Abstract

We report the fabrication of silica microstructured optical fibers with the core exposed along the whole length, and characterize the stability of these new fibers when exposed to some typical sensing and storage environments. We show the fiber loss to be the best achieved to date for exposed-core fibers, while the deterioration in the transmission properties is up to ∼2 orders of magnitude better than for the previously reported exposed-core fibers produced in soft glass. This opens up new opportunities for optical fiber sensors requiring long term and/or harsh environmental applications while providing real time analysis anywhere along the fibers length.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

2011 (3)

K. Peters, “Polymer optical fiber sensors—a review,” Smart Mater. Struct. 20, 013002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, R. T. White, and T. M. Monro, “Driving down the detection limit in microstructured fiber-based chemical dip sensors,” Sensors 11, 2961–2971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, and S. Takeuchi, “Optical transmittance degradation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 8596–8601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

K. Richardson, D. Krol, and K. Hirao, “Glasses for photonic applications,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1, 74–86 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Warren-Smith, E. Sinchenko, P. Stoddart, and T. Monro, “Distributed fluorescence sensing using exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1385–1387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar V., “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17, 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Parry, B. C. Griffiths, N. Gayraud, E. D. McNaghten, A. M. Parkes, W. N. MacPherson, and D. P. Hand, “Towards practical gas sensing with micro-structured fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. C. Foo, R. Moore, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for real-time fluorescence sensing,” Opt. Express 17, 18533–18542 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Debs, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. S. Quinton, and T. M. Monro, “A fundamental study into the surface functionalization of soft glass microstructured optical fibers via silane coupling agents,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 576–582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wildeboer, F. Jeganathan, R. G. Price, and R. A. Abuknesha, “Characterization of bacterial proteases with a panel of fluorescent peptide substrates,” Anal. Biochem. 384, 321–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar V., G. McAdam, C. Davis, and T. Monro, “Corrosion sensing of aluminium alloys using exposed-core microstructured optical fibres,” Mater. Forum 33, 110–121 (2009).

2008 (5)

2007 (9)

S. Afshar V., S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17891–17901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Cox, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Opening up optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 11843–11848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 15086–15092 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, “Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 17819–17826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single-mode liquid-core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Micromachining structured optical fibers using focused ion beam milling,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1575–1577 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15, 8731–8736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhai and L. Tong, “Roughness-induced radiation losses in optical micro or nanofibers,” Opt. Express 15, 13805–13816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterisation,” Electron. Lett. 42, 517–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progress in microstructured optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Microstructured optical fibers—fundamentals and applications.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2–12 (2006).

J. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. Price, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Asimakis, R. Moore, K. Frampton, V. Finazzi, X. Feng, T. Monro, and D. Richardson, “High-nonlinearity dispersion-shifted lead-silicate holey fibers for efficient 1-μm pumped supercontinuum generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 183–190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. Richardson, and T. Monro, “Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 12, 5082–5087 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bjarklev, J. B. Jensen, J. Riishede, J. Broeng, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Larsen, T. Sorensen, K. Hougaard, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal structures in sensing technology,” Proc. SPIE 5502, 9–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and S. C. Ruan, “Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3509–3515 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

K. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. Monro, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. Hewak, D. Richardson, and H. Rutt, “Extruded singlemode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Monro, D. Richardson, and P. Bennett, “Developing holey fibres for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Brandsch, G. Bar, and M.-H. Whangbo, “On the factors affecting the contrast of height and phase images in tapping mode atomic force microscopy,” Langmuir 13, 6349–6353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1988 (1)

D. Tallant, T. Michalske, and W. Smith, “The effects of tensile stress on the Raman spectrum of silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 106, 380–383 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

P. Kasier, E. A. J. Marcatili, and S. E. Miller, “A new optical fiber,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 52, 265–269 (1973).

Abuknesha, R. A.

D. Wildeboer, F. Jeganathan, R. G. Price, and R. A. Abuknesha, “Characterization of bacterial proteases with a panel of fluorescent peptide substrates,” Anal. Biochem. 384, 321–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Afshar V., S.

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar V., “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar V., G. McAdam, C. Davis, and T. Monro, “Corrosion sensing of aluminium alloys using exposed-core microstructured optical fibres,” Mater. Forum 33, 110–121 (2009).

