Abstract

Graphene is of great interest for future applications in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) due to its high three-dimensional aspect ratio, large specific surface area, remarkable optical transmittance, extraordinary thermal response, excellent electron/hole transport properties, superior mechanical stiffness and flexibility. Graphene-based functional materials can be used as transparent window/counter electrodes, interface layers, hole/electron transport materials and can also function as buffer layers to retard charge recombination in OPVs. Future work would focus on the following aspects: (a) design and preparation of novel graphene-based functional materials with good stability, high transparency and excellent conductivity for OPVs; (b) development of the new approaches that constitute a significant advance toward the production of graphene-based transparent conductive electrodes in OPVs; (c) evaluation on the long terms stability of devices with GO based modifying layers; (d) delicate control of unique graphene nanostructures; and (e) interface engineering of the graphene in terms of modifying its work function and surface free energy.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (9)

B. Zhang, Y. Chen, G. Liu, L.-Q. Xu, J. Chen, C.-X. Zhu, K.-G. Neoh, and E.-T. Kang, “Push-pull archetype of reduced graphene oxide functionalized with polyfluorene for nonvolatile rewritable memory,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.50(2), 378–387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Y. Wang, D. He, Z. Liu, H. Wu, H. Wang, P. Zhou, and M. Fu, “Polymer bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices based on complex donors and solution-processable functionalized graphene oxide,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 58–65 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, L. Liu, H. Li, Q. Dong, S. Yao, A. B. Kidd, X. Zhang, J. Li, and W. Tian, “Green polymer solar cell based on water-soluble poly [3-(potassium-6- hexanoate) thiophene-2,5-diyl] and aqueous-dispersible noncovalent functionalized graphene sheets,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells97, 28–33 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Z. Pan, Y. Fu, Y. Chen, Z. Xie, and B. Zhang, “Soluble reduced graphene oxide functionalized with conjugated polymer for heterojunction solar cells,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.50(9), 1663–1671 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Choi, S. J. Kang, H.-K. Kim, W. M. Choi, and S. I. Na, “Multilayer graphene films as transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 281–285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, H. Bi, D. Wan, and F. Huang, “Novel Cu nanowires/graphene as the back contact for CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(6), 1267–1271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, F. Xu, J. Wu, K. Qasim, Y. Zhou, W. Lei, L. T. Sun, and Y. Zhang, “Flexible photovoltaic cells based on a graphene-CdSe quantum dot nanocomposite,” Nanoscale4(2), 441–443 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, P. R. Brown, V. Bulović, and J. Kong, “Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes,” Nano Lett.12(1), 133–140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. Li, Z. H. Sun, G. Tai, S. P. Lau, and F. Yan, “The application of highly doped single-layer graphene as the top electrodes of semitransparent organic solar cells,” ACS Nano6(1), 810–818 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (22)

Y. Wang, S. W. Tong, X. F. Xu, B. Özyilmaz, and K. P. Loh, “Interface engineering of layer-by-layer stacked graphene anodes for high-performance organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(13), 1514–1518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Tong, Y. Wang, Y. Zheng, M. F. Ng, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene intermediate layer in tandem organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(23), 4430–4435 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, L. Fan, Z. Li, E. Shi, X. Li, H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Jia, J. Wei, K. Wang, H. Zhu, D. Wu, and A. Cao, “Graphene–CdSe nanobelt solar cells with Tunable Configurations,” Nano Res.4(9), 891–900 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Radich, R. Dwyer, and P. V. Kamat, “Cu2S reduced graphene oxide composite for high-efficiency quantum dot solar cells. Overcoming the redox limitations of S2-/Sn2- at the Counter Electrode,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(19), 2453–2460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. D. Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, and S. Chand, “Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(26), 9960–9963 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Ryu and J. Jang, “Effect of solution processed graphene oxide/nickel oxide bi-layer on cell performance of bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(10), 2893–2896 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ye, L. Gan, L. Dai, Y. Dai, X. Guo, H. Meng, B. Yu, Z. Shi, K. Shang, and G. Qin, “A simple and scalable graphene patterning method and its application in CdSe nanobelt/graphene Schottky junction solar cells,” Nanoscale3(4), 1477–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-M. Sung, F.-C. Hsu, D.-Y. Wang, I.-S. Wang, C.-C. Chen, H.-C. Liao, W.-F. Su, and Y.-F. Chen, “Enhanced charge extraction in inverted hybrid photovoltaic cells assisted by graphene nanoflakes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(43), 17462–17467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Murray, S. J. Lou, L. J. Cote, S. Loser, C. J. Kadleck, T. Xu, J. M. Szarko, B. S. Rolczynski, J. E. Johns, J. Huang, L. Yu, L. X. Chen, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Graphene oxide interlayers for robust, high-efficiency organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(24), 3006–3012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, C. Xu, L. Huang, L. Zou, and H. Wang, “Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide,” Nanotechnology22(40), 405401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kymakis, E. Stratakis, M. M. Stylianakis, E. Koudoumas, and C. Fotakis, “Spin coated graphene films as the transparent electrode in organic photovoltaic devices,” Thin Solid Films520(4), 1238–1241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Yu, K. Park, M. Durstock, and L. Dai, “Fullerene-grafted graphene for efficient bulk heterojunction polymer photovoltaic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(10), 1113–1118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Zhao, G. Shi, L. Deng, Y. Hou, and L. Qu, “An electrochemical avenue to green-luminescent graphene quantum dots as potential electron-acceptors for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(6), 776–780 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, C. P. Puls, N. E. Staley, Y. Zhang, A. Todd, J. Xu, C. A. Howsare, M. J. Hollander, J. A. Robinson, and Y. Liu, “Technology ready use of single layer graphene as a transparent electrode for hybrid photovoltaic devices,” Physica E44(2), 521–524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, V. C. Tung, and J. Huang, “Water processable graphene oxide: single walled carbon nanotube composite as anode modifier for polymer solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater.1(6), 1052–1057 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Yun, J. S. Yeo, J. Kim, H. G. Jeong, D. Y. Kim, Y. J. Noh, S. S. Kim, B. C. Ku, and S. I. Na, “Solution-processable reduced graphene oxide as a novel alternative to PEDOT:PSS hole transport layers for highly efficient and stable polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(42), 4923–4928 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Lee, K. H. Tu, C. C. Yu, S. S. Li, J. Y. Hwang, C. C. Lin, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, H. L. Chen, and C. W. Chen, “Top laminated graphene electrode in a semitransparent polymer solar cell by simultaneous thermal annealing/releasing method,” ACS Nano5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Hill, Y. Zhu, and S. Pan, “Fluorescence and electroluminescence quenching evidence of interfacial charge transfer in poly (3-hexylthiophene): graphene oxide bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano5(2), 942–951 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, G. Liu, Y. Chen, L. J. Zeng, C.-X. Zhu, K.-G. Neoh, C. Wang, and E.-T. Kang, “Conjugated polymer-grafted reduced graphene oxide for nonvolatile rewritable memory,” Chem. Eur. J.17(49), 13646–13652 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, X. Li, L. Fan, K. Wang, and H. Zhu, “Polymer solar cells with gold nanoclusters decorated multi-layer graphene as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(22), 223302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Li, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, M. Feng, X. Zhuang, Y. Lin, and H. Zhan, “Charm-bracelet-type poly(N-vinylcarbazole) functionalized with reduced graphene oxide for broadband optical limiting,” Chem. Eur. J.17(3), 780–785 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (9)

