold Nanoparticles Suspension in Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant optical nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” JETP Lett.31, 263–267 (1980).
  6. I. Jánossy and A. D. Lloyd, “Low-power optical reorientation in dyed nematics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)203(1), 77–84 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Zhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-Induced Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearity in Liquids and Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(1), 42–45 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun.233(4-6), 417–424 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, “Effects Leading to Colossal Optical Nonlinearity in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(3), 422–430 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, “Liquid crystal photorefractivity – towards supra-optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater.18(1), 85–90 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. polyimide poly(4,4'-oxydiphenylene-pyromellitimide was synthesized by I. Gerus (Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Ukraine), analogue to Kapton® from DuPont.
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    [CrossRef]
  17. A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, and A. P. Sukhorukov, “Self-focusing of laser radiation in the course of the Fréedericksz transition in the nematic phase of a liquid crystal,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.81, 933–941 (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 54(3), 496–500 (1981)].
  18. S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, “Laser-induced diffraction rings from a nematic-liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett.6(9), 411–413 (1981).
    [PubMed]
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  21. L. Lucchetti, S. Suchand, and F. Simoni, “Fine structure in spatial self-phase modulation patterns: at a glance determination of the sign of optical nonlinearity in highly nonlinear films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(3), 034002 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. I. C. Khoo, J. Y. Hou, T. H. Liu, P. Y. Yan, R. R. Michael, and G. M. Finn, “Transverse self-phase modulation and bistability in the transmission of a laser beam through a nonlinear thin film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4(6), 886–891 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Marrucci, “Mechanisms of giant optical nonlinearity in light-absorbing liquid crystals: a brief primer,” Liq. Cryst. Today11(3), 6–33 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. I. C. Khoo, “Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials,” Phys. Rep.471(5-6), 221–267 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. I. P. Pinkevich, Yu. A. Reznikov, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, and O. V. Yaroshchuk, “Conformational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals,” Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys.1(3), 447–472 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, and D. B. Terskov, “Thermal, orientational, and photo-orientational nonlinearities of azoxy liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP79(6), 931–940 (1994).
  27. I. C. Khoo, P. H. Chen, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, S. Slussarenko, and M. V. Wood, “Supra Optical Nonlinearities of Methyl-Red and Azobenzene Liquid Crystal –doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)358(1), 1–13 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. T. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid Optical Switching by Means of Photoinduced Change in Refractive Index of Azobenzene Liquid Crystals Detected by Reflection-Mode Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(33), 7791–7796 (1997) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. Yu and T. Ikeda, “Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev.5(3), 247–265 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. Lysenko, E. Ouskova, S. Ksondzyk, V. Reshetnyak, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced changes of the refractive indices in a colloid of gold nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E35(5), 33–39 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  31. F. Simoni, L. Lucchetti, D. E. Lucchetta, and O. Francescangeli, “On the origin of the huge nonlinear response of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express9(2), 85–90 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

D. Lysenko, E. Ouskova, S. Ksondzyk, V. Reshetnyak, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced changes of the refractive indices in a colloid of gold nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E35(5), 33–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

I. A. Budagovsky, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, S. A. Shvetsov, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, N. I. Boiko, V. P. Shibaev, and M. I. Barnik, “Orientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals induced by high-molecular-mass azo-containing compounds,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A53(8), 655–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong Cubic Optical Nonlinearity of Gold Nanoparticles Suspension in Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, J. Vapaavuori, and M. Kaivola, “Self-orienting liquid crystal doped with polymer-azo-dye complex,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1463–1470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry Peculiarities of Surface-Mediated Liquid Crystals Gratings Recorded Due to Light-Induced Anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

