Abstract

The bistable phenomenon is found in polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal. Two stable phases, blue phase and chiral nematic state, are obtained and we succeeded in the switch between these two states through different operation procedures. The mechanism of the bistable phenomenon is discussed, according to which we consider the bistability may widely exist in various polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal systems. This work provides some useful insights into the application of polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal in bistable devices.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. K. E. Maly, M. D. Wand, and R. P. Lemieux, “Bistable ferroelectric liquid crystal photoswitch triggered by a dithienylethene dopant,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(27), 7898–7899 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. P. Pozhidaev and V. G. Chigrinov, “Bistable and multistable states in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep.51(6), 1030–1040 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Xu and D. K. Yang, “Electrooptical properties of dual-frequency cholesteric liquid crystal reflective display and drive scheme,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 12A), 6827–6830 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Bao, C. M. Liu, and D. K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express2(11), 112401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. K. Kim, F. Araoka, S. M. Jeong, S. Dhara, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Bistable device using anchoring transition of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063505 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. I. Nitsuma, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Contact photolithographic micropatterning for bistable nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241120 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. H. Liang, C. C. Wu, P. H. Wang, and J. Y. Lee, “Electrothermal switchable bistable reverse mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Opt. Mater.33(8), 1195–1202 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. C. Hsiao, C. Y. Tang, and W. Lee, “Fast-switching bistable cholesteric intensity modulator,” Opt. Express19(10), 9744–9749 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Y. Huang, Y. J. Huang, and Y. H. Tseng, “Dual-operation-mode liquid crystal lens,” Opt. Express17(23), 20860–20865 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Y. Wu, Y. H. Zou, I. Timofeev, Y. T. Lin, V. Y. Zyryanov, J. S. Hsu, and W. Lee, “Tunable bi-functional photonic device based on one-dimensional photonic crystal infiltrated with a bistable liquid-crystal layer,” Opt. Express19(8), 7349–7355 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Zheng, D. Shen, and P. Huang, “Wide blue phase range of chiral nematic liquid crystal doped with bent-shaped molecules,” New J. Phys.12(11), 113018 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. F. Wang, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal blue phase induced by bent-shaped molecules with allylic end groups,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1478–1483 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Zhu, J. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. T. Wang, H. Y. Liu, H. H. Cheng, and T. H. Lin, “Bistable effect in the liquid crystal blue phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Zheng, H. F. Wang, G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, J. Li, W. Hu, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Low-temperature-applicable polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal and its Kerr effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 326–332 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” Struct. Bonding128(12), 99–117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Effect of polymer concentration and composition on blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Displ. Technol.7(9), 490–493 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, H. F. Wang, G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, J. Li, W. Hu, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Low-temperature-applicable polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal and its Kerr effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 326–332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

Z. Zheng, D. Shen, and P. Huang, “Wide blue phase range of chiral nematic liquid crystal doped with bent-shaped molecules,” New J. Phys.12(11), 113018 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Wang, H. Y. Liu, H. H. Cheng, and T. H. Lin, “Bistable effect in the liquid crystal blue phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Huang, Y. J. Huang, and Y. H. Tseng, “Dual-operation-mode liquid crystal lens,” Opt. Express17(23), 20860–20865 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bao, C. M. Liu, and D. K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express2(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, F. Araoka, S. M. Jeong, S. Dhara, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Bistable device using anchoring transition of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. I. Nitsuma, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Contact photolithographic micropatterning for bistable nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” Struct. Bonding128(12), 99–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. P. Pozhidaev and V. G. Chigrinov, “Bistable and multistable states in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep.51(6), 1030–1040 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. E. Maly, M. D. Wand, and R. P. Lemieux, “Bistable ferroelectric liquid crystal photoswitch triggered by a dithienylethene dopant,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(27), 7898–7899 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

M. Xu and D. K. Yang, “Electrooptical properties of dual-frequency cholesteric liquid crystal reflective display and drive scheme,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 12A), 6827–6830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

J. K. Kim, F. Araoka, S. M. Jeong, S. Dhara, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Bistable device using anchoring transition of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bao, R.