Z. Liu, D. He, Y. Wang, H. Wu, and J. Wang, “Graphene doping of P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic devices,” Synth. Met.160(9-10), 1036–1039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Yong and J. M. Tour, “Theoretical efficiency of nanostructured graphene-based photovoltaics,” Small6(2), 313–318 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Valentini, M. Cardinali, S. Bittolo Bon, D. Bagnis, R. Verdejo, M. A. Lopez-Manchado, and J. M. Kenny, “Use of butylamine modified graphene sheets in polymer solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem.20(5), 995–1000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Kalita, M. Matsushima, H. Uchida, K. Wakita, and M. Umeno, “Graphene constructed carbon thin films as transparent electrodes for solar cell applications,” J. Mater. Chem.20(43), 9713–9717 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Yu, Y. Yang, M. Durstock, J. B. Baek, and L. Dai, “Soluble P3HT-grafted graphene for efficient bilayer-heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano4(10), 5633–5640 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Li, K. H. Tu, C. C. Lin, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole transport layer in polymer solar cells,” ACS Nano4(6), 3169–3174 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Choe, B. H. Lee, G. Jo, J. Park, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, M. J. Seong, Y. H. Kahng, K. Lee, and T. Lee, “Efficient bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells with transparent multi-layer graphene electrodes,” Org. Electron.11(11), 1864–1869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ye, Y. Dai, L. Dai, Z. Shi, N. Liu, F. Wang, L. Fu, R. Peng, X. Wen, Z. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Qin, “High-performance single CdS nanowire (nanobelt) Schottky junction solar cells with Au/graphene Schottky electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(12), 3406–3410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, S. Sun, T. Salim, S. Wu, X. Huang, Q. He, Y. M. Lam, and H. Zhang, “Organic photovoltaic devices using highly flexible reduced graphene oxide films as transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano4(9), 5263–5268 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

J. S. Moon, J. K. Lee, S. N. Cho, J. Y. Byun, and A. J. Heeger, ““Columnlike” structure of the cross-sectional morphology of bulk heterojunction materials,” Nano Lett.9(1), 230–234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Yang, N. Zhang, G. Pan, S. Yin, Y. Chen, and J. Wei, “Polymer photovoltaic cells based on solution-processable graphene and P3HT,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 894–904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen and N. J. Tao, “Electron transport in single molecules: from benzene to graphene,” Acc. Chem. Res.42(3), 429–438 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Dreyer, S. Park, C. W. Bielawski, and R. S. Ruoff, “The chemistry of graphene oxide,” Chem. Soc. Rev.39(1), 228–240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Park and R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical methods for the production of graphenes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(4), 217–224 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Z. Liu, Q. Liu, Y. Huang, Y. Ma, S. Yin, X. Zhang, W. Sun, and Y. Chen, “Organic photovoltaic devices based on a novel acceptor material: graphene,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(20), 3924–3930 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Wu, W. Pisula, and K. Müllen, “Graphenes as potential material for electronics,” Chem. Rev.107(3), 718–747 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baek, J. B.

D. Yu, Y. Yang, M. Durstock, J. B. Baek, and L. Dai, “Soluble P3HT-grafted graphene for efficient bilayer-heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano4(10), 5633–5640 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagnis, D.

L. Valentini, M. Cardinali, S. Bittolo Bon, D. Bagnis, R. Verdejo, M. A. Lopez-Manchado, and J. M. Kenny, “Use of butylamine modified graphene sheets in polymer solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem.20(5), 995–1000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, R.

V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. D. Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, and S. Chand, “Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(26), 9960–9963 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bi, H.

J. Liang, H. Bi, D. Wan, and F. Huang, “Novel Cu nanowires/graphene as the back contact for CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(6), 1267–1271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bielawski, C. W.

D. R. Dreyer, S. Park, C. W. Bielawski, and R. S. Ruoff, “The chemistry of graphene oxide,” Chem. Soc. Rev.39(1), 228–240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bittolo Bon, S.

L. Valentini, M. Cardinali, S. Bittolo Bon, D. Bagnis, R. Verdejo, M. A. Lopez-Manchado, and J. M. Kenny, “Use of butylamine modified graphene sheets in polymer solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem.20(5), 995–1000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, P. R.

H. Park, P. R. Brown, V. Bulović, and J. Kong, “Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes,” Nano Lett.12(1), 133–140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulovic, V.

H. Park, P. R. Brown, V. Bulović, and J. Kong, “Graphene as transparent conducting electrodes in organic photovoltaics: studies in graphene morphology, hole transporting layers, and counter electrodes,” Nano Lett.12(1), 133–140 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byun, J. Y.

J. S. Moon, J. K. Lee, S. N. Cho, J. Y. Byun, and A. J. Heeger, ““Columnlike” structure of the cross-sectional morphology of bulk heterojunction materials,” Nano Lett.9(1), 230–234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, A.