L. Lucchetti, S. Suchand, and F. Simoni, “Fine structure in spatial self-phase modulation patterns: at a glance determination of the sign of optical nonlinearity in highly nonlinear films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials,” Phys. Rep.471(5-6), 221–267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, F. Simoni, S. Pavliuchenko, S. Subota, and V. Reshetnyak, “Surface-induced nonlinearities of liquid crystals driven by an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(6), 061706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Zolot’ko, I. A. Budagovsky, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, V. P. Shibaev, N. I. Boiko, A. I. Lysachkov, and M. I. Barnik, “Light-Induced Director Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Azobenzene-Containing Macromolecules of Different Architecture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)488(1), 265–278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, “Effects Leading to Colossal Optical Nonlinearity in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(3), 422–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun.233(4-6), 417–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu and T. Ikeda, “Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev.5(3), 247–265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. Marrucci, “Mechanisms of giant optical nonlinearity in light-absorbing liquid crystals: a brief primer,” Liq. Cryst. Today11(3), 6–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

F. Simoni, L. Lucchetti, D. E. Lucchetta, and O. Francescangeli, “On the origin of the huge nonlinear response of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express9(2), 85–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, P. H. Chen, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, S. Slussarenko, and M. V. Wood, “Supra Optical Nonlinearities of Methyl-Red and Azobenzene Liquid Crystal –doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)358(1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, “Liquid crystal photorefractivity – towards supra-optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater.18(1), 85–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Zhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-Induced Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearity in Liquids and Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(1), 42–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid Optical Switching by Means of Photoinduced Change in Refractive Index of Azobenzene Liquid Crystals Detected by Reflection-Mode Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(33), 7791–7796 (1997) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, and D. B. Terskov, “Thermal, orientational, and photo-orientational nonlinearities of azoxy liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP79(6), 931–940 (1994).

1992 (2)

I. P. Pinkevich, Yu. A. Reznikov, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, and O. V. Yaroshchuk, “Conformational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals,” Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys.1(3), 447–472 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Jánossy and T. Kósa, “Influence of anthraquinone dyes on optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.17(17), 1183–1185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

I. Jánossy and A. D. Lloyd, “Low-power optical reorientation in dyed nematics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)203(1), 77–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

1981 (2)

A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, and A. P. Sukhorukov, “Self-focusing of laser radiation in the course of the Fréedericksz transition in the nematic phase of a liquid crystal,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.81, 933–941 (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 54(3), 496–500 (1981)].

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, “Laser-induced diffraction rings from a nematic-liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett.6(9), 411–413 (1981).
[PubMed]

1980 (1)

B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant optical nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” JETP Lett.31, 263–267 (1980).

Arakelian, S. M.

Aryasova, N.

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry Peculiarities of Surface-Mediated Liquid Crystals Gratings Recorded Due to Light-Induced Anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnik, M. I.

I. A. Budagovsky, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, S. A. Shvetsov, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, N. I. Boiko, V. P. Shibaev, and M. I. Barnik, “Orientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals induced by high-molecular-mass azo-containing compounds,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A53(8), 655–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zolot’ko, I. A. Budagovsky, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, V. P. Shibaev, N. I. Boiko, A. I. Lysachkov, and M. I. Barnik, “Light-Induced Director Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Azobenzene-Containing Macromolecules of Different Architecture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)488(1), 265–278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bobrovsky, A. Yu.

I. A. Budagovsky, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, S. A. Shvetsov, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, N. I. Boiko, V. P. Shibaev, and M. I. Barnik, “Orientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals induced by high-molecular-mass azo-containing compounds,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A53(8), 655–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zolot’ko, I. A. Budagovsky, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, V. P. Shibaev, N. I. Boiko, A. I. Lysachkov, and M. I. Barnik, “Light-Induced Director Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Azobenzene-Containing Macromolecules of Different Architecture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)488(1), 265–278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boichuk, V.

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry Peculiarities of Surface-Mediated Liquid Crystals Gratings Recorded Due to Light-Induced Anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boiko, N. I.

I. A. Budagovsky, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, S. A. Shvetsov, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, N. I. Boiko, V. P. Shibaev, and M. I. Barnik, “Orientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals induced by high-molecular-mass azo-containing compounds,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A53(8), 655–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zolot’ko, I. A. Budagovsky, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, V. P. Shibaev, N. I. Boiko, A. I. Lysachkov, and M. I. Barnik, “Light-Induced Director Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Azobenzene-Containing Macromolecules of Different Architecture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)488(1), 265–278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Budagovsky, I. A.

