Abstract

We investigate hybridized electric and magnetic plasmon modes in stacked nanocups. To elucidate the coupling mechanism we demonstrate the analogy between split-ring-resonators and nanocups in the case of dipolar excitation and compare the behavior of stacked nanocups to stacked split-ring-resonators. The interplay of electric coupling with the symmetric and antisymmetric coupling of magnetic moments in effective split-ring-resonator resonances in the nanocups leads to experimentally observed hybridized modes in the coupled nanocup system. Our stacked nanocups are easily manufacturable at low cost, they cover a large-area, and can serve as SERS or SEIRA substrates. They might also serve as novel plasmonic nanoantennas, as templates for nonlinear plasmonics, and as stacked meander surfaces for metamaterial-assisted imaging.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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    [Crossref]
  4. M. Cortie and M. Ford, “A plasmon-induced current loop in gold semi-shells,” Nanotechnology 18, 235704 (2007).
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  5. J. Ye, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Symmetry breaking induced optical properties of gold open shell nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17, 23765–23771 (2009).
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  6. J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25, 1822–1827 (2009).
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  7. J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4, 1457–1464 (2010).
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  10. P. Van Dorpe and J. Ye, “Semishells: versatile plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 6774–6778 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Zhang, N. K. Grady, C. Ayala-Orozco, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional nanostructures as highly efficient generators of second harmonic light,” Nano Lett. 11, 5519–5523 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207402 (2010).
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    [Crossref]
  19. J. Zhao, B. Frank, S. Burger, and H. Giessen, “Large-area high-quality plasmonic oligomers fabricated by angle-controlled colloidal nanolithography,” ACS Nano 5, 9009–9016 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. T. Pakizeh and M. Käll, “Unidirectional ultracompact optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 9, 2343–2349 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  27. C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14, 8827–8836 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  29. N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3, 157–162 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 9838–9852 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  31. H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, T. P. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Resonance hybridization in double split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 12095–12101 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  32. N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3913–3961 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  33. Ph. Schau, K. Frenner, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Design of highly transmissive metallic meander stacks with different grating periodicities for subwavelength-imaging applications,” Opt. Express 19, 3627–3636 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  34. L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
    [Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. Ali Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3913–3961 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ph. Schau, K. Frenner, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Design of highly transmissive metallic meander stacks with different grating periodicities for subwavelength-imaging applications,” Opt. Express 19, 3627–3636 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, N. K. Grady, C. Ayala-Orozco, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional nanostructures as highly efficient generators of second harmonic light,” Nano Lett. 11, 5519–5523 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5, 7254–7262 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Van Dorpe and J. Ye, “Semishells: versatile plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 6774–6778 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, B. Frank, S. Burger, and H. Giessen, “Large-area high-quality plasmonic oligomers fabricated by angle-controlled colloidal nanolithography,” ACS Nano 5, 9009–9016 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10, 2694–2701 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4, 1457–1464 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207402 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 9838–9852 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

J. Ye, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Symmetry breaking induced optical properties of gold open shell nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17, 23765–23771 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Pakizeh and M. Käll, “Unidirectional ultracompact optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 9, 2343–2349 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3, 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. A. Mirin and N. J. Halas, “Light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9, 1255–1259 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Gwinner, E. Koroknay, L. Fu, P. Patoka, W. Kandulski, M. Giersig, and H. Giessen, “Periodic large-area metallic split-ring resonator metamaterial fabrication based on shadow nanosphere lithography,” Small 5, 400–406 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25, 1822–1827 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. Garcia-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157403 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Opt. Express 16, 10858–10866 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, T. P. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Resonance hybridization in double split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 12095–12101 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Cortie and M. Ford, “A plasmon-induced current loop in gold semi-shells,” Nanotechnology 18, 235704 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

S. Yang, S. G. Jang, D. Choi, S. Kim, and H. K. Yu, “Nanomachining by colloidal lithography,” Small 2, 458–475 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14, 8827–8836 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Kosiorek, W. Kandulski, H. Glaczynska, and M. Giersig, “Fabrication of nanoscale rings, dots, and rods by combining shadow nanosphere lithography and annealed polystyrene nanosphere masks,” Small 1, 439–444 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217–4220 (1997).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Abdelsalam, M.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adato, R.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. Ali Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aizpurua, J.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. Garcia-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ali Yanik, A.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. Ali Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. Ali Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. Ali Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217–4220 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ayala-Orozco, C.

Y. Zhang, N. K. Grady, C. Ayala-Orozco, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional nanostructures as highly efficient generators of second harmonic light,” Nano Lett. 11, 5519–5523 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5, 7254–7262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bankson, J. A.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bardhan, R.

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10, 2694–2701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bartlett, P. N.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Borghs, G.

J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4, 1457–1464 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25, 1822–1827 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Symmetry breaking induced optical properties of gold open shell nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17, 23765–23771 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brannan, T.