L. Zhang, L. Fan, Z. Li, E. Shi, X. Li, H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Jia, J. Wei, K. Wang, H. Zhu, D. Wu, and A. Cao, “Graphene–CdSe nanobelt solar cells with Tunable Configurations,” Nano Res.4(9), 891–900 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cardinali, M.

L. Valentini, M. Cardinali, S. Bittolo Bon, D. Bagnis, R. Verdejo, M. A. Lopez-Manchado, and J. M. Kenny, “Use of butylamine modified graphene sheets in polymer solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem.20(5), 995–1000 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chand, S.

V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. D. Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, and S. Chand, “Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(26), 9960–9963 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhary, N.

V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. D. Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, and S. Chand, “Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(26), 9960–9963 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. W.

Y. Y. Lee, K. H. Tu, C. C. Yu, S. S. Li, J. Y. Hwang, C. C. Lin, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, H. L. Chen, and C. W. Chen, “Top laminated graphene electrode in a semitransparent polymer solar cell by simultaneous thermal annealing/releasing method,” ACS Nano5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Li, K. H. Tu, C. C. Lin, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole transport layer in polymer solar cells,” ACS Nano4(6), 3169–3174 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-C.

Y.-M. Sung, F.-C. Hsu, D.-Y. Wang, I.-S. Wang, C.-C. Chen, H.-C. Liao, W.-F. Su, and Y.-F. Chen, “Enhanced charge extraction in inverted hybrid photovoltaic cells assisted by graphene nanoflakes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(43), 17462–17467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen and N. J. Tao, “Electron transport in single molecules: from benzene to graphene,” Acc. Chem. Res.42(3), 429–438 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. L.

Y. Y. Lee, K. H. Tu, C. C. Yu, S. S. Li, J. Y. Hwang, C. C. Lin, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, H. L. Chen, and C. W. Chen, “Top laminated graphene electrode in a semitransparent polymer solar cell by simultaneous thermal annealing/releasing method,” ACS Nano5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

B. Zhang, Y. Chen, G. Liu, L.-Q. Xu, J. Chen, C.-X. Zhu, K.-G. Neoh, and E.-T. Kang, “Push-pull archetype of reduced graphene oxide functionalized with polyfluorene for nonvolatile rewritable memory,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.50(2), 378–387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, F. Xu, J. Wu, K. Qasim, Y. Zhou, W. Lei, L. T. Sun, and Y. Zhang, “Flexible photovoltaic cells based on a graphene-CdSe quantum dot nanocomposite,” Nanoscale4(2), 441–443 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. H.

Y. Y. Lee, K. H. Tu, C. C. Yu, S. S. Li, J. Y. Hwang, C. C. Lin, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, H. L. Chen, and C. W. Chen, “Top laminated graphene electrode in a semitransparent polymer solar cell by simultaneous thermal annealing/releasing method,” ACS Nano5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. C.

Y. Y. Lee, K. H. Tu, C. C. Yu, S. S. Li, J. Y. Hwang, C. C. Lin, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, H. L. Chen, and C. W. Chen, “Top laminated graphene electrode in a semitransparent polymer solar cell by simultaneous thermal annealing/releasing method,” ACS Nano5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. X.

I. P. Murray, S. J. Lou, L. J. Cote, S. Loser, C. J. Kadleck, T. Xu, J. M. Szarko, B. S. Rolczynski, J. E. Johns, J. Huang, L. Yu, L. X. Chen, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Graphene oxide interlayers for robust, high-efficiency organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(24), 3006–3012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Li, Z. Pan, Y. Fu, Y. Chen, Z. Xie, and B. Zhang, “Soluble reduced graphene oxide functionalized with conjugated polymer for heterojunction solar cells,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.50(9), 1663–1671 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, Y. Chen, G. Liu, L.-Q. Xu, J. Chen, C.-X. Zhu, K.-G. Neoh, and E.-T. Kang, “Push-pull archetype of reduced graphene oxide functionalized with polyfluorene for nonvolatile rewritable memory,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.50(2), 378–387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Li, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, M. Feng, X. Zhuang, Y. Lin, and H. Zhan, “Charm-bracelet-type poly(N-vinylcarbazole) functionalized with reduced graphene oxide for broadband optical limiting,” Chem. Eur. J.17(3), 780–785 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, G. Liu, Y. Chen, L. J. Zeng, C.-X. Zhu, K.-G. Neoh, C. Wang, and E.-T. Kang, “Conjugated polymer-grafted reduced graphene oxide for nonvolatile rewritable memory,” Chem. Eur. J.17(49), 13646–13652 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Yang, N. Zhang, G. Pan, S. Yin, Y. Chen, and J. Wei, “Polymer photovoltaic cells based on solution-processable graphene and P3HT,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 894–904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, Q. Liu, Y. Huang, Y. Ma, S. Yin, X. Zhang, W. Sun, and Y. Chen, “Organic photovoltaic devices based on a novel acceptor material: graphene,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(20), 3924–3930 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, B. Zhang, G. Liu, X. Zhuang, and E.-T. Kang, “Graphene and its derivatives: switching ON and OFF?” Chem. Soc. Rev. (to be published), DOI: .
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-F.

Y.-M. Sung, F.-C. Hsu, D.-Y. Wang, I.-S. Wang, C.-C. Chen, H.-C. Liao, W.-F. Su, and Y.-F. Chen, “Enhanced charge extraction in inverted hybrid photovoltaic cells assisted by graphene nanoflakes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(43), 17462–17467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Y. Ye, Y. Dai, L. Dai, Z. Shi, N. Liu, F. Wang, L. Fu, R. Peng, X. Wen, Z. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Qin, “High-performance single CdS nanowire (nanobelt) Schottky junction solar cells with Au/graphene Schottky electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(12), 3406–3410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chhowalla, M.

S. S. Li, K. H. Tu, C. C. Lin, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole transport layer in polymer solar cells,” ACS Nano4(6), 3169–3174 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S. N.

J. S. Moon, J. K. Lee, S. N. Cho, J. Y. Byun, and A. J. Heeger, ““Columnlike” structure of the cross-sectional morphology of bulk heterojunction materials,” Nano Lett.9(1), 230–234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, M.