R. Bao, C. M. Liu, and D. K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express2(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, H. H.

C. T. Wang, H. Y. Liu, H. H. Cheng, and T. H. Lin, “Bistable effect in the liquid crystal blue phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

E. P. Pozhidaev and V. G. Chigrinov, “Bistable and multistable states in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep.51(6), 1030–1040 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, H. Q.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, H. F. Wang, G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, J. Li, W. Hu, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Low-temperature-applicable polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal and its Kerr effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 326–332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. F. Wang, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal blue phase induced by bent-shaped molecules with allylic end groups,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1478–1483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dhara, S.

J. K. Kim, F. Araoka, S. M. Jeong, S. Dhara, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Bistable device using anchoring transition of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, F.

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiao, Y. C.

Hsu, J. S.

Hu, W.

Z. Zheng, H. F. Wang, G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, J. Li, W. Hu, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Low-temperature-applicable polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal and its Kerr effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 326–332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. F. Wang, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal blue phase induced by bent-shaped molecules with allylic end groups,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1478–1483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. Y.

Huang, P.

Z. Zheng, D. Shen, and P. Huang, “Wide blue phase range of chiral nematic liquid crystal doped with bent-shaped molecules,” New J. Phys.12(11), 113018 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. J.

Ishikawa, K.

J. K. Kim, F. Araoka, S. M. Jeong, S. Dhara, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Bistable device using anchoring transition of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

J. K. Kim, F. Araoka, S. M. Jeong, S. Dhara, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Bistable device using anchoring transition of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, M.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, “Liquid crystalline blue phases,” Struct. Bonding128(12), 99–117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, F. Araoka, S. M. Jeong, S. Dhara, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Bistable device using anchoring transition of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

H. H. Liang, C. C. Wu, P. H. Wang, and J. Y. Lee, “Electrothermal switchable bistable reverse mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Opt. Mater.33(8), 1195–1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

Lemieux, R. P.

K. E. Maly, M. D. Wand, and R. P. Lemieux, “Bistable ferroelectric liquid crystal photoswitch triggered by a dithienylethene dopant,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(27), 7898–7899 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, H. F. Wang, G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, J. Li, W. Hu, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Low-temperature-applicable polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal and its Kerr effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 326–332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Liang, H. H.

H. H. Liang, C. C. Wu, P. H. Wang, and J. Y. Lee, “Electrothermal switchable bistable reverse mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Opt. Mater.33(8), 1195–1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. H.

C. T. Wang, H. Y. Liu, H. H. Cheng, and T. H. Lin, “Bistable effect in the liquid crystal blue phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. W.

Z. Zheng, H. F. Wang, G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, J. Li, W. Hu, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Low-temperature-applicable polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal and its Kerr effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 326–332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. F. Wang, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal blue phase induced by bent-shaped molecules with allylic end groups,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1478–1483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. T.

Liu, C. M.

R. Bao, C. M. Liu, and D. K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express2(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. Y.

C. T. Wang, H. Y. Liu, H. H. Cheng, and T. H. Lin, “Bistable effect in the liquid crystal blue phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Q.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, H. F. Wang, G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, J. Li, W. Hu, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Low-temperature-applicable polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal and its Kerr effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 326–332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. F. Wang, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal blue phase induced by bent-shaped molecules with allylic end groups,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1478–1483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maly, K. E.

K. E. Maly, M. D. Wand, and R. P. Lemieux, “Bistable ferroelectric liquid crystal photoswitch triggered by a dithienylethene dopant,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(27), 7898–7899 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muñoz, A.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nitsuma, J. I.

J. I. Nitsuma, M. Yoneya, and H. Yokoyama, “Contact photolithographic micropatterning for bistable nematic liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pozhidaev, E. P.