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5, 7254–7262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Burger, S.

J. Zhao, B. Frank, S. Burger, and H. Giessen, “Large-area high-quality plasmonic oligomers fabricated by angle-controlled colloidal nanolithography,” ACS Nano 5, 9009–9016 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3913–3961 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, D.

S. Yang, S. G. Jang, D. Choi, S. Kim, and H. K. Yu, “Nanomachining by colloidal lithography,” Small 2, 458–475 (2006).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Cole, R. M.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cornelius, T. W.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. Garcia-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cortie, M.

M. Cortie and M. Ford, “A plasmon-induced current loop in gold semi-shells,” Nanotechnology 18, 235704 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dolling, G.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dorfmüller, J.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dregely, D.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Etrich, C.

Ford, M.

M. Cortie and M. Ford, “A plasmon-induced current loop in gold semi-shells,” Nanotechnology 18, 235704 (2007).
[Crossref]

Frank, B.

L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, B. Frank, S. Burger, and H. Giessen, “Large-area high-quality plasmonic oligomers fabricated by angle-controlled colloidal nanolithography,” ACS Nano 5, 9009–9016 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frenner, K.

L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
[Crossref]

Ph. Schau, K. Frenner, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Design of highly transmissive metallic meander stacks with different grating periodicities for subwavelength-imaging applications,” Opt. Express 19, 3627–3636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fu, L.

L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
[Crossref]

Ph. Schau, K. Frenner, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Design of highly transmissive metallic meander stacks with different grating periodicities for subwavelength-imaging applications,” Opt. Express 19, 3627–3636 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. C. Gwinner, E. Koroknay, L. Fu, P. Patoka, W. Kandulski, M. Giersig, and H. Giessen, “Periodic large-area metallic split-ring resonator metamaterial fabrication based on shadow nanosphere lithography,” Small 5, 400–406 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, T. P. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Resonance hybridization in double split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 12095–12101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gaiser, P.

L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
[Crossref]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Etxarri, A.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. Garcia-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Giersig, M.

M. C. Gwinner, E. Koroknay, L. Fu, P. Patoka, W. Kandulski, M. Giersig, and H. Giessen, “Periodic large-area metallic split-ring resonator metamaterial fabrication based on shadow nanosphere lithography,” Small 5, 400–406 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Kosiorek, W. Kandulski, H. Glaczynska, and M. Giersig, “Fabrication of nanoscale rings, dots, and rods by combining shadow nanosphere lithography and annealed polystyrene nanosphere masks,” Small 1, 439–444 (2005).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, B. Frank, S. Burger, and H. Giessen, “Large-area high-quality plasmonic oligomers fabricated by angle-controlled colloidal nanolithography,” ACS Nano 5, 9009–9016 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ph. Schau, K. Frenner, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Design of highly transmissive metallic meander stacks with different grating periodicities for subwavelength-imaging applications,” Opt. Express 19, 3627–3636 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 9838–9852 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3, 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. C. Gwinner, E. Koroknay, L. Fu, P. Patoka, W. Kandulski, M. Giersig, and H. Giessen, “Periodic large-area metallic split-ring resonator metamaterial fabrication based on shadow nanosphere lithography,” Small 5, 400–406 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, T. P. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Resonance hybridization in double split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 12095–12101 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14, 8827–8836 (2006).
[Crossref]

Glaczynska, H.

A. Kosiorek, W. Kandulski, H. Glaczynska, and M. Giersig, “Fabrication of nanoscale rings, dots, and rods by combining shadow nanosphere lithography and annealed polystyrene nanosphere masks,” Small 1, 439–444 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gompf, B.

L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
[Crossref]

Grady, N. K.

Y. Zhang, N. K. Grady, C. Ayala-Orozco, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional nanostructures as highly efficient generators of second harmonic light,” Nano Lett. 11, 5519–5523 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grange, R.

Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

Gwinner, M. C.

M. C. Gwinner, E. Koroknay, L. Fu, P. Patoka, W. Kandulski, M. Giersig, and H. Giessen, “Periodic large-area metallic split-ring resonator metamaterial fabrication based on shadow nanosphere lithography,” Small 5, 400–406 (2009).
[Crossref]

Halas, N. J.

Y. Zhang, N. K. Grady, C. Ayala-Orozco, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional nanostructures as highly efficient generators of second harmonic light,” Nano Lett. 11, 5519–5523 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5, 7254–7262 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3913–3961 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10, 2694–2701 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. A. Mirin and N. J. Halas, “Light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9, 1255–1259 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217–4220 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hazle, J. D.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, L. R.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C.

Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jang, S. G.

S. Yang, S. G. Jang, D. Choi, S. Kim, and H. K. Yu, “Nanomachining by colloidal lithography,” Small 2, 458–475 (2006).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Käll, M.