M. Choe, B. H. Lee, G. Jo, J. Park, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, M. J. Seong, Y. H. Kahng, K. Lee, and T. Lee, “Efficient bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells with transparent multi-layer graphene electrodes,” Org. Electron.11(11), 1864–1869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. M.

Y. Y. Choi, S. J. Kang, H.-K. Kim, W. M. Choi, and S. I. Na, “Multilayer graphene films as transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 281–285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Choi, S. J. Kang, H.-K. Kim, W. M. Choi, and S. I. Na, “Multilayer graphene films as transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 281–285 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choy, W. C. H.

D. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, X. Li, L. Fan, K. Wang, and H. Zhu, “Polymer solar cells with gold nanoclusters decorated multi-layer graphene as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(22), 223302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cote, L. J.

I. P. Murray, S. J. Lou, L. J. Cote, S. Loser, C. J. Kadleck, T. Xu, J. M. Szarko, B. S. Rolczynski, J. E. Johns, J. Huang, L. Yu, L. X. Chen, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Graphene oxide interlayers for robust, high-efficiency organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(24), 3006–3012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

Y. Ye, L. Gan, L. Dai, Y. Dai, X. Guo, H. Meng, B. Yu, Z. Shi, K. Shang, and G. Qin, “A simple and scalable graphene patterning method and its application in CdSe nanobelt/graphene Schottky junction solar cells,” Nanoscale3(4), 1477–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yu, K. Park, M. Durstock, and L. Dai, “Fullerene-grafted graphene for efficient bulk heterojunction polymer photovoltaic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(10), 1113–1118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ye, Y. Dai, L. Dai, Z. Shi, N. Liu, F. Wang, L. Fu, R. Peng, X. Wen, Z. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Qin, “High-performance single CdS nanowire (nanobelt) Schottky junction solar cells with Au/graphene Schottky electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(12), 3406–3410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yu, Y. Yang, M. Durstock, J. B. Baek, and L. Dai, “Soluble P3HT-grafted graphene for efficient bilayer-heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano4(10), 5633–5640 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, Y.

Y. Ye, L. Gan, L. Dai, Y. Dai, X. Guo, H. Meng, B. Yu, Z. Shi, K. Shang, and G. Qin, “A simple and scalable graphene patterning method and its application in CdSe nanobelt/graphene Schottky junction solar cells,” Nanoscale3(4), 1477–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ye, Y. Dai, L. Dai, Z. Shi, N. Liu, F. Wang, L. Fu, R. Peng, X. Wen, Z. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Qin, “High-performance single CdS nanowire (nanobelt) Schottky junction solar cells with Au/graphene Schottky electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(12), 3406–3410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, L.

Y. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Zhao, G. Shi, L. Deng, Y. Hou, and L. Qu, “An electrochemical avenue to green-luminescent graphene quantum dots as potential electron-acceptors for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(6), 776–780 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, Q.

Z. Liu, L. Liu, H. Li, Q. Dong, S. Yao, A. B. Kidd, X. Zhang, J. Li, and W. Tian, “Green polymer solar cell based on water-soluble poly [3-(potassium-6- hexanoate) thiophene-2,5-diyl] and aqueous-dispersible noncovalent functionalized graphene sheets,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells97, 28–33 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dreyer, D. R.

D. R. Dreyer, S. Park, C. W. Bielawski, and R. S. Ruoff, “The chemistry of graphene oxide,” Chem. Soc. Rev.39(1), 228–240 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durstock, M.

D. Yu, K. Park, M. Durstock, and L. Dai, “Fullerene-grafted graphene for efficient bulk heterojunction polymer photovoltaic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(10), 1113–1118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Yu, Y. Yang, M. Durstock, J. B. Baek, and L. Dai, “Soluble P3HT-grafted graphene for efficient bilayer-heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano4(10), 5633–5640 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwyer, R.

J. G. Radich, R. Dwyer, and P. V. Kamat, “Cu2S reduced graphene oxide composite for high-efficiency quantum dot solar cells. Overcoming the redox limitations of S2-/Sn2- at the Counter Electrode,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(19), 2453–2460 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, L.

L. Zhang, L. Fan, Z. Li, E. Shi, X. Li, H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Jia, J. Wei, K. Wang, H. Zhu, D. Wu, and A. Cao, “Graphene–CdSe nanobelt solar cells with Tunable Configurations,” Nano Res.4(9), 891–900 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, X. Li, L. Fan, K. Wang, and H. Zhu, “Polymer solar cells with gold nanoclusters decorated multi-layer graphene as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(22), 223302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, M.

P. P. Li, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, M. Feng, X. Zhuang, Y. Lin, and H. Zhan, “Charm-bracelet-type poly(N-vinylcarbazole) functionalized with reduced graphene oxide for broadband optical limiting,” Chem. Eur. J.17(3), 780–785 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fotakis, C.

E. Kymakis, E. Stratakis, M. M. Stylianakis, E. Koudoumas, and C. Fotakis, “Spin coated graphene films as the transparent electrode in organic photovoltaic devices,” Thin Solid Films520(4), 1238–1241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Y. Ye, Y. Dai, L. Dai, Z. Shi, N. Liu, F. Wang, L. Fu, R. Peng, X. Wen, Z. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Qin, “High-performance single CdS nanowire (nanobelt) Schottky junction solar cells with Au/graphene Schottky electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(12), 3406–3410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, M.

J. Wang, Y. Wang, D. He, Z. Liu, H. Wu, H. Wang, P. Zhou, and M. Fu, “Polymer bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices based on complex donors and solution-processable functionalized graphene oxide,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 58–65 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Y. Li, Z. Pan, Y. Fu, Y. Chen, Z. Xie, and B. Zhang, “Soluble reduced graphene oxide functionalized with conjugated polymer for heterojunction solar cells,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.50(9), 1663–1671 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gan, L.

Y. Ye, L. Gan, L. Dai, Y. Dai, X. Guo, H. Meng, B. Yu, Z. Shi, K. Shang, and G. Qin, “A simple and scalable graphene patterning method and its application in CdSe nanobelt/graphene Schottky junction solar cells,” Nanoscale3(4), 1477–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

Y. Ye, L. Gan, L. Dai, Y. Dai, X. Guo, H. Meng, B. Yu, Z. Shi, K. Shang, and G. Qin, “A simple and scalable graphene patterning method and its application in CdSe nanobelt/graphene Schottky junction solar cells,” Nanoscale3(4), 1477–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, V.

