Abstract

Glass clad semiconductor core fibers have received much attention recently for their potential utility for nonlinear optics and infrared power delivery. As these fibers have progressed, it has become evident that a greater understanding as to the dominant sources of loss is needed. This work begins that discussion by investigating intrinsic and extrinsic sources of loss in silica glass clad crystalline silicon core optical fibers. Of particular interest are, to the best of our knowledge, the first lattice-fringe images of single and poly-crystalline regions of the silicon core optical fibers as well as scattering sources. Suggested herein are methods to further reduce the presence of impurities and defects that lead to scattering and dominate optical losses.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Krishnamurthi, E. Barnes, J. Sparks, R. He, N. Baril, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “A magnifying fiber element with an array of sub-wavelength Ge/ZnSe pixel waveguides for infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 021108 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, J. Ballato, and R. Rice, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth352(1), 53–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, J. Ballato, S. W. Martin, and R. Rice, “Cladding glass development for semiconductor core optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci.3(2), 144–153 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. He, P. Sazio, A. Peacock, N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Krishnamurthi, E. Barnes, J. Sparks, R. He, N. Baril, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “A magnifying fiber element with an array of sub-wavelength Ge/ZnSe pixel waveguides for infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

P. Nagpal and V. I. Klimov, “Role of mid-gap states in charge transport and photoconductivity in semiconductor nanocrystal films,” Nat Commun2, 486 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Silica-clad crystalline germanium core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 687–688 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, L. Lagonigro, J. R. Sparks, S. Boden, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Polycrystalline silicon optical fibers with atomically smooth surfaces,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2480–2482 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive molten core fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Graham-Rowe, “Fibres get functional,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 66–67 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers,” Opt. Mater.32(9), 862–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, L. Burka, J. Reppert, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, and R. R. Rice, “Binary III-V semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Express18(5), 4972–4979 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, “Raman-based silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(3), 412–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

1997

R. A. Schwarzer, “Automated crystal lattice orientation mapping using a computer-controlled SEM,” Micron28(3), 249–265 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys.54(7), 601–606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Johnson, and D. K. Biegelsen, “Density of gap states of silicon grain boundaries determined by optical absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(2), 195–197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Amezcua-Correa, A.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badding, J.

M. Krishnamurthi, E. Barnes, J. Sparks, R. He, N. Baril, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “A magnifying fiber element with an array of sub-wavelength Ge/ZnSe pixel waveguides for infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. He, P. Sazio, A. Peacock, N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Badding, J. V.

N. Healy, L. Lagonigro, J. R. Sparks, S. Boden, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Polycrystalline silicon optical fibers with atomically smooth surfaces,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2480–2482 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballato, J.

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, J. Ballato, and R. Rice, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth352(1), 53–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, J. Ballato, S. W. Martin, and R. Rice, “Cladding glass development for semiconductor core optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci.3(2), 144–153 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive molten core fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Silica-clad crystalline germanium core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 687–688 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, L. Burka, J. Reppert, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, and R. R. Rice, “Binary III-V semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Express18(5), 4972–4979 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers,” Opt. Mater.32(9), 862–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

C. McMillen, G. Brambilla, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Baril, N.

M. Krishnamurthi, E. Barnes, J. Sparks, R. He, N. Baril, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “A magnifying fiber element with an array of sub-wavelength Ge/ZnSe pixel waveguides for infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baril, N. F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, E.

M. Krishnamurthi, E. Barnes, J. Sparks, R. He, N. Baril, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “A magnifying fiber element with an array of sub-wavelength Ge/ZnSe pixel waveguides for infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Biegelsen, D. K.

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Johnson, and D. K. Biegelsen, “Density of gap states of silicon grain boundaries determined by optical absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(2), 195–197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bo, L.

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

Boden, S.

Boyraz, O.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, “Raman-based silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(3), 412–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

C. McMillen, G. Brambilla, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N.

C. McMillen, G. Brambilla, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Burka, L.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, L. Burka, J. Reppert, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, and R. R. Rice, “Binary III-V semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Express18(5), 4972–4979 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caluori, V.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, C.

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

Cheben, P.

Crespi, V. H.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daw, M.

Dimitropoulos, D.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, “Raman-based silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(3), 412–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellison, M.

Fan, J.

Farrell, G.

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

Finlayson, C. E.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foy, P.

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, J. Ballato, and R. Rice, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth352(1), 53–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, J. Ballato, S. W. Martin, and R. Rice, “Cladding glass development for semiconductor core optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci.3(2), 144–153 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive molten core fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Silica-clad crystalline germanium core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 687–688 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, L. Burka, J. Reppert, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, and R. R. Rice, “Binary III-V semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Express18(5), 4972–4979 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers,” Opt. Mater.32(9), 862–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McMillen, G. Brambilla, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, V.