I. A. Budagovsky, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, S. A. Shvetsov, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, N. I. Boiko, V. P. Shibaev, and M. I. Barnik, “Orientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals induced by high-molecular-mass azo-containing compounds,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A53(8), 655–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zolot’ko, I. A. Budagovsky, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, V. P. Shibaev, N. I. Boiko, A. I. Lysachkov, and M. I. Barnik, “Light-Induced Director Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Azobenzene-Containing Macromolecules of Different Architecture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)488(1), 265–278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. H.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, “Liquid crystal photorefractivity – towards supra-optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater.18(1), 85–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, P. H. Chen, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, S. Slussarenko, and M. V. Wood, “Supra Optical Nonlinearities of Methyl-Red and Azobenzene Liquid Crystal –doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)358(1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cseh, L.

D. Lysenko, E. Ouskova, S. Ksondzyk, V. Reshetnyak, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced changes of the refractive indices in a colloid of gold nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E35(5), 33–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong Cubic Optical Nonlinearity of Gold Nanoparticles Suspension in Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, M.

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun.233(4-6), 417–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durbin, S. D.

Fedorenko, D.

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry Peculiarities of Surface-Mediated Liquid Crystals Gratings Recorded Due to Light-Induced Anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finn, G. M.

Francescangeli, O.

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun.233(4-6), 417–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Simoni, L. Lucchetti, D. E. Lucchetta, and O. Francescangeli, “On the origin of the huge nonlinear response of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express9(2), 85–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gentili, M.

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, F. Simoni, S. Pavliuchenko, S. Subota, and V. Reshetnyak, “Surface-induced nonlinearities of liquid crystals driven by an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(6), 061706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, “Effects Leading to Colossal Optical Nonlinearity in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(3), 422–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ha, K.-R.

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, J. Y.

Ikeda, T.

Y. Yu and T. Ikeda, “Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev.5(3), 247–265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid Optical Switching by Means of Photoinduced Change in Refractive Index of Azobenzene Liquid Crystals Detected by Reflection-Mode Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(33), 7791–7796 (1997) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Jánossy, I.

I. Jánossy and T. Kósa, “Influence of anthraquinone dyes on optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.17(17), 1183–1185 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Jánossy and A. D. Lloyd, “Low-power optical reorientation in dyed nematics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)203(1), 77–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jarasch, M.

R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Zhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-Induced Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearity in Liquids and Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(1), 42–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaivola, M.

Kanazawa, A.

A. T. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid Optical Switching by Means of Photoinduced Change in Refractive Index of Azobenzene Liquid Crystals Detected by Reflection-Mode Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(33), 7791–7796 (1997) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Karapinar, R.

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, “Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials,” Phys. Rep.471(5-6), 221–267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, P. H. Chen, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, S. Slussarenko, and M. V. Wood, “Supra Optical Nonlinearities of Methyl-Red and Azobenzene Liquid Crystal –doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)358(1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, “Liquid crystal photorefractivity – towards supra-optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater.18(1), 85–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, J. Y. Hou, T. H. Liu, P. Y. Yan, R. R. Michael, and G. M. Finn, “Transverse self-phase modulation and bistability in the transmission of a laser beam through a nonlinear thin film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4(6), 886–891 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kitaeva, V. F.

A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, and D. B. Terskov, “Thermal, orientational, and photo-orientational nonlinearities of azoxy liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP79(6), 931–940 (1994).

A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, and A. P. Sukhorukov, “Self-focusing of laser radiation in the course of the Fréedericksz transition in the nematic phase of a liquid crystal,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.81, 933–941 (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 54(3), 496–500 (1981)].

Kósa, T.

Ksondzyk, S.

D. Lysenko, E. Ouskova, S. Ksondzyk, V. Reshetnyak, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced changes of the refractive indices in a colloid of gold nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E35(5), 33–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong Cubic Optical Nonlinearity of Gold Nanoparticles Suspension in Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuksenok, O. V.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T. H.

Lloyd, A. D.

I. Jánossy and A. D. Lloyd, “Low-power optical reorientation in dyed nematics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)203(1), 77–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lucchetta, D. E.

Lucchetti, L.