V. Gupta, N. Chaudhary, R. Srivastava, G. D. Sharma, R. Bhardwaj, and S. Chand, “Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(26), 9960–9963 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, D.

J. Wang, Y. Wang, D. He, Z. Liu, H. Wu, H. Wang, P. Zhou, and M. Fu, “Polymer bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices based on complex donors and solution-processable functionalized graphene oxide,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 58–65 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, D. He, Y. Wang, H. Wu, and J. Wang, “Graphene doping of P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic devices,” Synth. Met.160(9-10), 1036–1039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, Q.

Z. Yin, S. Sun, T. Salim, S. Wu, X. Huang, Q. He, Y. M. Lam, and H. Zhang, “Organic photovoltaic devices using highly flexible reduced graphene oxide films as transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano4(9), 5263–5268 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeger, A. J.

J. S. Moon, J. K. Lee, S. N. Cho, J. Y. Byun, and A. J. Heeger, ““Columnlike” structure of the cross-sectional morphology of bulk heterojunction materials,” Nano Lett.9(1), 230–234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hersam, M. C.

I. P. Murray, S. J. Lou, L. J. Cote, S. Loser, C. J. Kadleck, T. Xu, J. M. Szarko, B. S. Rolczynski, J. E. Johns, J. Huang, L. Yu, L. X. Chen, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Graphene oxide interlayers for robust, high-efficiency organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(24), 3006–3012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hill, C. M.

C. M. Hill, Y. Zhu, and S. Pan, “Fluorescence and electroluminescence quenching evidence of interfacial charge transfer in poly (3-hexylthiophene): graphene oxide bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano5(2), 942–951 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollander, M. J.

Z. Wang, C. P. Puls, N. E. Staley, Y. Zhang, A. Todd, J. Xu, C. A. Howsare, M. J. Hollander, J. A. Robinson, and Y. Liu, “Technology ready use of single layer graphene as a transparent electrode for hybrid photovoltaic devices,” Physica E44(2), 521–524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hong, W. K.

M. Choe, B. H. Lee, G. Jo, J. Park, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, M. J. Seong, Y. H. Kahng, K. Lee, and T. Lee, “Efficient bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells with transparent multi-layer graphene electrodes,” Org. Electron.11(11), 1864–1869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Zhao, G. Shi, L. Deng, Y. Hou, and L. Qu, “An electrochemical avenue to green-luminescent graphene quantum dots as potential electron-acceptors for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(6), 776–780 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howsare, C. A.

Z. Wang, C. P. Puls, N. E. Staley, Y. Zhang, A. Todd, J. Xu, C. A. Howsare, M. J. Hollander, J. A. Robinson, and Y. Liu, “Technology ready use of single layer graphene as a transparent electrode for hybrid photovoltaic devices,” Physica E44(2), 521–524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, F.-C.

Y.-M. Sung, F.-C. Hsu, D.-Y. Wang, I.-S. Wang, C.-C. Chen, H.-C. Liao, W.-F. Su, and Y.-F. Chen, “Enhanced charge extraction in inverted hybrid photovoltaic cells assisted by graphene nanoflakes,” J. Mater. Chem.21(43), 17462–17467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Zhao, G. Shi, L. Deng, Y. Hou, and L. Qu, “An electrochemical avenue to green-luminescent graphene quantum dots as potential electron-acceptors for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(6), 776–780 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, F.

J. Liang, H. Bi, D. Wan, and F. Huang, “Novel Cu nanowires/graphene as the back contact for CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(6), 1267–1271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Bi, F. Huang, J. Liang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Transparent conductive graphene films synthesized by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition used as the front electrode of CdTe solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(28), 3202–3206 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

I. P. Murray, S. J. Lou, L. J. Cote, S. Loser, C. J. Kadleck, T. Xu, J. M. Szarko, B. S. Rolczynski, J. E. Johns, J. Huang, L. Yu, L. X. Chen, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Graphene oxide interlayers for robust, high-efficiency organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(24), 3006–3012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, V. C. Tung, and J. Huang, “Water processable graphene oxide: single walled carbon nanotube composite as anode modifier for polymer solar cells,” Adv. Energy Mater.1(6), 1052–1057 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

K. Yang, C. Xu, L. Huang, L. Zou, and H. Wang, “Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide,” Nanotechnology22(40), 405401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

Z. Yin, S. Sun, T. Salim, S. Wu, X. Huang, Q. He, Y. M. Lam, and H. Zhang, “Organic photovoltaic devices using highly flexible reduced graphene oxide films as transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano4(9), 5263–5268 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Z. Liu, Q. Liu, Y. Huang, Y. Ma, S. Yin, X. Zhang, W. Sun, and Y. Chen, “Organic photovoltaic devices based on a novel acceptor material: graphene,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(20), 3924–3930 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. Y.

Y. Y. Lee, K. H. Tu, C. C. Yu, S. S. Li, J. Y. Hwang, C. C. Lin, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, H. L. Chen, and C. W. Chen, “Top laminated graphene electrode in a semitransparent polymer solar cell by simultaneous thermal annealing/releasing method,” ACS Nano5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, J.

M. S. Ryu and J. Jang, “Effect of solution processed graphene oxide/nickel oxide bi-layer on cell performance of bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(10), 2893–2896 (2011).
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Y. Li, Z. Pan, Y. Fu, Y. Chen, Z. Xie, and B. Zhang, “Soluble reduced graphene oxide functionalized with conjugated polymer for heterojunction solar cells,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.50(9), 1663–1671 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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K. Yang, C. Xu, L. Huang, L. Zou, and H. Wang, “Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide,” Nanotechnology22(40), 405401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, F.

