Abstract

The memory effect and redistribution of manganese (Mn) into subsequently regrown GaN-based epitaxial layers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition were revealed. Low-temperature up-converted photoluminescence (UPL) and the secondary ion mass spectrometry were performed on GaN-based epitaxial samples with and without Mn doping to study the effect of residual Mn on optical property. UPL emission, which originated from residual Mn doping in regrown InGaN quantum wells (QWs) because of the memory effect of the reactor, could be eliminated in an air-exposed and H2-baking manner prior to the regrowth of the QWs. Considerable residual Mn background level and slow decay rate of Mn concentration tail were also observed in the regrown epitaxial layers, which could be attributed to the memory effect or surface segregation and diffusion from the Mn-doped underlying layer during regrowth in the Mn-free reactor.

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2011

R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 162508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Photovoltaics: towards the intermediate band,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 137–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Huang, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, S. J. Tu, W. C. Lai, W. C. Tsai, and W. H. Chang, “Linear photon up-conversion of 450 meV in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via Mn-doped GaN intermediate band photodetection,” Opt. Express19(S6Suppl 6), A1211–A1218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

X. Chen, S. J. Lee, and M. Moskovits, “Modification of the electronic properties of GaN nanowires by Mn doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 082109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Awschalom and M. E. Flatte, “Challenges for semiconductor spintronics,” Nat. Phys.3(3), 153–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. T. Jonker, “Progress toward electrical injection of spin-polarized electrons into semiconductors,” Proc. IEEE91(5), 727–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Luque and A. Martí, “A metallic intermediate band high efficiency solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.9(2), 73–86 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth189–190, 551–555 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Increasing the efficiency of ideal solar cells by photon induced transitions at intermediate levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(26), 5014–5017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

Y. Ohba and A. Hatano, “A study on strong memory effects for Mg doping in GaN metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth145(1-4), 214–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abernathy, C. R.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Antolin, E.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appelbaum, I.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asghar, A.

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Awschalom, D. D.

D. D. Awschalom and M. E. Flatte, “Challenges for semiconductor spintronics,” Nat. Phys.3(3), 153–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bedair, S. M.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J. P.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berkman, E. A.

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bian, L.

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boatner, L. A.

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Budai, J. D.

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buyanova, I. A.

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[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
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A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
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H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W. H.

Chen, G. T.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
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I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
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I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
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Dietl, T.

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M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
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N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
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H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
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R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231113 (2010).
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R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 162508 (2011).
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R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171115 (2011).
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M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A204(1), 61–71 (2007).
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M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A204(1), 61–71 (2007).
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M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
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T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
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A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
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N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
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I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
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R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231113 (2010).
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R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 162508 (2011).
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H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
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R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171115 (2011).
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R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231113 (2010).
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H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
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K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
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R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 162508 (2011).
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S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242102 (2008).
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P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
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R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231113 (2010).
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Izadifard, M.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
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M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
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H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
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H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
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A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
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N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth189–190, 551–555 (1998).
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H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
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I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
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Lai, W. C.

Lee, M. L.

Lee, S. J.

X. Chen, S. J. Lee, and M. Moskovits, “Modification of the electronic properties of GaN nanowires by Mn doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 082109 (2007).
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M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

Lo, F. Y.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242102 (2008).
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Luen, M. O.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
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A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
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A. Luque and A. Martí, “Photovoltaics: towards the intermediate band,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 137–138 (2011).
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A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
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A. Luque and A. Martí, “A metallic intermediate band high efficiency solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.9(2), 73–86 (2001).
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A. Luque and A. Martí, “Increasing the efficiency of ideal solar cells by photon induced transitions at intermediate levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(26), 5014–5017 (1997).
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A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
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Martí, A.

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Photovoltaics: towards the intermediate band,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 137–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque and A. Martí, “A metallic intermediate band high efficiency solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.9(2), 73–86 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Increasing the efficiency of ideal solar cells by photon induced transitions at intermediate levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(26), 5014–5017 (1997).
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Mascarenhas, A.

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mates, T.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsukura, F.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishra, U. K.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, Y.

N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth189–190, 551–555 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

X. Chen, S. J. Lee, and M. Moskovits, “Modification of the electronic properties of GaN nanowires by Mn doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 082109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Myoung, J. M.

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Narayanamurti, V.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Norton, D. P.

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, S. V.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Ohba and A. Hatano, “A study on strong memory effects for Mg doping in GaN metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth145(1-4), 214–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, H.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, J. M.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olson, M. R.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. C.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, E. H.

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y. D.

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paskov, P. P.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perry, C. H.

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petracic, O.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Ramsteiner, M.

R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 162508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, F.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, D.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. S.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, K. J.

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sasaoka, C.

N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth189–190, 551–555 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, E.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Senawiratne, J.

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalav, A.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

Song, Q.

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, C. J.

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Storasta, L.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strassburg, M.

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Summers, C. J.

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tablero, C.

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tahraoui, A.

R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 162508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temkin, H.

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thaler, G.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, W. C.

Tu, S. J.

Usui, A.

N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth189–190, 551–555 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wende, H.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Westerholt, K.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wieck, A. D.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wurfel, P.

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xing, H.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. J.