L. Lucchetti, S. Suchand, and F. Simoni, “Fine structure in spatial self-phase modulation patterns: at a glance determination of the sign of optical nonlinearity in highly nonlinear films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, F. Simoni, S. Pavliuchenko, S. Subota, and V. Reshetnyak, “Surface-induced nonlinearities of liquid crystals driven by an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(6), 061706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, “Effects Leading to Colossal Optical Nonlinearity in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(3), 422–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun.233(4-6), 417–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, L. Lucchetti, D. E. Lucchetta, and O. Francescangeli, “On the origin of the huge nonlinear response of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express9(2), 85–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lysachkov, A. I.

A. S. Zolot’ko, I. A. Budagovsky, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, V. P. Shibaev, N. I. Boiko, A. I. Lysachkov, and M. I. Barnik, “Light-Induced Director Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Azobenzene-Containing Macromolecules of Different Architecture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)488(1), 265–278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lysenko, D.

D. Lysenko, E. Ouskova, S. Ksondzyk, V. Reshetnyak, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced changes of the refractive indices in a colloid of gold nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E35(5), 33–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong Cubic Optical Nonlinearity of Gold Nanoparticles Suspension in Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marrucci, L.

L. Marrucci, “Mechanisms of giant optical nonlinearity in light-absorbing liquid crystals: a brief primer,” Liq. Cryst. Today11(3), 6–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mehl, G. H.

D. Lysenko, E. Ouskova, S. Ksondzyk, V. Reshetnyak, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced changes of the refractive indices in a colloid of gold nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E35(5), 33–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong Cubic Optical Nonlinearity of Gold Nanoparticles Suspension in Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

Michael, R. R.

Muenster, R.

R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Zhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-Induced Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearity in Liquids and Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(1), 42–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ochkin, V. N.

I. A. Budagovsky, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, S. A. Shvetsov, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, N. I. Boiko, V. P. Shibaev, and M. I. Barnik, “Orientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals induced by high-molecular-mass azo-containing compounds,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A53(8), 655–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zolot’ko, I. A. Budagovsky, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, V. P. Shibaev, N. I. Boiko, A. I. Lysachkov, and M. I. Barnik, “Light-Induced Director Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Azobenzene-Containing Macromolecules of Different Architecture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)488(1), 265–278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ouskova, E.

D. Lysenko, E. Ouskova, S. Ksondzyk, V. Reshetnyak, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced changes of the refractive indices in a colloid of gold nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E35(5), 33–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, J. Vapaavuori, and M. Kaivola, “Self-orienting liquid crystal doped with polymer-azo-dye complex,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1463–1470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong Cubic Optical Nonlinearity of Gold Nanoparticles Suspension in Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry Peculiarities of Surface-Mediated Liquid Crystals Gratings Recorded Due to Light-Induced Anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavliuchenko, S.

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, F. Simoni, S. Pavliuchenko, S. Subota, and V. Reshetnyak, “Surface-induced nonlinearities of liquid crystals driven by an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(6), 061706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilipetskii, N. F.

B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant optical nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” JETP Lett.31, 263–267 (1980).

Pinkevich, I. P.

I. P. Pinkevich, Yu. A. Reznikov, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, and O. V. Yaroshchuk, “Conformational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals,” Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys.1(3), 447–472 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

D. Lysenko, E. Ouskova, S. Ksondzyk, V. Reshetnyak, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced changes of the refractive indices in a colloid of gold nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E35(5), 33–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong Cubic Optical Nonlinearity of Gold Nanoparticles Suspension in Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, F. Simoni, S. Pavliuchenko, S. Subota, and V. Reshetnyak, “Surface-induced nonlinearities of liquid crystals driven by an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(6), 061706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reshetnyak, V. Yu.

I. P. Pinkevich, Yu. A. Reznikov, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, and O. V. Yaroshchuk, “Conformational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals,” Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys.1(3), 447–472 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Yu.

D. Lysenko, E. Ouskova, S. Ksondzyk, V. Reshetnyak, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced changes of the refractive indices in a colloid of gold nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E35(5), 33–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong Cubic Optical Nonlinearity of Gold Nanoparticles Suspension in Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry Peculiarities of Surface-Mediated Liquid Crystals Gratings Recorded Due to Light-Induced Anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reznikov, Yu. A.