E. P. Pozhidaev and V. G. Chigrinov, “Bistable and multistable states in ferroelectric liquid crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep.51(6), 1030–1040 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, H. F. Wang, G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, J. Li, W. Hu, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Low-temperature-applicable polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal and its Kerr effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 326–332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. F. Wang, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal blue phase induced by bent-shaped molecules with allylic end groups,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1478–1483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, D. Shen, and P. Huang, “Wide blue phase range of chiral nematic liquid crystal doped with bent-shaped molecules,” New J. Phys.12(11), 113018 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

J. K. Kim, F. Araoka, S. M. Jeong, S. Dhara, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Bistable device using anchoring transition of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. Y.

Timofeev, I.

Tseng, Y. H.

Wand, M. D.

K. E. Maly, M. D. Wand, and R. P. Lemieux, “Bistable ferroelectric liquid crystal photoswitch triggered by a dithienylethene dopant,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(27), 7898–7899 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. T.

C. T. Wang, H. Y. Liu, H. H. Cheng, and T. H. Lin, “Bistable effect in the liquid crystal blue phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(4), 041106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. F.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zheng, H. F. Wang, G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, J. Li, W. Hu, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Low-temperature-applicable polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal and its Kerr effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 326–332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, H. F. Wang, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal blue phase induced by bent-shaped molecules with allylic end groups,” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1478–1483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. H.

H. H. Liang, C. C. Wu, P. H. Wang, and J. Y. Lee, “Electrothermal switchable bistable reverse mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Opt. Mater.33(8), 1195–1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

H. H. Liang, C. C. Wu, P. H. Wang, and J. Y. Lee, “Electrothermal switchable bistable reverse mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Opt. Mater.33(8), 1195–1202 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. Y.

Wu, S. T.

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Effect of polymer concentration and composition on blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Displ. Technol.7(9), 490–493 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. H.

Y. Q. Lu, X. Liang, Y. H. Wu, F. Du, and S. T. Wu, “Dual-frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3354–3356 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H.

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[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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Zhu, G.

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. Express

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. K. Kim, F. Araoka, S. M. Jeong, S. Dhara, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Bistable device using anchoring transition of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(6), 063505 (2009).
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J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Effect of polymer concentration and composition on blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Displ. Technol.7(9), 490–493 (2011).
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J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

Z. Zheng, H. F. Wang, G. Zhu, X. W. Lin, J. Li, W. Hu, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Low-temperature-applicable polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal and its Kerr effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 326–332 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, J. Li, X. W. Lin, H. F. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Zheng, H. Q. Cui, D. Shen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization-independent blue-phase liquid-crystal gratings driven by vertical electric field,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.20(6), 341–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Xu and D. K. Yang, “Electrooptical properties of dual-frequency cholesteric liquid crystal reflective display and drive scheme,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.38(Part 1, No. 12A), 6827–6830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater.1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

Z. Zheng, D. Shen, and P. Huang, “Wide blue phase range of chiral nematic liquid crystal doped with bent-shaped molecules,” New J. Phys.12(11), 113018 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup for phase transition observation and electro-optical performance testing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Textures before exposure (a) and those of bistable PSBPLC as the voltage increases gradually, shown from (b) to (e); the voltage decreases slowly (f) and the voltage removed suddenly (g). The applied voltage corresponds to textures (b), (c), (d), (e) are 0, 0.33, 3 and 5.3 V/μm, respectively; and the voltage of texture (f) is 3 V/μm. (a), (b), (c) and (g) are observed using reflection mode, the others are observed using transmission mode. The spectra of BP (red line) and N* (green line) are shown in (h).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflective intensity versus applied voltage of bistable PSBPLC (a) and corresponding phase transition scheme (b). In (a), the dash lines refer to the suddenly applying/removing the voltage and “H” refers to Homeotropic state.

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