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. M. Mahros, M. O. Luen, A. Emara, S. M. Bedair, E. A. Berkman, N. A. El-Masry, and J. M. Zavada, “Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of (AlGaN/GaN):Mg/(GaMnN) heterostructures at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(25), 252503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Nepal, M. O. Luen, J. M. Zavada, S. M. Bedair, P. Frajtag, and N. A. El-Masry, “Electric field control of room temperature ferromagnetism in III-N dilute magnetic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(13), 132505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “On the origin of spin loss in GaMnN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2599–2601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Paskov, P. O. Holtz, B. Monemar, J. M. Garcia, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(6), 812–814 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Russell, I. Appelbaum, H. Temkin, C. H. Perry, V. Narayanamurti, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Room-temperature electro-optic up-conversion via internal photoemission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2960–2962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Olson, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, J. M. Olson, and I. Appelbaum, “Linear photon upconversion of 400 meV in an AlGalnP/GaInP quantum well heterostructure to visible light at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(16), 161108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, M. R. Hofmann, F. Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, W. Keune, H. Wende, O. Petracic, and K. Westerholt, “Electrical detection of photoinduced spins both at room temperature and in remanence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Farshchi, M. Ramsteiner, J. Herfort, A. Tahraoui, and H. T. Grahn, “Optical communication of spin information between light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(16), 162508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, S. J. Lee, and M. Moskovits, “Modification of the electronic properties of GaN nanowires by Mn doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 082109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, P. S. Hsu, K. Fujito, D. F. Feezell, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Determination of internal parameters for AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4:Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(1), 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys.92(7), 4117–4122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

N. Kuroda, C. Sasaoka, A. Kimura, A. Usui, and Y. Mochizuki, “Precise control of pn-junction profiles for GaN-based LD structure using GaN substrates with low dislocation densities,” J. Cryst. Growth189–190, 551–555 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohba and A. Hatano, “A study on strong memory effects for Mg doping in GaN metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth145(1-4), 214–218 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater.

I. A. Buyanova, M. Izadifard, L. Storasta, W. M. Chen, J. Kim, F. Ren, G. Thaler, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical and electrical characterization of (Ga,Mn)N/InGaN multiquantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Electron. Mater.33(5), 467–471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

M. H. Ham, S. Yoon, Y. Park, L. Bian, M. Ramsteiner, and J. M. Myoung, “Electrical spin injection from room-temperature ferromagnetic (Ga, Mn)N in nitride-based spin-polarized light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(32), 7703–7708 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

I. A. Buyanova, J. P. Bergman, W. M. Chen, G. Thaler, R. Frazier, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, J. Kim, F. Ren, F. V. Kyrychenko, C. J. Stanton, C. C. Pan, G. T. Chen, J. I. Chyi, and J. M. Zavada, “Optical study of spin injection dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with GaMnN injection layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B22(6), 2668–2672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 1, No. 1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

M. H. Kane, M. Strassburg, A. Asghar, W. E. Fenwick, J. Senawiratne, Q. Song, C. J. Summers, Z. J. Zhang, N. Dietz, and I. T. Ferguson, “Alloying, co-doping, and annealing effects on the magnetic and optical properties of MOCVD-grown Ga1-xMnxN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B126(2-3), 230–235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, D. P. Norton, A. F. Hebard, Y. D. Park, L. A. Boatner, and J. D. Budai, “Advances in wide bandgap materials for semiconductor spintronics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.40(4), 137–168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Photovoltaics: towards the intermediate band,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 137–138 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

D. D. Awschalom and M. E. Flatte, “Challenges for semiconductor spintronics,” Nat. Phys.3(3), 153–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

H. M. Cheong, B. Fluegel, M. C. Hanna, and A. Mascarenhas, “Photoluminescence up-conversion in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B58(8), R4254–R4257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Luque and A. Martí, “Increasing the efficiency of ideal solar cells by photon induced transitions at intermediate levels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(26), 5014–5017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

M. H. Kane, S. Gupta, W. E. Fenwick, N. Li, E. H. Park, M. Strassburg, and I. T. Ferguson, “Comparative study of Mn and Fe incorporation into GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi A204(1), 61–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

B. T. Jonker, “Progress toward electrical injection of spin-polarized electrons into semiconductors,” Proc. IEEE91(5), 727–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

A. Luque and A. Martí, “A metallic intermediate band high efficiency solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.9(2), 73–86 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Koo, J. H. Kwon, J. Eom, J. Chang, S. H. Han, and M. Johnson, “Control of spin precession in a spin-injected field effect transistor,” Science325(5947), 1515–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

T. Trupke, A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, P. Wurfel, and M. A. Green, “Efficiency enhancement of solar cells by luminescent up-conversion of sunlight,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(18-19), 3327–3338 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Martí, C. Tablero, E. Antolin, A. Luque, R. P. Campion, S. V. Novikov, and C. T. Foxon, “Potential of Mn doped In1-xGaxN for implementing intermediate band solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(5), 641–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984), and references therein.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)-(d) Schematic structures in cross-section view for the samples A, B, C and D regrown with varied chamber treatments, respectively. (e)-(f) Schematic structures in cross-section view for the samples E and F grown on Mn-doped GaN templates without and with HCl surface treatments, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Low temperature (12 K) PL spectra of samples A and B excited by (a) 325 nm He-Cd laser and (b) 488 nm Ar laser (c) SIMS profiles of Ga, In, Mn and Si elements taken from the sample B as a function of depth from the surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Low temperature (12 K) PL spectra of samples A, C and D excited by (a) 325 nm He-Cd laser (b) 488 nm Ar laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SIMS profiles of Ga, In, Mn and Si elements taken from the (a) sample C and (b) sample D.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SIMS profiles of Mn element taken from the samples E and F.

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