T. Pakizeh and M. Käll, “Unidirectional ultracompact optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 9, 2343–2349 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kandulski, W.

M. C. Gwinner, E. Koroknay, L. Fu, P. Patoka, W. Kandulski, M. Giersig, and H. Giessen, “Periodic large-area metallic split-ring resonator metamaterial fabrication based on shadow nanosphere lithography,” Small 5, 400–406 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Kosiorek, W. Kandulski, H. Glaczynska, and M. Giersig, “Fabrication of nanoscale rings, dots, and rods by combining shadow nanosphere lithography and annealed polystyrene nanosphere masks,” Small 1, 439–444 (2005).
[Crossref]

Karim, S.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. Garcia-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kern, K.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khanikaev, A. B.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. Ali Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Yang, S. G. Jang, D. Choi, S. Kim, and H. K. Yu, “Nanomachining by colloidal lithography,” Small 2, 458–475 (2006).
[Crossref]

King, N. S.

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5, 7254–7262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Klein, M. W.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Koroknay, E.

M. C. Gwinner, E. Koroknay, L. Fu, P. Patoka, W. Kandulski, M. Giersig, and H. Giessen, “Periodic large-area metallic split-ring resonator metamaterial fabrication based on shadow nanosphere lithography,” Small 5, 400–406 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kosiorek, A.

A. Kosiorek, W. Kandulski, H. Glaczynska, and M. Giersig, “Fabrication of nanoscale rings, dots, and rods by combining shadow nanosphere lithography and annealed polystyrene nanosphere masks,” Small 1, 439–444 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuhl, J.

Lagae, L.

J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4, 1457–1464 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Symmetry breaking induced optical properties of gold open shell nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17, 23765–23771 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lal, S.

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3913–3961 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lassiter, J. B.

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10, 2694–2701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lederer, F.

Li, Y.

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5, 7254–7262 (2011).
[Crossref]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Link, S.

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3913–3961 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3, 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 9838–9852 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3, 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, T. P. Meyrath, T. Zentgraf, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Resonance hybridization in double split-ring resonator metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15, 12095–12101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Maes, G.

J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4, 1457–1464 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25, 1822–1827 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Symmetry breaking induced optical properties of gold open shell nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17, 23765–23771 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mahajan, S.

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meyrath, T. P.

Mirin, N. A.

N. A. Mirin and N. J. Halas, “Light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9, 1255–1259 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, S.

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10, 2694–2701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neubrech, F.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. Garcia-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nordlander, P.

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5, 7254–7262 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3913–3961 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10, 2694–2701 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[Crossref]

Oldenburg, S. J.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[Crossref]

Osten, W.

L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
[Crossref]

Ph. Schau, K. Frenner, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Design of highly transmissive metallic meander stacks with different grating periodicities for subwavelength-imaging applications,” Opt. Express 19, 3627–3636 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pakizeh, T.

T. Pakizeh and M. Käll, “Unidirectional ultracompact optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 9, 2343–2349 (2009).
[Crossref]

Patoka, P.

M. C. Gwinner, E. Koroknay, L. Fu, P. Patoka, W. Kandulski, M. Giersig, and H. Giessen, “Periodic large-area metallic split-ring resonator metamaterial fabrication based on shadow nanosphere lithography,” Small 5, 400–406 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Price, R. E.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref]

Prodan, E.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pu, Y.

Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pucci, A.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. Garcia-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157403 (2008).
[Crossref]

Radloff, C.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rivera, B.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rockstuhl, C.

Sarkar, D.

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217–4220 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schau, P.

L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
[Crossref]

Schau, Ph.

Schmidt, F.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schweizer, H.

Sershen, S. R.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. Ali Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sobhani, H.

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10, 2694–2701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stafford, R. J.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stefani, F. D.

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Taminiau, T. H.

Taubert, R.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Van Dorpe, P.

P. Van Dorpe and J. Ye, “Semishells: versatile plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 6774–6778 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4, 1457–1464 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25, 1822–1827 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Symmetry breaking induced optical properties of gold open shell nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17, 23765–23771 (2009).
[Crossref]

van Hulst, N. F.

Van Roy, W.

J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4, 1457–1464 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25, 1822–1827 (2009).
[Crossref]

Verellen, N.

J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4, 1457–1464 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vogelgesang, R.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
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Wegener, M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
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West, J. L.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
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Westcott, S. L.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
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Wollet, L.

L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. Ali Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, S. G. Jang, D. Choi, S. Kim, and H. K. Yu, “Nanomachining by colloidal lithography,” Small 2, 458–475 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

P. Van Dorpe and J. Ye, “Semishells: versatile plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 6774–6778 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4, 1457–1464 (2010).
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J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25, 1822–1827 (2009).
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J. Ye, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Symmetry breaking induced optical properties of gold open shell nanostructures,” Opt. Express 17, 23765–23771 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. K.

