Abstract

Carrier dynamics in graphene films on CaF2 have been measured in the mid infrared region by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The relaxation kinetics shows two decay times. The fast time component is ~0.2 ps, which is attributed to the mixture of initial few ultrafast intraband and interband decay channels. The slow component is ~1.5 ps, which is primarily assigned to optical phonon-acoustic phonon scattering. The contribution of fast component exhibits an increase trend in the probe photon frequencies from 2600 to 3100 cm−1. At the probe frequency of 2700 cm−1, the accelerated carrier relaxation was detected, which resulted from the interband triple-resonance electron-phonon scattering in graphene. At the probe frequency of 3175 cm−1, a clear instant negative differential transmission signal was observed, which is due to stimulated two-phonon emission involved with G phonons in graphene. This result indicates that graphene can be used as a source of coherent ultrashort sound-wave emission.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

J. Shang, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond energy relaxation in suspended graphene: phonon-assisted spreading of quasiparticle distribution,” Appl. Phys. B107(1), 131–136 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Kupčic, “Triple-resonant two-phonon Raman scattering in graphene,” J. Raman Spectrosc.43(1), 1–5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Li, L. Luo, M. Hupalo, J. Zhang, M. C. Tringides, J. Schmalian, and J. Wang, “Femtosecond population inversion and stimulated emission of dense Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(16), 167401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Ruzicka, S. Wang, J. Liu, K.-P. Loh, J. Z. Wu, and H. Zhao, “Spatially resolved pump-probe study of single-layer graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express2(6), 708–716 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Yan, M. T. Seidel, Z. Zhang, W. K. Leong, and H.-S. Tan, “Ultrafast vibrational relaxation dynamics of carbonyl stretching modes in Os3(CO)12.,” J. Chem. Phys.135(2), 024501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Xiao, F. Tasnadi, K. Koepernik, J. W. F. Venderbos, M. Richter, and M. Taut, “Density functional investigation of rhombohedral stacks of graphene: topological surface states, nonlinear dielectric response, and bulk limit,” Phys. Rev. B84(16), 165404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, T. Yu, J. Shang, Y. Wang, S. Lim, L. Liu, G. G. Gurzadyan, Z. Shen, and J. Lin, “Large-scale synthesis of bi-Layer graphene in strongly coupled stacking order,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(5), 911–917 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Rana, J. H. Strait, H. Wang, and C. Manolatou, “Ultrafast carrier recombination and generation rates for plasmon emission and absorption in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B84(4), 045437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Malic, T. Winzer, E. Bobkin, and A. Knorr, “Microscopic theory of absorption and ultrafast many-particle kinetics in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B84(20), 205406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Walter, A. Bostwick, K.-J. Jeon, F. Speck, M. Ostler, T. Seyller, L. Moreschini, Y. J. Chang, M. Polini, R. Asgari, A. H. MacDonald, K. Horn, and E. Rotenberg, “Effective screening and the plasmaron bands in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B84(8), 085410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Carbone, G. Aubock, A. Cannizzo, F. Van Mourik, R. R. Nair, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and M. Chergui, “Femtosecond carrier dynamics in bulk graphite and graphene paper,” Chem. Phys. Lett.504(1-3), 37–40 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Shang, T. Yu, J. Lin, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Ultrafast electron-optical phonon scattering and quasiparticle lifetime in CVD-grown graphene,” ACS Nano5(4), 3278–3283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Breusing, S. Kuehn, T. Winzer, E. Malic, F. Milde, N. Severin, J. P. Rabe, C. Ropers, A. Knorr, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in a single graphene layer,” Phys. Rev. B83(15), 153410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Gao, G. Hartland, T. Fang, M. Kelly, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Studies of intrinsic hot phonon dynamics in suspended graphene by transient absorption microscopy,” Nano Lett.11(8), 3184–3189 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Hale, S. M. Hornett, J. Moger, D. W. Horsell, and E. Hendry, “Hot phonon decay in supported and suspended exfoliated graphene,” Phys. Rev. B83(12), 121404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Obraztsov, M. G. Rybin, A. V. Tyurnina, S. V. Garnov, E. D. Obraztsova, A. N. Obraztsov, and Y. P. Svirko, “Broadband light-induced absorbance change in multilayer graphene,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1540–1545 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, “Nobel lecture: graphene: materials in the flatland,” Rev. Mod. Phys.83(3), 837–849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Das Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys.83(2), 407–470 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Kim, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Relaxation of optically excited carriers in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B84(7), 075449 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Kim, M. H. Jung, B. H. Hong, and K.