I. P. Pinkevich, Yu. A. Reznikov, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, and O. V. Yaroshchuk, “Conformational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals,” Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys.1(3), 447–472 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Santamato, E.

Shen, Y. R.

Shibaev, V. P.

I. A. Budagovsky, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, S. A. Shvetsov, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, N. I. Boiko, V. P. Shibaev, and M. I. Barnik, “Orientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals induced by high-molecular-mass azo-containing compounds,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A53(8), 655–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zolot’ko, I. A. Budagovsky, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, V. P. Shibaev, N. I. Boiko, A. I. Lysachkov, and M. I. Barnik, “Light-Induced Director Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Azobenzene-Containing Macromolecules of Different Architecture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)488(1), 265–278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M. Y.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, “Liquid crystal photorefractivity – towards supra-optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater.18(1), 85–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, P. H. Chen, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, S. Slussarenko, and M. V. Wood, “Supra Optical Nonlinearities of Methyl-Red and Azobenzene Liquid Crystal –doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)358(1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shiono, T.

A. T. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid Optical Switching by Means of Photoinduced Change in Refractive Index of Azobenzene Liquid Crystals Detected by Reflection-Mode Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(33), 7791–7796 (1997) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Shishido, A.

I. C. Khoo, P. H. Chen, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, S. Slussarenko, and M. V. Wood, “Supra Optical Nonlinearities of Methyl-Red and Azobenzene Liquid Crystal –doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)358(1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, “Liquid crystal photorefractivity – towards supra-optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater.18(1), 85–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shishido, A. T.

A. T. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid Optical Switching by Means of Photoinduced Change in Refractive Index of Azobenzene Liquid Crystals Detected by Reflection-Mode Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(33), 7791–7796 (1997) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvetsov, S. A.

I. A. Budagovsky, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, S. A. Shvetsov, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, N. I. Boiko, V. P. Shibaev, and M. I. Barnik, “Orientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals induced by high-molecular-mass azo-containing compounds,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A53(8), 655–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

L. Lucchetti, S. Suchand, and F. Simoni, “Fine structure in spatial self-phase modulation patterns: at a glance determination of the sign of optical nonlinearity in highly nonlinear films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, F. Simoni, S. Pavliuchenko, S. Subota, and V. Reshetnyak, “Surface-induced nonlinearities of liquid crystals driven by an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(6), 061706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, “Effects Leading to Colossal Optical Nonlinearity in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(3), 422–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun.233(4-6), 417–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Simoni, L. Lucchetti, D. E. Lucchetta, and O. Francescangeli, “On the origin of the huge nonlinear response of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express9(2), 85–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slussarenko, S.

I. C. Khoo, P. H. Chen, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, S. Slussarenko, and M. V. Wood, “Supra Optical Nonlinearities of Methyl-Red and Azobenzene Liquid Crystal –doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)358(1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slyusarenko, K.

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry Peculiarities of Surface-Mediated Liquid Crystals Gratings Recorded Due to Light-Induced Anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smayev, M. P.

I. A. Budagovsky, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, S. A. Shvetsov, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, N. I. Boiko, V. P. Shibaev, and M. I. Barnik, “Orientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals induced by high-molecular-mass azo-containing compounds,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A53(8), 655–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zolot’ko, I. A. Budagovsky, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, V. P. Shibaev, N. I. Boiko, A. I. Lysachkov, and M. I. Barnik, “Light-Induced Director Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Azobenzene-Containing Macromolecules of Different Architecture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)488(1), 265–278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sobolev, N. N.

A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, and A. P. Sukhorukov, “Self-focusing of laser radiation in the course of the Fréedericksz transition in the nematic phase of a liquid crystal,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.81, 933–941 (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 54(3), 496–500 (1981)].

Su, L.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subota, S.

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, F. Simoni, S. Pavliuchenko, S. Subota, and V. Reshetnyak, “Surface-induced nonlinearities of liquid crystals driven by an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(6), 061706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suchand, S.