J. Chen, F. Xu, J. Wu, K. Qasim, Y. Zhou, W. Lei, L. T. Sun, and Y. Zhang, “Flexible photovoltaic cells based on a graphene-CdSe quantum dot nanocomposite,” Nanoscale4(2), 441–443 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Z. Wang, C. P. Puls, N. E. Staley, Y. Zhang, A. Todd, J. Xu, C. A. Howsare, M. J. Hollander, J. A. Robinson, and Y. Liu, “Technology ready use of single layer graphene as a transparent electrode for hybrid photovoltaic devices,” Physica E44(2), 521–524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.-Q.

B. Zhang, Y. Chen, G. Liu, L.-Q. Xu, J. Chen, C.-X. Zhu, K.-G. Neoh, and E.-T. Kang, “Push-pull archetype of reduced graphene oxide functionalized with polyfluorene for nonvolatile rewritable memory,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.50(2), 378–387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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I. P. Murray, S. J. Lou, L. J. Cote, S. Loser, C. J. Kadleck, T. Xu, J. M. Szarko, B. S. Rolczynski, J. E. Johns, J. Huang, L. Yu, L. X. Chen, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Graphene oxide interlayers for robust, high-efficiency organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(24), 3006–3012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Wang, S. W. Tong, X. F. Xu, B. Özyilmaz, and K. P. Loh, “Interface engineering of layer-by-layer stacked graphene anodes for high-performance organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(13), 1514–1518 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, F.

Z. Liu, J. Li, Z. H. Sun, G. Tai, S. P. Lau, and F. Yan, “The application of highly doped single-layer graphene as the top electrodes of semitransparent organic solar cells,” ACS Nano6(1), 810–818 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Yang, C. Xu, L. Huang, L. Zou, and H. Wang, “Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide,” Nanotechnology22(40), 405401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Q. Liu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Yang, N. Zhang, G. Pan, S. Yin, Y. Chen, and J. Wei, “Polymer photovoltaic cells based on solution-processable graphene and P3HT,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 894–904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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D. Yu, Y. Yang, M. Durstock, J. B. Baek, and L. Dai, “Soluble P3HT-grafted graphene for efficient bilayer-heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano4(10), 5633–5640 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Liu, L. Liu, H. Li, Q. Dong, S. Yao, A. B. Kidd, X. Zhang, J. Li, and W. Tian, “Green polymer solar cell based on water-soluble poly [3-(potassium-6- hexanoate) thiophene-2,5-diyl] and aqueous-dispersible noncovalent functionalized graphene sheets,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells97, 28–33 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Ye, L. Gan, L. Dai, Y. Dai, X. Guo, H. Meng, B. Yu, Z. Shi, K. Shang, and G. Qin, “A simple and scalable graphene patterning method and its application in CdSe nanobelt/graphene Schottky junction solar cells,” Nanoscale3(4), 1477–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ye, Y. Dai, L. Dai, Z. Shi, N. Liu, F. Wang, L. Fu, R. Peng, X. Wen, Z. Chen, Z. Liu, and G. Qin, “High-performance single CdS nanowire (nanobelt) Schottky junction solar cells with Au/graphene Schottky electrodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(12), 3406–3410 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Q. Liu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Yang, N. Zhang, G. Pan, S. Yin, Y. Chen, and J. Wei, “Polymer photovoltaic cells based on solution-processable graphene and P3HT,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 894–904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, Q. Liu, Y. Huang, Y. Ma, S. Yin, X. Zhang, W. Sun, and Y. Chen, “Organic photovoltaic devices based on a novel acceptor material: graphene,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(20), 3924–3930 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Z.

Z. Yin, S. Sun, T. Salim, S. Wu, X. Huang, Q. He, Y. M. Lam, and H. Zhang, “Organic photovoltaic devices using highly flexible reduced graphene oxide films as transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano4(9), 5263–5268 (2010).
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Y. Ye, L. Gan, L. Dai, Y. Dai, X. Guo, H. Meng, B. Yu, Z. Shi, K. Shang, and G. Qin, “A simple and scalable graphene patterning method and its application in CdSe nanobelt/graphene Schottky junction solar cells,” Nanoscale3(4), 1477–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Y. Lee, K. H. Tu, C. C. Yu, S. S. Li, J. Y. Hwang, C. C. Lin, K. H. Chen, L. C. Chen, H. L. Chen, and C. W. Chen, “Top laminated graphene electrode in a semitransparent polymer solar cell by simultaneous thermal annealing/releasing method,” ACS Nano5(8), 6564–6570 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, D.

D. Yu, K. Park, M. Durstock, and L. Dai, “Fullerene-grafted graphene for efficient bulk heterojunction polymer photovoltaic devices,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(10), 1113–1118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Yu, Y. Yang, M. Durstock, J. B. Baek, and L. Dai, “Soluble P3HT-grafted graphene for efficient bilayer-heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano4(10), 5633–5640 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