S. Afshar V., S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17891–17901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asimakis, S.

Atkin, D. M.

Baggett, J. C.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

J. Jensen, P. Hoiby, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, L. Pedersen, and A. Bjarklev, “Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13, 5883–5889 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bjarklev, J. B. Jensen, J. Riishede, J. Broeng, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Larsen, T. Sorensen, K. Hougaard, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal structures in sensing technology,” Proc. SPIE 5502, 9–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bar, G.

R. Brandsch, G. Bar, and M.-H. Whangbo, “On the factors affecting the contrast of height and phase images in tapping mode atomic force microscopy,” Langmuir 13, 6349–6353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Belardi, W.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, P.

T. Monro, D. Richardson, and P. Bennett, “Developing holey fibres for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Microstructured optical fibers—fundamentals and applications.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2–12 (2006).

J. Jensen, P. Hoiby, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, L. Pedersen, and A. Bjarklev, “Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13, 5883–5889 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bjarklev, J. B. Jensen, J. Riishede, J. Broeng, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Larsen, T. Sorensen, K. Hougaard, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal structures in sensing technology,” Proc. SPIE 5502, 9–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bozolan, A.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single-mode liquid-core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterisation,” Electron. Lett. 42, 517–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brandsch, R.

R. Brandsch, G. Bar, and M.-H. Whangbo, “On the factors affecting the contrast of height and phase images in tapping mode atomic force microscopy,” Langmuir 13, 6349–6353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G. R.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

A. Bjarklev, J. B. Jensen, J. Riishede, J. Broeng, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Larsen, T. Sorensen, K. Hougaard, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal structures in sensing technology,” Proc. SPIE 5502, 9–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Chen, J. S. Y.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chesini, G.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single-mode liquid-core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chinnappan, R.

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

F. M. Cox, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Opening up optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 11843–11848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single-mode liquid-core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cox, F. M.

Cruz, C. H. B.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single-mode liquid-core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C.

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar V., G. McAdam, C. Davis, and T. Monro, “Corrosion sensing of aluminium alloys using exposed-core microstructured optical fibres,” Mater. Forum 33, 110–121 (2009).

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. C. Foo, R. Moore, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for real-time fluorescence sensing,” Opt. Express 17, 18533–18542 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Matos, C. J. S.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single-mode liquid-core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Debs, J. E.

dos Santos, E. M.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single-mode liquid-core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, M. R. Oermann, K. Knight, and T. M. Monro, “Extruded tellurite glass and fibers with low OH content for mid-infrared applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 432–442 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, R. T. White, and T. M. Monro, “Driving down the detection limit in microstructured fiber-based chemical dip sensors,” Sensors 11, 2961–2971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar V., “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar V., G. McAdam, C. Davis, and T. Monro, “Corrosion sensing of aluminium alloys using exposed-core microstructured optical fibres,” Mater. Forum 33, 110–121 (2009).

J. E. Debs, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. S. Quinton, and T. M. Monro, “A fundamental study into the surface functionalization of soft glass microstructured optical fibers via silane coupling agents,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 576–582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17, 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. C. Foo, R. Moore, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for real-time fluorescence sensing,” Opt. Express 17, 18533–18542 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, “Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 17819–17826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 15086–15092 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. Price, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Asimakis, R. Moore, K. Frampton, V. Finazzi, X. Feng, T. Monro, and D. Richardson, “High-nonlinearity dispersion-shifted lead-silicate holey fibers for efficient 1-μm pumped supercontinuum generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 183–190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progress in microstructured optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. Richardson, and T. Monro, “Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 12, 5082–5087 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emiliyanov, G.

Euser, T. G.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Facincani, T.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single-mode liquid-core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, N. J.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Finazzi, V.

Fitt, A. D.

Foo, T. C.

Frampton, K.

François, A.

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar V., “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Furusawa, K.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gayraud, N.

J. P. Parry, B. C. Griffiths, N. Gayraud, E. D. McNaghten, A. M. Parkes, W. N. MacPherson, and D. P. Hand, “Towards practical gas sensing with micro-structured fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B.