L. Lucchetti, S. Suchand, and F. Simoni, “Fine structure in spatial self-phase modulation patterns: at a glance determination of the sign of optical nonlinearity in highly nonlinear films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, A. P.

A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, and A. P. Sukhorukov, “Self-focusing of laser radiation in the course of the Fréedericksz transition in the nematic phase of a liquid crystal,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.81, 933–941 (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 54(3), 496–500 (1981)].

Sukhov, A. V.

B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant optical nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” JETP Lett.31, 263–267 (1980).

Tabiryan, N. V.

B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant optical nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” JETP Lett.31, 263–267 (1980).

Tamai, N.

A. T. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid Optical Switching by Means of Photoinduced Change in Refractive Index of Azobenzene Liquid Crystals Detected by Reflection-Mode Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(33), 7791–7796 (1997) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Terskov, D. B.

A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, and D. B. Terskov, “Thermal, orientational, and photo-orientational nonlinearities of azoxy liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP79(6), 931–940 (1994).

Tsutsumi, O.

A. T. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid Optical Switching by Means of Photoinduced Change in Refractive Index of Azobenzene Liquid Crystals Detected by Reflection-Mode Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(33), 7791–7796 (1997) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Vapaavuori, J.

West, J. L.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, M. V.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, “Liquid crystal photorefractivity – towards supra-optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater.18(1), 85–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, P. H. Chen, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, S. Slussarenko, and M. V. Wood, “Supra Optical Nonlinearities of Methyl-Red and Azobenzene Liquid Crystal –doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)358(1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yan, P. Y.

Yaroshchuk, O. V.

I. P. Pinkevich, Yu. A. Reznikov, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, and O. V. Yaroshchuk, “Conformational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals,” Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys.1(3), 447–472 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu and T. Ikeda, “Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev.5(3), 247–265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zel’dovich, B. Y.

B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant optical nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” JETP Lett.31, 263–267 (1980).

Zhuang, X.

R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Zhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-Induced Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearity in Liquids and Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(1), 42–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zolot’ko, A. S.

I. A. Budagovsky, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, S. A. Shvetsov, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, N. I. Boiko, V. P. Shibaev, and M. I. Barnik, “Orientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals induced by high-molecular-mass azo-containing compounds,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A53(8), 655–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zolot’ko, I. A. Budagovsky, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, V. P. Shibaev, N. I. Boiko, A. I. Lysachkov, and M. I. Barnik, “Light-Induced Director Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Azobenzene-Containing Macromolecules of Different Architecture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)488(1), 265–278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, and D. B. Terskov, “Thermal, orientational, and photo-orientational nonlinearities of azoxy liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP79(6), 931–940 (1994).

A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, and A. P. Sukhorukov, “Self-focusing of laser radiation in the course of the Fréedericksz transition in the nematic phase of a liquid crystal,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.81, 933–941 (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 54(3), 496–500 (1981)].

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

D. Lysenko, E. Ouskova, S. Ksondzyk, V. Reshetnyak, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced changes of the refractive indices in a colloid of gold nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal,” Eur. Phys. J. E35(5), 33–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, and F. Simoni, “Effects Leading to Colossal Optical Nonlinearity in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(3), 422–430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. (1)

I. P. Pinkevich, Yu. A. Reznikov, V. Yu. Reshetnyak, and O. V. Yaroshchuk, “Conformational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals,” Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys.1(3), 447–472 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. T. Shishido, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and N. Tamai, “Rapid Optical Switching by Means of Photoinduced Change in Refractive Index of Azobenzene Liquid Crystals Detected by Reflection-Mode Analysis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(33), 7791–7796 (1997) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

L. Lucchetti, S. Suchand, and F. Simoni, “Fine structure in spatial self-phase modulation patterns: at a glance determination of the sign of optical nonlinearity in highly nonlinear films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(3), 034002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. (1)

Y. Yu and T. Ikeda, “Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev.5(3), 247–265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant optical nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” JETP Lett.31, 263–267 (1980).