-J. Kong, “Ultrafast modulation of optical transitions in monolayer and multilayer graphene,” Carbon49(14), 4781–4785 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Sun, C. Divin, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, “Hot carrier cooling by acoustic phonons in epitaxial graphene by ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(4), 1194–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Limmer, A. J. Houtepen, A. Niggebaum, R. Tautz, and E. Da Como, “Influence of carrier density on the electronic cooling channels of bilayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(10), 103104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Winnerl, M. Orlita, P. Plochocka, P. Kossacki, M. Potemski, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Carrier relaxation in epitaxial graphene photoexcited near the Dirac point,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(23), 237401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Strait, H. Wang, S. Shivaraman, V. Shields, M. Spencer, and F. Rana, “Very slow cooling dynamics of photoexcited carriers in graphene observed by optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4902–4906 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Siegel, C.-H. Park, C. Hwang, J. Deslippe, A. V. Fedorov, S. G. Louie, and A. Lanzara, “Many-body interactions in quasi-freestanding graphene,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(28), 11365–11369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Saito, M. Hofmann, G. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy of graphene and carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Phys.60(3), 413–550 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, M. K. Brinkley, G. Bian, T. Miller, and T.-C. Chiang, “Phonon-induced gaps in graphene and graphite observed by angle-resolved photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(13), 136804 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Huang, G. V. Hartland, L.-Q. Chu, R. M. Luxmi, R. M. Feenstra, C. Lian, K. Tahy, and H. Xing, “Ultrafast transient absorption microscopy studies of carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1308–1313 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, J. H. Strait, P. A. George, S. Shivaraman, V. B. Shields, M. Chandrashekhar, J. Hwang, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, C. S. Ruiz-Vargas, and J. Park, “Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of hot optical phonons in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(8), 081917 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Shang, Z. Luo, C. Cong, J. Lin, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “Femtosecond UV-pump/visible-probe measurements of carrier dynamics in stacked graphene films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 163103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kang, D. Abdula, D. G. Cahill, and M. Shim, “Lifetimes of optical phonons in graphene and graphite by time-resolved incoherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B81(16), 165405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Borysenko, J. T. Mullen, E. A. Barry, S. Paul, Y. G. Semenov, J. M. Zavada, M. B. Nardelli, and K. W. Kim, “First-principles analysis of electron-phonon interactions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B81(12), 121412 (2010).
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P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
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J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 042116 (2008).
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F. Rana, P. A. George, J. H. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, and M. Spencer, “Carrier recombination and generation rates for intravalley and intervalley phonon scattering in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B79(11), 115447 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
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J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 042116 (2008).
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S. Winnerl, M. Orlita, P. Plochocka, P. Kossacki, M. Potemski, T. Winzer, E. Malic, A. Knorr, M. Sprinkle, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, H. Schneider, and M. Helm, “Carrier relaxation in epitaxial graphene photoexcited near the Dirac point,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(23), 237401 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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L. G. Tilstra, A. F. M. Arts, and H. W. de Wijn, “Optically excited ruby as a saser: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. B76(2), 024302 (2007).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a, b) Transmission and (c, d) Raman data of graphene films on CaF2 substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Carrier dynamics of graphene films on CaF2 by the degenerate MIR pump and probe configuration at 2000 cm−1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Frequency-dependent carrier dynamics of graphene films on CaF2, λexc = 800 nm; (b) the energy dependence of fitting parameters of carrier lifetimes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Carrier dynamics of graphene films at the probe frequency of 2700 cm−1 measured by the 800 nm pump/MIR probe setup; (b) Raman spectrum of G′ band of graphene films on CaF2; (c) Schematic of double resonance scattering of G′ band; (d) Electron relaxation by intraband (1) and interband (2) intervalley e-op scattering processes; (e) Electron relaxation by triple resonance e-op scattering process in graphene films on CaF2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Carrier dynamics of graphene films at the probe frequency of 3175 cm−1 measured by the 800 nm pump/MIR probe setup; (b) Raman spectrum of G band of graphene films on CaF2; (c) Electron relaxation by intravalley intraband e-op scattering in graphene; (d) Stimulated two phonon emission is at 3175 cm−1; (e) Suppression of stimulated two phonon emission is at 3175 cm−1.

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