Gleixner, S.

M. Y. Sim and S. Gleixner, “Studying the etch rates and selectivity of SiO2 and Al in BHF solutions,” in 2006 16th Biennial University/Government/Industry Microelectronics Symposium (2006), pp. 225–228.

Griffiths, B. C.

J. P. Parry, B. C. Griffiths, N. Gayraud, E. D. McNaghten, A. M. Parkes, W. N. MacPherson, and D. P. Hand, “Towards practical gas sensing with micro-structured fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, C.

Groothoff, N.

Gu, C.

Hand, D. P.

J. P. Parry, B. C. Griffiths, N. Gayraud, E. D. McNaghten, A. M. Parkes, W. N. MacPherson, and D. P. Hand, “Towards practical gas sensing with micro-structured fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heng, S.

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar V., “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D.

K. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. Monro, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. Hewak, D. Richardson, and H. Rutt, “Extruded singlemode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

K. Richardson, D. Krol, and K. Hirao, “Glasses for photonic applications,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1, 74–86 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. L.

Hoffmann, P.

Hoiby, P.

Hoo, Y. L.

Hou, L.

Hougaard, K.

A. Bjarklev, J. B. Jensen, J. Riishede, J. Broeng, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Larsen, T. Sorensen, K. Hougaard, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal structures in sensing technology,” Proc. SPIE 5502, 9–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, S.

Jeganathan, F.

D. Wildeboer, F. Jeganathan, R. G. Price, and R. A. Abuknesha, “Characterization of bacterial proteases with a panel of fluorescent peptide substrates,” Anal. Biochem. 384, 321–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J.

Jensen, J. B.

A. Bjarklev, J. B. Jensen, J. Riishede, J. Broeng, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Larsen, T. Sorensen, K. Hougaard, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal structures in sensing technology,” Proc. SPIE 5502, 9–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.

Jin, W.

Kasier, P.

P. Kasier, E. A. J. Marcatili, and S. E. Miller, “A new optical fiber,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 52, 265–269 (1973).

Kiang, K.

K. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. Monro, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. Hewak, D. Richardson, and H. Rutt, “Extruded singlemode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Knight, K.

Koizumi, F.

Krol, D.

K. Richardson, D. Krol, and K. Hirao, “Glasses for photonic applications,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1, 74–86 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, K.

Lægsgaard, J.

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Microstructured optical fibers—fundamentals and applications.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2–12 (2006).

Laegsgaard, J.

A. Bjarklev, J. B. Jensen, J. Riishede, J. Broeng, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Larsen, T. Sorensen, K. Hougaard, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal structures in sensing technology,” Proc. SPIE 5502, 9–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Large, M. C. J.

Larsen, T. T.

A. Bjarklev, J. B. Jensen, J. Riishede, J. Broeng, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Larsen, T. Sorensen, K. Hougaard, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal structures in sensing technology,” Proc. SPIE 5502, 9–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leong, J.

Li, M.

Liu, J.

Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lwin, R.

MacPherson, W. N.

J. P. Parry, B. C. Griffiths, N. Gayraud, E. D. McNaghten, A. M. Parkes, W. N. MacPherson, and D. P. Hand, “Towards practical gas sensing with micro-structured fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

P. Kasier, E. A. J. Marcatili, and S. E. Miller, “A new optical fiber,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 52, 265–269 (1973).

Markov, A.

Martelli, C.

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazhorova, A.

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAdam, G.

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar V., G. McAdam, C. Davis, and T. Monro, “Corrosion sensing of aluminium alloys using exposed-core microstructured optical fibres,” Mater. Forum 33, 110–121 (2009).

McNaghten, E. D.

J. P. Parry, B. C. Griffiths, N. Gayraud, E. D. McNaghten, A. M. Parkes, W. N. MacPherson, and D. P. Hand, “Towards practical gas sensing with micro-structured fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michalske, T.

D. Tallant, T. Michalske, and W. Smith, “The effects of tensile stress on the Raman spectrum of silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 106, 380–383 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. E.

P. Kasier, E. A. J. Marcatili, and S. E. Miller, “A new optical fiber,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 52, 265–269 (1973).

Monro, T.