Liq. Cryst. Today (1)

L. Marrucci, “Mechanisms of giant optical nonlinearity in light-absorbing liquid crystals: a brief primer,” Liq. Cryst. Today11(3), 6–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (5)

I. C. Khoo, P. H. Chen, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, S. Slussarenko, and M. V. Wood, “Supra Optical Nonlinearities of Methyl-Red and Azobenzene Liquid Crystal –doped Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)358(1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Jánossy and A. D. Lloyd, “Low-power optical reorientation in dyed nematics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)203(1), 77–84 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zolot’ko, I. A. Budagovsky, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, V. P. Shibaev, N. I. Boiko, A. I. Lysachkov, and M. I. Barnik, “Light-Induced Director Reorientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Azobenzene-Containing Macromolecules of Different Architecture,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)488(1), 265–278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry Peculiarities of Surface-Mediated Liquid Crystals Gratings Recorded Due to Light-Induced Anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong Cubic Optical Nonlinearity of Gold Nanoparticles Suspension in Nematic Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun.233(4-6), 417–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, “Liquid crystal photorefractivity – towards supra-optical nonlinearity,” Opt. Mater.18(1), 85–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

I. C. Khoo, “Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials,” Phys. Rep.471(5-6), 221–267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (4)

L. Lucchetti, M. Gentili, F. Simoni, S. Pavliuchenko, S. Subota, and V. Reshetnyak, “Surface-induced nonlinearities of liquid crystals driven by an electric field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.78(6), 061706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Zhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-Induced Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearity in Liquids and Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(1), 42–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Sci. Ser. A (1)

I. A. Budagovsky, A. S. Zolot’ko, V. N. Ochkin, M. P. Smayev, S. A. Shvetsov, A. Yu. Bobrovsky, N. I. Boiko, V. P. Shibaev, and M. I. Barnik, “Orientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid crystals induced by high-molecular-mass azo-containing compounds,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A53(8), 655–665 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, and D. B. Terskov, “Thermal, orientational, and photo-orientational nonlinearities of azoxy liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. JETP79(6), 931–940 (1994).

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

A. S. Zolot’ko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. N. Sobolev, and A. P. Sukhorukov, “Self-focusing of laser radiation in the course of the Fréedericksz transition in the nematic phase of a liquid crystal,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.81, 933–941 (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 54(3), 496–500 (1981)].

Other (1)

polyimide poly(4,4'-oxydiphenylene-pyromellitimide was synthesized by I. Gerus (Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Ukraine), analogue to Kapton® from DuPont.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental set-up. 1 – laser, λ = 457 nm, P < 9 mW; beam waist in focus ≈58 μm; 2 – polarizer; 3 – lens (f = 15 cm); 4 – cell filled with complex-doped LC, homeotropically aligned; 5 – screen. dLC || klight (normal incidence).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical structure of the system of aberration rings observed in the far field when irradiating 5CB + 0.5%P4VP(CHAB)0.5 at normal incidence (a-j) and at 50° angle of incidence with p-polarized light (k-l). The cell thickness is L = 82 μm. Laser beam power: (a) 1.2 mW; (b) 1.5 mW; (c) 1.9 mW; (d) 2.3 mW; (e) 2.7 mW; (f) 3.1 mW; (g) 4.0 mW; (h) 6.4 mW; (i) 7.5 mW; (j) 8.9 mW; (k) 0.5 mW and (l) 2.0 mW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The number of rings of the aberration pattern as a function of beam power for different thicknesses of the cells filled with 5CB + 0.5% P4VP(CHAB)0.5 (after anchoring transition). The cell’s thickness: (A) – 23 μm; (B) – 55 μm; (C) – 82 μm; (D) – 160 μm. The data correspond to the non-diverging case.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The number of rings of the aberration pattern as a function of the beam power for different concentrations c of the complex in self-orienting 5CB + c % P4VP(CHAB)0.5. The cells are made of pure glass. (b) The dependence of the induced refractive index change on the beam power in: (A) self-orienting 5CB + 0.5% P4VP(CHAB)0.5, (B) homeotropically aligned 5CB + 0.25% CHAB. The cell thickness is 80 μm, and the data correspond to the non-diverging case of the aberration structure.

Equations (1)

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N= | Δn | λ L,

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