M. Krishnamurthi, E. Barnes, J. Sparks, R. He, N. Baril, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “A magnifying fiber element with an array of sub-wavelength Ge/ZnSe pixel waveguides for infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. He, P. Sazio, A. Peacock, N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham-Rowe, D.

D. Graham-Rowe, “Fibres get functional,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 66–67 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, N.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, T.

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, J. Ballato, S. W. Martin, and R. Rice, “Cladding glass development for semiconductor core optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci.3(2), 144–153 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, J. Ballato, and R. Rice, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth352(1), 53–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive molten core fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Silica-clad crystalline germanium core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 687–688 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, L. Burka, J. Reppert, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, and R. R. Rice, “Binary III-V semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Express18(5), 4972–4979 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers,” Opt. Mater.32(9), 862–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

C. McMillen, G. Brambilla, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Hawley, D.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys.54(7), 601–606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, R.

M. Krishnamurthi, E. Barnes, J. Sparks, R. He, N. Baril, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “A magnifying fiber element with an array of sub-wavelength Ge/ZnSe pixel waveguides for infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. He, P. Sazio, A. Peacock, N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Healy, N.

R. He, P. Sazio, A. Peacock, N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, L. Lagonigro, J. R. Sparks, S. Boden, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Polycrystalline silicon optical fibers with atomically smooth surfaces,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2480–2482 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hon, N. K.

Ismaeel, R.

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

Jackson, B. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, W. B.

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Johnson, and D. K. Biegelsen, “Density of gap states of silicon grain boundaries determined by optical absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(2), 195–197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Silica-clad crystalline germanium core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 687–688 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, “Raman-based silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(3), 412–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Johnson, N. M.

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Johnson, and D. K. Biegelsen, “Density of gap states of silicon grain boundaries determined by optical absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(2), 195–197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

P. Nagpal and V. I. Klimov, “Role of mid-gap states in charge transport and photoconductivity in semiconductor nanocrystal films,” Nat Commun2, 486 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kokuoz, B.

Kolis, J.

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers,” Opt. Mater.32(9), 862–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthi, M.

R. He, P. Sazio, A. Peacock, N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Krishnamurthi, E. Barnes, J. Sparks, R. He, N. Baril, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “A magnifying fiber element with an array of sub-wavelength Ge/ZnSe pixel waveguides for infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lagonigro, L.

Lamontagne, B.

Lee, T.

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

Margine, E. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, S. W.

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, J. Ballato, S. W. Martin, and R. Rice, “Cladding glass development for semiconductor core optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci.3(2), 144–153 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McDonagh, C.

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

McMillen, C.

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, J. Ballato, and R. Rice, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth352(1), 53–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive molten core fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, L. Burka, J. Reppert, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, and R. R. Rice, “Binary III-V semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Express18(5), 4972–4979 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers,” Opt. Mater.32(9), 862–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McMillen, G. Brambilla, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Morris, S.

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, J. Ballato, S. W. Martin, and R. Rice, “Cladding glass development for semiconductor core optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci.3(2), 144–153 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, J. Ballato, and R. Rice, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth352(1), 53–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive molten core fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Silica-clad crystalline germanium core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 687–688 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. McMillen, G. Brambilla, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Mulwee, D.

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers,” Opt. Mater.32(9), 862–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nagpal, P.

P. Nagpal and V. I. Klimov, “Role of mid-gap states in charge transport and photoconductivity in semiconductor nanocrystal films,” Nat Commun2, 486 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peacock, A.

R. He, P. Sazio, A. Peacock, N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A. C.

Picard, M. J.

Pickrell, G.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Podila, R.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, L. Burka, J. Reppert, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, and R. R. Rice, “Binary III-V semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Express18(5), 4972–4979 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poole, K. F.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Powers, D. R.

Raghunathan, V.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, “Raman-based silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(3), 412–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rao, A. M.

Reppert, J.

Rice, R.

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, J. Ballato, S. W. Martin, and R. Rice, “Cladding glass development for semiconductor core optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci.3(2), 144–153 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, J. Ballato, and R. Rice, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth352(1), 53–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive molten core fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Silica-clad crystalline germanium core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.36(5), 687–688 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers,” Opt. Mater.32(9), 862–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. McMillen, G. Brambilla, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Rice, R. R.

Roy, R.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys.54(7), 601–606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sazio, P.

M. Krishnamurthi, E. Barnes, J. Sparks, R. He, N. Baril, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “A magnifying fiber element with an array of sub-wavelength Ge/ZnSe pixel waveguides for infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. He, P. Sazio, A. Peacock, N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sazio, P. J. A.