I. P. Murray, S. J. Lou, L. J. Cote, S. Loser, C. J. Kadleck, T. Xu, J. M. Szarko, B. S. Rolczynski, J. E. Johns, J. Huang, L. Yu, L. X. Chen, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Graphene oxide interlayers for robust, high-efficiency organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2(24), 3006–3012 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Yun, J. S. Yeo, J. Kim, H. G. Jeong, D. Y. Kim, Y. J. Noh, S. S. Kim, B. C. Ku, and S. I. Na, “Solution-processable reduced graphene oxide as a novel alternative to PEDOT:PSS hole transport layers for highly efficient and stable polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(42), 4923–4928 (2011).
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B. Zhang, G. Liu, Y. Chen, L. J. Zeng, C.-X. Zhu, K.-G. Neoh, C. Wang, and E.-T. Kang, “Conjugated polymer-grafted reduced graphene oxide for nonvolatile rewritable memory,” Chem. Eur. J.17(49), 13646–13652 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. P. Li, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, M. Feng, X. Zhuang, Y. Lin, and H. Zhan, “Charm-bracelet-type poly(N-vinylcarbazole) functionalized with reduced graphene oxide for broadband optical limiting,” Chem. Eur. J.17(3), 780–785 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Zhang, Y. Chen, G. Liu, L.-Q. Xu, J. Chen, C.-X. Zhu, K.-G. Neoh, and E.-T. Kang, “Push-pull archetype of reduced graphene oxide functionalized with polyfluorene for nonvolatile rewritable memory,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.50(2), 378–387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, Z. Pan, Y. Fu, Y. Chen, Z. Xie, and B. Zhang, “Soluble reduced graphene oxide functionalized with conjugated polymer for heterojunction solar cells,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.50(9), 1663–1671 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, G. Liu, Y. Chen, L. J. Zeng, C.-X. Zhu, K.-G. Neoh, C. Wang, and E.-T. Kang, “Conjugated polymer-grafted reduced graphene oxide for nonvolatile rewritable memory,” Chem. Eur. J.17(49), 13646–13652 (2011).
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Y. Chen, B. Zhang, G. Liu, X. Zhuang, and E.-T. Kang, “Graphene and its derivatives: switching ON and OFF?” Chem. Soc. Rev. (to be published), DOI: .
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D. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, X. Li, L. Fan, K. Wang, and H. Zhu, “Polymer solar cells with gold nanoclusters decorated multi-layer graphene as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(22), 223302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Yin, S. Sun, T. Salim, S. Wu, X. Huang, Q. He, Y. M. Lam, and H. Zhang, “Organic photovoltaic devices using highly flexible reduced graphene oxide films as transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano4(9), 5263–5268 (2010).
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L. Zhang, L. Fan, Z. Li, E. Shi, X. Li, H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Jia, J. Wei, K. Wang, H. Zhu, D. Wu, and A. Cao, “Graphene–CdSe nanobelt solar cells with Tunable Configurations,” Nano Res.4(9), 891–900 (2011).
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Q. Liu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Yang, N. Zhang, G. Pan, S. Yin, Y. Chen, and J. Wei, “Polymer photovoltaic cells based on solution-processable graphene and P3HT,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 894–904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Liu, L. Liu, H. Li, Q. Dong, S. Yao, A. B. Kidd, X. Zhang, J. Li, and W. Tian, “Green polymer solar cell based on water-soluble poly [3-(potassium-6- hexanoate) thiophene-2,5-diyl] and aqueous-dispersible noncovalent functionalized graphene sheets,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells97, 28–33 (2012).
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Q. Liu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, L. Yang, N. Zhang, G. Pan, S. Yin, Y. Chen, and J. Wei, “Polymer photovoltaic cells based on solution-processable graphene and P3HT,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(6), 894–904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, Q. Liu, Y. Huang, Y. Ma, S. Yin, X. Zhang, W. Sun, and Y. Chen, “Organic photovoltaic devices based on a novel acceptor material: graphene,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(20), 3924–3930 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

J. Chen, F. Xu, J. Wu, K. Qasim, Y. Zhou, W. Lei, L. T. Sun, and Y. Zhang, “Flexible photovoltaic cells based on a graphene-CdSe quantum dot nanocomposite,” Nanoscale4(2), 441–443 (2012).
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Z. Wang, C. P. Puls, N. E. Staley, Y. Zhang, A. Todd, J. Xu, C. A. Howsare, M. J. Hollander, J. A. Robinson, and Y. Liu, “Technology ready use of single layer graphene as a transparent electrode for hybrid photovoltaic devices,” Physica E44(2), 521–524 (2011).
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Y. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Zhao, G. Shi, L. Deng, Y. Hou, and L. Qu, “An electrochemical avenue to green-luminescent graphene quantum dots as potential electron-acceptors for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(6), 776–780 (2011).
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J. Chen, F. Xu, J. Wu, K. Qasim, Y. Zhou, W. Lei, L. T. Sun, and Y. Zhang, “Flexible photovoltaic cells based on a graphene-CdSe quantum dot nanocomposite,” Nanoscale4(2), 441–443 (2012).
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B. Zhang, Y. Chen, G. Liu, L.-Q. Xu, J. Chen, C.-X. Zhu, K.-G. Neoh, and E.-T. Kang, “Push-pull archetype of reduced graphene oxide functionalized with polyfluorene for nonvolatile rewritable memory,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.50(2), 378–387 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, G. Liu, Y. Chen, L. J. Zeng, C.-X. Zhu, K.-G. Neoh, C. Wang, and E.-T. Kang, “Conjugated polymer-grafted reduced graphene oxide for nonvolatile rewritable memory,” Chem. Eur. J.17(49), 13646–13652 (2011).
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D. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, X. Li, L. Fan, K. Wang, and H. Zhu, “Polymer solar cells with gold nanoclusters decorated multi-layer graphene as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(22), 223302 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, L. Fan, Z. Li, E. Shi, X. Li, H. Li, C. Ji, Y. Jia, J. Wei, K. Wang, H. Zhu, D. Wu, and A. Cao, “Graphene–CdSe nanobelt solar cells with Tunable Configurations,” Nano Res.4(9), 891–900 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

P. P. Li, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, M. Feng, X. Zhuang, Y. Lin, and H. Zhan, “Charm-bracelet-type poly(N-vinylcarbazole) functionalized with reduced graphene oxide for broadband optical limiting,” Chem. Eur. J.17(3), 780–785 (2011).
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C. M. Hill, Y. Zhu, and S. Pan, “Fluorescence and electroluminescence quenching evidence of interfacial charge transfer in poly (3-hexylthiophene): graphene oxide bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano5(2), 942–951 (2011).
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P. P. Li, Y. Chen, J. Zhu, M. Feng, X. Zhuang, Y. Lin, and H. Zhan, “Charm-bracelet-type poly(N-vinylcarbazole) functionalized with reduced graphene oxide for broadband optical limiting,” Chem. Eur. J.17(3), 780–785 (2011).
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Y. Chen, B. Zhang, G. Liu, X. Zhuang, and E.-T. Kang, “Graphene and its derivatives: switching ON and OFF?” Chem. Soc. Rev. (to be published), DOI: .
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K. Yang, C. Xu, L. Huang, L. Zou, and H. Wang, “Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide,” Nanotechnology22(40), 405401 (2011).
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ACS Nano (6)