S. Warren-Smith, E. Sinchenko, P. Stoddart, and T. Monro, “Distributed fluorescence sensing using exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1385–1387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar V., G. McAdam, C. Davis, and T. Monro, “Corrosion sensing of aluminium alloys using exposed-core microstructured optical fibres,” Mater. Forum 33, 110–121 (2009).

J. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. Price, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Asimakis, R. Moore, K. Frampton, V. Finazzi, X. Feng, T. Monro, and D. Richardson, “High-nonlinearity dispersion-shifted lead-silicate holey fibers for efficient 1-μm pumped supercontinuum generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 183–190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. Richardson, and T. Monro, “Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 12, 5082–5087 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. Monro, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. Hewak, D. Richardson, and H. Rutt, “Extruded singlemode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Monro, D. Richardson, and P. Bennett, “Developing holey fibres for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, M. R. Oermann, K. Knight, and T. M. Monro, “Extruded tellurite glass and fibers with low OH content for mid-infrared applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 432–442 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, R. T. White, and T. M. Monro, “Driving down the detection limit in microstructured fiber-based chemical dip sensors,” Sensors 11, 2961–2971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar V., “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17, 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. C. Foo, R. Moore, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for real-time fluorescence sensing,” Opt. Express 17, 18533–18542 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Debs, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, J. S. Quinton, and T. M. Monro, “A fundamental study into the surface functionalization of soft glass microstructured optical fibers via silane coupling agents,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 576–582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Voyce, A. D. Fitt, and T. M. Monro, “Mathematical modeling as an accurate predictive tool in capillary and microstructured fiber manufacture: the effects of preform rotation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 791–798 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Afshar V., S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17891–17901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, “Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 17819–17826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 15086–15092 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progress in microstructured optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R.

Ng, A.

Nolan, D.

Oermann, M. R.

Olivero, P.

Ong, J. S. K.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single-mode liquid-core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parkes, A. M.

J. P. Parry, B. C. Griffiths, N. Gayraud, E. D. McNaghten, A. M. Parkes, W. N. MacPherson, and D. P. Hand, “Towards practical gas sensing with micro-structured fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parry, J. P.

J. P. Parry, B. C. Griffiths, N. Gayraud, E. D. McNaghten, A. M. Parkes, W. N. MacPherson, and D. P. Hand, “Towards practical gas sensing with micro-structured fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L.

Peters, K.

K. Peters, “Polymer optical fiber sensors—a review,” Smart Mater. Struct. 20, 013002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

Petrovich, M. N.

Poletti, F.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Price, J.

Price, R. G.

D. Wildeboer, F. Jeganathan, R. G. Price, and R. A. Abuknesha, “Characterization of bacterial proteases with a panel of fluorescent peptide substrates,” Anal. Biochem. 384, 321–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quinton, J. S.

Richardson, D.

Richardson, D. J.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15, 8731–8736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

K. Richardson, D. Krol, and K. Hirao, “Glasses for photonic applications,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1, 74–86 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riishede, J.

A. Bjarklev, J. B. Jensen, J. Riishede, J. Broeng, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Larsen, T. Sorensen, K. Hougaard, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal structures in sensing technology,” Proc. SPIE 5502, 9–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, S. C.

Ruan, Y.

Russell, P. S. J.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rutt, H.

K. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. Monro, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. Hewak, D. Richardson, and H. Rutt, “Extruded singlemode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sadler, P. J.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scharrer, M.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schartner, E. P.

E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, R. T. White, and T. M. Monro, “Driving down the detection limit in microstructured fiber-based chemical dip sensors,” Sensors 11, 2961–2971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar V., “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, “Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 17819–17826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, C.

Sim, M. Y.

M. Y. Sim and S. Gleixner, “Studying the etch rates and selectivity of SiO2 and Al in BHF solutions,” in 2006 16th Biennial University/Government/Industry Microelectronics Symposium (2006), pp. 225–228.

Sinchenko, E.

S. Warren-Smith, E. Sinchenko, P. Stoddart, and T. Monro, “Distributed fluorescence sensing using exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1385–1387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogata, O.

Skorobogatiy, M.

Smith, W.