S. Yang, S. G. Jang, D. Choi, S. Kim, and H. K. Yu, “Nanomachining by colloidal lithography,” Small 2, 458–475 (2006).
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Zentgraf, T.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, N. K. Grady, C. Ayala-Orozco, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional nanostructures as highly efficient generators of second harmonic light,” Nano Lett. 11, 5519–5523 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
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J. Zhao, B. Frank, S. Burger, and H. Giessen, “Large-area high-quality plasmonic oligomers fabricated by angle-controlled colloidal nanolithography,” ACS Nano 5, 9009–9016 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3, 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (4)

J. Ye, N. Verellen, W. Van Roy, L. Lagae, G. Maes, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Plasmonic modes of metallic semishells in a polymer film,” ACS Nano 4, 1457–1464 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5, 7254–7262 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Van Dorpe and J. Ye, “Semishells: versatile plasmonic nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 5, 6774–6778 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, B. Frank, S. Burger, and H. Giessen, “Large-area high-quality plasmonic oligomers fabricated by angle-controlled colloidal nanolithography,” ACS Nano 5, 9009–9016 (2011).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 9838–9852 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243–247 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3913–3961 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097–1105 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25, 1822–1827 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

N. A. Mirin and N. J. Halas, “Light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9, 1255–1259 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10, 2694–2701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, N. K. Grady, C. Ayala-Orozco, and N. J. Halas, “Three-dimensional nanostructures as highly efficient generators of second harmonic light,” Nano Lett. 11, 5519–5523 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. M. Cole, J. J. Baumberg, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, S. Mahajan, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Understanding plasmons in nanoscale voids,” Nano Lett. 7, 2094–2100 (2007).
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T. Pakizeh and M. Käll, “Unidirectional ultracompact optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 9, 2343–2349 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

M. Cortie and M. Ford, “A plasmon-induced current loop in gold semi-shells,” Nanotechnology 18, 235704 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, and H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. Ali Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11, 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3, 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. D. Averitt, D. Sarkar, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmon resonance shifts of Au-coated Au2S nanoshells: insight into multicomponent nanoparticle growth,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4217–4220 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. Garcia-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157403 (2008).
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Y. Pu, R. Grange, C. Hsieh, and D. Psaltis, “Nonlinear optical properties of core-shell nanocavities for enhanced second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 13549–13554 (2003).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Fu, P. Schau, K. Frenner, H. Schweizer, J. Zhao, B. Frank, L. Wollet, P. Gaiser, B. Gompf, H. Giessen, and W. Osten, “Experimental demonstration of dispersion engineering through mode interactions in plasmonic microcavities,” Proc. SPIE 8423, 84232I (2012).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302, 419–422 (2003).
[Crossref]

Small (3)

A. Kosiorek, W. Kandulski, H. Glaczynska, and M. Giersig, “Fabrication of nanoscale rings, dots, and rods by combining shadow nanosphere lithography and annealed polystyrene nanosphere masks,” Small 1, 439–444 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, S. G. Jang, D. Choi, S. Kim, and H. K. Yu, “Nanomachining by colloidal lithography,” Small 2, 458–475 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. C. Gwinner, E. Koroknay, L. Fu, P. Patoka, W. Kandulski, M. Giersig, and H. Giessen, “Periodic large-area metallic split-ring resonator metamaterial fabrication based on shadow nanosphere lithography,” Small 5, 400–406 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic drawing of stacked nanocups (b) Geometrical parameters and thickness of the inner Au layer g1, MgF2 spacer layer d and outer Au layer g2 (c) hexagonally close-packed polystyrene sphere monolayer (d) FIB cut of the experimental realization of the coupled nanocups with parameters [g1, d, g2] = [27, 56, 29] nm (e) FIB cut of the inner cup based on an evaporated gold layer g1 = 27nm (f) FIB cut of the outer cup with additional magnesium fluoride layer and g2 = 25nm Au layer (deviation from (d) due to fabricational tolerances)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode splitting in stacked nanocups: Comparison of reflectance spectra of the fabricated structures (Fig. 1) to simulated data. In analogy to the mode hybridization theory one additional reflectance dip appears for the stacked nanocup arrangement in simulation and experiment

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mode classification for stacked nanocups. (a) Visualization of analogy to split-ring-resonator modes and identification of symmetric and antisymmetric mode. (b) Electric mode via charge distribution from CST Microwave Studio. (c) Magnetic mode via y-component of the magnetic field in order to visualize magnetic moment coupling from CST Microwave Studio.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of spacer thickness in stacked cups illustrated by three samples with parameters [g1, d1, g2] = [27, 56, 29] nm, [g1, d2, g2] = [27, 46, 29] nm, [g1, d3, g2] = [27, 36, 29] nm.

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