S. S. Li, K. H. Tu, C. C. Lin, C. W. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole transport layer in polymer solar cells,” ACS Nano4(6), 3169–3174 (2010).
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C. M. Hill, Y. Zhu, and S. Pan, “Fluorescence and electroluminescence quenching evidence of interfacial charge transfer in poly (3-hexylthiophene): graphene oxide bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano5(2), 942–951 (2011).
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D. Yu, Y. Yang, M. Durstock, J. B. Baek, and L. Dai, “Soluble P3HT-grafted graphene for efficient bilayer-heterojunction photovoltaic devices,” ACS Nano4(10), 5633–5640 (2010).
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Z. Liu, J. Li, Z. H. Sun, G. Tai, S. P. Lau, and F. Yan, “The application of highly doped single-layer graphene as the top electrodes of semitransparent organic solar cells,” ACS Nano6(1), 810–818 (2012).
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Z. Yin, S. Sun, T. Salim, S. Wu, X. Huang, Q. He, Y. M. Lam, and H. Zhang, “Organic photovoltaic devices using highly flexible reduced graphene oxide films as transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano4(9), 5263–5268 (2010).
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Y. Li, Y. Hu, Y. Zhao, G. Shi, L. Deng, Y. Hou, and L. Qu, “An electrochemical avenue to green-luminescent graphene quantum dots as potential electron-acceptors for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(6), 776–780 (2011).
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D. Zhang, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, X. Li, L. Fan, K. Wang, and H. Zhu, “Polymer solar cells with gold nanoclusters decorated multi-layer graphene as transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(22), 223302 (2011).
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B. Zhang, Y. Chen, G. Liu, L.-Q. Xu, J. Chen, C.-X. Zhu, K.-G. Neoh, and E.-T. Kang, “Push-pull archetype of reduced graphene oxide functionalized with polyfluorene for nonvolatile rewritable memory,” J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem.50(2), 378–387 (2012).
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J. Chen, F. Xu, J. Wu, K. Qasim, Y. Zhou, W. Lei, L. T. Sun, and Y. Zhang, “Flexible photovoltaic cells based on a graphene-CdSe quantum dot nanocomposite,” Nanoscale4(2), 441–443 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ye, L. Gan, L. Dai, Y. Dai, X. Guo, H. Meng, B. Yu, Z. Shi, K. Shang, and G. Qin, “A simple and scalable graphene patterning method and its application in CdSe nanobelt/graphene Schottky junction solar cells,” Nanoscale3(4), 1477–1481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

K. Yang, C. Xu, L. Huang, L. Zou, and H. Wang, “Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide,” Nanotechnology22(40), 405401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Park and R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical methods for the production of graphenes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(4), 217–224 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Org. Electron. (1)

M. Choe, B. H. Lee, G. Jo, J. Park, W. Park, S. Lee, W. K. Hong, M. J. Seong, Y. H. Kahng, K. Lee, and T. Lee, “Efficient bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells with transparent multi-layer graphene electrodes,” Org. Electron.11(11), 1864–1869 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Physica E (1)

Z. Wang, C. P. Puls, N. E. Staley, Y. Zhang, A. Todd, J. Xu, C. A. Howsare, M. J. Hollander, J. A. Robinson, and Y. Liu, “Technology ready use of single layer graphene as a transparent electrode for hybrid photovoltaic devices,” Physica E44(2), 521–524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

V. Yong and J. M. Tour, “Theoretical efficiency of nanostructured graphene-based photovoltaics,” Small6(2), 313–318 (2010).
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Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (4)

J. Wang, Y. Wang, D. He, Z. Liu, H. Wu, H. Wang, P. Zhou, and M. Fu, “Polymer bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices based on complex donors and solution-processable functionalized graphene oxide,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 58–65 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, L. Liu, H. Li, Q. Dong, S. Yao, A. B. Kidd, X. Zhang, J. Li, and W. Tian, “Green polymer solar cell based on water-soluble poly [3-(potassium-6- hexanoate) thiophene-2,5-diyl] and aqueous-dispersible noncovalent functionalized graphene sheets,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells97, 28–33 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Choi, S. J. Kang, H.-K. Kim, W. M. Choi, and S. I. Na, “Multilayer graphene films as transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells96, 281–285 (2012).
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M. S. Ryu and J. Jang, “Effect of solution processed graphene oxide/nickel oxide bi-layer on cell performance of bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(10), 2893–2896 (2011).
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Synth. Met. (1)

Z. Liu, D. He, Y. Wang, H. Wu, and J. Wang, “Graphene doping of P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic devices,” Synth. Met.160(9-10), 1036–1039 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

E. Kymakis, E. Stratakis, M. M. Stylianakis, E. Koudoumas, and C. Fotakis, “Spin coated graphene films as the transparent electrode in organic photovoltaic devices,” Thin Solid Films520(4), 1238–1241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

University of Southern California, “Graphene organic photovoltaics, or, will T-shirts soon power cell phones,” (2010). http://viterbi.usc.edu/news/news/2010/graphene-organic-photovoltaics.htm .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Molecular structure of PCFT-RGO; (b) The device structure; and (c) Current density-voltage characteristics (J-V) of the PCTF-RGO-based photovoltaic device with and without [70]PCBM under a simulated AM1.5G 100 mW illumination.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The illuminated current–voltage (I–V) curves of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/ P3HT:PCBM/Al and Graphene/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al photovoltaic cells; (b) Schematic of the photovoltaic devices.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(upper) J-V characteristics of the photovoltaic devices based on ANI-GQDs with different GQDs content and ANI-GS (under optimized condition) annealed at 160°C for 10 min, in AM1.5G 100mW illumination; (down) AFM images of (a) P3HT/ANI-GSs, (b) P3HT/ANI-GQDs, and (c) MEH-PPV/methylene blue-GQDs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic diagram of a semitransparent OPV with the structure glass/ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/graphene;(b)band structure of the organic solar cell; (c)semitransparent solar cell with graphene top electrode; (d)Work functions of grapheme/ PEDOT:PSS electrodes prepared at different processing conditions; (e) the two approaches for the fabrication of graphene/PEDOT:PSS top electrodes in OPVs; (f) J-V characteristics measured from both sides of semitransparent OPVs with pristine or Au-doped graphene top electrode under solar simulator; and (g) external quantum efficiency measured from both sides of the organic solar cell with Au-doped graphene/PEDOT:PSS top electrode. The open and solid symbols correspond to the results characterized from ITO and graphene sides, respectively.

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