D. Tallant, T. Michalske, and W. Smith, “The effects of tensile stress on the Raman spectrum of silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 106, 380–383 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, T.

A. Bjarklev, J. B. Jensen, J. Riishede, J. Broeng, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Larsen, T. Sorensen, K. Hougaard, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal structures in sensing technology,” Proc. SPIE 5502, 9–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stoddart, P.

S. Warren-Smith, E. Sinchenko, P. Stoddart, and T. Monro, “Distributed fluorescence sensing using exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1385–1387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, S.

Tallant, D.

D. Tallant, T. Michalske, and W. Smith, “The effects of tensile stress on the Raman spectrum of silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 106, 380–383 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

G. Zhai and L. Tong, “Roughness-induced radiation losses in optical micro or nanofibers,” Opt. Express 15, 13805–13816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toubaru, K.

Tucknott, J.

K. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. Monro, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. Hewak, D. Richardson, and H. Rutt, “Extruded singlemode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Brakel, A.

Vaz, A. R.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single-mode liquid-core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Voyce, C. J.

Wang, D. N.

Warren-Smith, S.

S. Warren-Smith, E. Sinchenko, P. Stoddart, and T. Monro, “Distributed fluorescence sensing using exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1385–1387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar V., “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Warren-Smith, S. C.

E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, R. T. White, and T. M. Monro, “Driving down the detection limit in microstructured fiber-based chemical dip sensors,” Sensors 11, 2961–2971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar V., G. McAdam, C. Davis, and T. Monro, “Corrosion sensing of aluminium alloys using exposed-core microstructured optical fibres,” Mater. Forum 33, 110–121 (2009).

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. C. Foo, R. Moore, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for real-time fluorescence sensing,” Opt. Express 17, 18533–18542 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17, 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afshar V., S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17891–17901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Webb, A. S.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Whangbo, M.-H.

R. Brandsch, G. Bar, and M.-H. Whangbo, “On the factors affecting the contrast of height and phase images in tapping mode atomic force microscopy,” Langmuir 13, 6349–6353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

White, R. T.

E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, R. T. White, and T. M. Monro, “Driving down the detection limit in microstructured fiber-based chemical dip sensors,” Sensors 11, 2961–2971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wildeboer, D.

D. Wildeboer, F. Jeganathan, R. G. Price, and R. A. Abuknesha, “Characterization of bacterial proteases with a panel of fluorescent peptide substrates,” Anal. Biochem. 384, 321–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wolfbeis, O. S.

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 80, 4269–4283 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, F.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterisation,” Electron. Lett. 42, 517–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

Yang, C.

Zhai, G.

Zourob, M.

Anal. Biochem. (1)

D. Wildeboer, F. Jeganathan, R. G. Price, and R. A. Abuknesha, “Characterization of bacterial proteases with a panel of fluorescent peptide substrates,” Anal. Biochem. 384, 321–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 80, 4269–4283 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

T. M. Monro and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, “Progress in microstructured optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 467–495 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

P. Kasier, E. A. J. Marcatili, and S. E. Miller, “A new optical fiber,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 52, 265–269 (1973).

Electron. Lett. (3)

T. Monro, D. Richardson, and P. Bennett, “Developing holey fibres for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. Monro, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. Hewak, D. Richardson, and H. Rutt, “Extruded singlemode non-silica glass holey optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 546–547 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, and X. Feng, “Fabrication of optical fibre nanowires and their optical and mechanical characterisation,” Electron. Lett. 42, 517–519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Warren-Smith, E. Sinchenko, P. Stoddart, and T. Monro, “Distributed fluorescence sensing using exposed core microstructured optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1385–1387 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (1)

K. Richardson, D. Krol, and K. Hirao, “Glasses for photonic applications,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 1, 74–86 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Microstructured optical fibers—fundamentals and applications.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2–12 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, M. Scharrer, P. S. J. Russell, N. J. Farrer, and P. J. Sadler, “Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

D. Tallant, T. Michalske, and W. Smith, “The effects of tensile stress on the Raman spectrum of silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 106, 380–383 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

R. Brandsch, G. Bar, and M.-H. Whangbo, “On the factors affecting the contrast of height and phase images in tapping mode atomic force microscopy,” Langmuir 13, 6349–6353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Forum (1)