N. Healy, L. Lagonigro, J. R. Sparks, S. Boden, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Polycrystalline silicon optical fibers with atomically smooth surfaces,” Opt. Lett.36(13), 2480–2482 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheidemantel, T. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarzer, R. A.

R. A. Schwarzer, “Automated crystal lattice orientation mapping using a computer-controlled SEM,” Micron28(3), 249–265 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, Y.

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

Sharma, S. R.

Shori, R.

Singh, R.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, J.

R. He, P. Sazio, A. Peacock, N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Krishnamurthi, E. Barnes, J. Sparks, R. He, N. Baril, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “A magnifying fiber element with an array of sub-wavelength Ge/ZnSe pixel waveguides for infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, J. R.

Stafsudd, O.

Stolen, R.

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, J. Ballato, and R. Rice, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth352(1), 53–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive molten core fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers,” Opt. Mater.32(9), 862–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, B. Kokuoz, M. Ellison, C. McMillen, J. Reppert, A. M. Rao, M. Daw, S. R. Sharma, R. Shori, O. Stafsudd, R. R. Rice, and D. R. Powers, “Silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Express16(23), 18675–18683 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarr, N. G.

Wang, K.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

Won, D. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

Xu, D. X.

Yazgan-Kokuoz, B.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, W. N.

Yu, A. W.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys.54(7), 601–606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, L.

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, J. Fan, L. Zhu, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “Reactive molten core fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express1(6), 1141–1149 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys.54(7), 601–606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys.54(7), 601–606 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Johnson, and D. K. Biegelsen, “Density of gap states of silicon grain boundaries determined by optical absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(2), 195–197 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, C. Charlton, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers” (submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.).

M. Krishnamurthi, E. Barnes, J. Sparks, R. He, N. Baril, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “A magnifying fiber element with an array of sub-wavelength Ge/ZnSe pixel waveguides for infrared imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 021108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, “Raman-based silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(3), 412–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci.

S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, J. Ballato, S. W. Martin, and R. Rice, “Cladding glass development for semiconductor core optical fibers,” Int. J. Appl. Glass. Sci.3(2), 144–153 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. Gupta, C. McMillen, R. Singh, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, R. Rice, K. F. Poole, L. Zhu, and J. Ballato, “Annealing of silicon optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(9), 093107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

S. Morris, C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, R. Stolen, J. Ballato, and R. Rice, “The influence of core geometry on the crystallography of silicon optical fiber,” J. Cryst. Growth352(1), 53–58 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Micron

R. A. Schwarzer, “Automated crystal lattice orientation mapping using a computer-controlled SEM,” Micron28(3), 249–265 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat Commun

P. Nagpal and V. I. Klimov, “Role of mid-gap states in charge transport and photoconductivity in semiconductor nanocrystal films,” Nat Commun2, 486 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

D. Graham-Rowe, “Fibres get functional,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 66–67 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. He, P. Sazio, A. Peacock, N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

B. Scott, K. Wang, V. Caluori, and G. Pickrell, “Fabrication of silicon optical fiber,” Opt. Eng.48(10), 100501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol.16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers,” Opt. Mater.32(9), 862–867 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. McMillen, G. Brambilla, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. (to be published), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. Express

Science

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

N. Healy, S. Mailis, T. D. Day, P. J. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Laser annealing of amorphous silicon core optical fibers,” in Specialty Optical Fibers, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper STu1D.1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of measured attenuation values and corresponding core sizes reported from various semiconductor optical fibers (silicon, Si; germanium, Ge; zinc selenide, ZnSe; amorphous hydrogenated silicon, a-H:Si. Abbreviations: Collaboration between the Pennsylvania State University and the Optoelectronics Research Center at the University of Southampton [PSU/ORC], Clemson University [Clemson]. Citations noted follow the following format (Journal name abbreviation volume, starting page number, year of publication), where “OE” is Optics Express, “JACS” is the Journal of the American Chemical Society, “APL” is Applied Physics Letters, “AM” is Advanced Materials, “JCG” is the Journal of Crystal Growth, “OME” is Optical Materials Express, and “OL” is Optics Letters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of etched silicon core pieces.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

EBSD image of silicon core grain boundaries and crystallographic planes. The black scale marker on the bottom of Fig. 3(a) is 500 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of etched silicon cores. Regions of well-defined local single crystallinity are observed though the samples are polycrystalline overall. The scale marker is 10 nm for Fig. 4(a) and 5 nm for Fig. 4(b) and the noted lattice spacing in Fig. 4(a) is 0.3326 nm (3.3326 Å).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM images of etched silicon core (a) and inner face of silica cladding tube (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Infrared (IR) side-view image of the input end with regions noted. (b) IR image of output facet when IR light is coupled to the other end. (c) Longitudinal IR image of the silicon core. In all cases, the core-only (i.e., glass cladding etched away) samples were used.

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