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar V., G. McAdam, C. Davis, and T. Monro, “Corrosion sensing of aluminium alloys using exposed-core microstructured optical fibres,” Mater. Forum 33, 110–121 (2009).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single-mode liquid-core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Parry, B. C. Griffiths, N. Gayraud, E. D. McNaghten, A. M. Parkes, W. N. MacPherson, and D. P. Hand, “Towards practical gas sensing with micro-structured fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 075301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Sensing with microstructured optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854–858 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,” Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (13)

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. Richardson, and T. Monro, “Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 12, 5082–5087 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jensen, P. Hoiby, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, L. Pedersen, and A. Bjarklev, “Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13, 5883–5889 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15, 8731–8736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Cox, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Opening up optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 11843–11848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhai and L. Tong, “Roughness-induced radiation losses in optical micro or nanofibers,” Opt. Express 15, 13805–13816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and T. M. Monro, “Extrusion of complex preforms for microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 15086–15092 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ruan, E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Hoffmann, and T. M. Monro, “Detection of quantum-dot labelled proteins using soft glass microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 17819–17826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Afshar V., S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Enhancement of fluorescence-based sensing using microstructured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17891–17901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Warren-Smith, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. C. Foo, R. Moore, C. Davis, and T. M. Monro, “Exposed-core microstructured optical fibers for real-time fluorescence sensing,” Opt. Express 17, 18533–18542 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, and S. Takeuchi, “Optical transmittance degradation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 8596–8601 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mazhorova, A. Markov, A. Ng, R. Chinnappan, O. Skorobogata, M. Zourob, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Label-free bacteria detection using evanescent mode of a suspended core terahertz fiber,” Opt. Express 20, 5344–5355 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, and T. M. Monro, “Suspended nanowires: fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores,” Opt. Express 17, 2646–2657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, J. Liu, C. Yang, G. Jin, C. Gu, and L. Hou, “Novel index-guided photonic crystal fiber surface-enhanced Raman scattering probe,” Opt. Express 16, 8300–8305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

T. M. Monro, S. Warren-Smith, E. P. Schartner, A. François, S. Heng, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and S. Afshar V., “Sensing with suspended-core optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 343–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Bjarklev, J. B. Jensen, J. Riishede, J. Broeng, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Larsen, T. Sorensen, K. Hougaard, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal structures in sensing technology,” Proc. SPIE 5502, 9–16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

E. P. Schartner, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, R. T. White, and T. M. Monro, “Driving down the detection limit in microstructured fiber-based chemical dip sensors,” Sensors 11, 2961–2971 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

K. Peters, “Polymer optical fiber sensors—a review,” Smart Mater. Struct. 20, 013002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Heraeus Quarzglas GmbH & Co. KG, Pure Silica Rods for Specialty Fiber Applications, 1st ed. (2012), http://heraeus-quarzglas.com/ .

M. Y. Sim and S. Gleixner, “Studying the etch rates and selectivity of SiO2 and Al in BHF solutions,” in 2006 16th Biennial University/Government/Industry Microelectronics Symposium (2006), pp. 225–228.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section of the preform fabricated from Ø12 mm F300HQ silica rod; and, scanning electron microscope images of (b) the silica exposed-core fiber with (c) the cross section measured at the maximum to be Ø202 μm; and, (d) an enlarged image of the core having an effective diameter of 10.0μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Loss of silica exposed-core fiber, broadband cutback measurements taken 26 days apart (red and blue) compared to silica suspended-core fiber with similar core size (black); and, (b) fiber Raman peaks at 532 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Deterioration in the transmission properties of the silica exposed-core fiber when exposed to (a) air; and, (b) water.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy images of the exposed-core fibers exposed to (a)–(c) air, (d)–(f) water and (g)–(i) methanol with (j) a coherence scanning interferometer image along the methanol exposed core region. (a), (d) and (g) show the phase images across the core region indicated by the 12 μm area on the x-axis, with [(b), (e) and (h) respectively] enlarged phase images of the area shown by the green box; and, (c), (f) and (i) showing their respective topologies.

Equations (1)

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P λ , t = P λ , 0 10 - ξ t / 10

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