Abstract

We develop a fluorinated phenyl-tolane based nematic mixture NJU-LDn-4 and evaluate its frequency-dependent birefringence utilizing terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). A large mean birefringence of 0.306 is obtained in a broad range from 0.4 to 1.6 THz, with a maximum of 0.314 at 1.6 THz. Furthermore, relation between molecular structures and birefringence property is discussed. This work reveals new insights for tailing liquid crystal molecules with desirable large birefringence in THz range, which is extremely meaningful for the design and fabrication of fast, compact and tunable terahertz devices.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv.1(3), 032133 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Scherger, C. Jördens, and M. Koch, “Variable-focus terahertz lens,” Opt. Express19(5), 4528–4535 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Z. Yang and J. R. Sambles, “Microwave liquid crystal wavelength selector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(22), 3717–3719 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt.23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Vieweg, M. K. Shakfa, and M. Koch, “BL037: A nematic mixture with high terahertz birefringence,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1887–1889 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “A three-band model for liquid-crystal birefringence dispersion,” J. Appl. Phys.66(11), 5297–5301 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. He, R. Zhang, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Molecular design and simulation of nematic liquid crystal of fast response and high birefringence,” Chin. J. Liq. Cryst. Disp.24(1), 15–21 (2009).
  14. S. T. Wu, C. S. Hsu, and K. F. Shyu, “High birefringence and wide nematic range bis-tolane liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(3), 344–346 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Gauza, Y. Zhao, T. Le Cor, S. T. Wu, J. Dziaduszek, G. Sasnouski, R. Dabrowski, and L. C. Chien, “Enhancing birefringence by doping fluorinated phenyltolanes,” J. Disp. Technol.2(4), 327–332 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

N. Vieweg, M. K. Shakfa, and M. Koch, “BL037: A nematic mixture with high terahertz birefringence,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1887–1889 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Ku, C. C. Shih, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “THz optical constants of the liquid crystal MDA-00-3461,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)541(1), 65/[303]–70/[308] (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv.1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Scherger, C. Jördens, and M. Koch, “Variable-focus terahertz lens,” Opt. Express19(5), 4528–4535 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

J. He, R. Zhang, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Molecular design and simulation of nematic liquid crystal of fast response and high birefringence,” Chin. J. Liq. Cryst. Disp.24(1), 15–21 (2009).

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

S. Gauza, Y. Zhao, T. Le Cor, S. T. Wu, J. Dziaduszek, G. Sasnouski, R. Dabrowski, and L. C. Chien, “Enhancing birefringence by doping fluorinated phenyltolanes,” J. Disp. Technol.2(4), 327–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

F. Z. Yang and J. R. Sambles, “Microwave liquid crystal wavelength selector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(22), 3717–3719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. T. Wu, C. S. Hsu, and K. F. Shyu, “High birefringence and wide nematic range bis-tolane liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(3), 344–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “A three-band model for liquid-crystal birefringence dispersion,” J. Appl. Phys.66(11), 5297–5301 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, L. C.

S. Gauza, Y. Zhao, T. Le Cor, S. T. Wu, J. Dziaduszek, G. Sasnouski, R. Dabrowski, and L. C. Chien, “Enhancing birefringence by doping fluorinated phenyltolanes,” J. Disp. Technol.2(4), 327–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

Collings, N.

Crossland, W. A.

Cui, H. Q.

Dabrowski, R.

S. Gauza, Y. Zhao, T. Le Cor, S. T. Wu, J. Dziaduszek, G. Sasnouski, R. Dabrowski, and L. C. Chien, “Enhancing birefringence by doping fluorinated phenyltolanes,” J. Disp. Technol.2(4), 327–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dziaduszek, J.

S. Gauza, Y. Zhao, T. Le Cor, S. T. Wu, J. Dziaduszek, G. Sasnouski, R. Dabrowski, and L. C. Chien, “Enhancing birefringence by doping fluorinated phenyltolanes,” J. Disp. Technol.2(4), 327–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

Fan, F.

Gauza, S.

S. Gauza, Y. Zhao, T. Le Cor, S. T. Wu, J. Dziaduszek, G. Sasnouski, R. Dabrowski, and L. C. Chien, “Enhancing birefringence by doping fluorinated phenyltolanes,” J. Disp. Technol.2(4), 327–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gölden, F.

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, H.

He, J.

J. He, R. Zhang, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Molecular design and simulation of nematic liquid crystal of fast response and high birefringence,” Chin. J. Liq. Cryst. Disp.24(1), 15–21 (2009).

Hess, L. D.

Hsieh, C. F.

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. S.

S. T. Wu, C. S. Hsu, and K. F. Shyu, “High birefringence and wide nematic range bis-tolane liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(3), 344–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv.1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jin, B. B.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv.1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jördens, C.

Koch, M.

B. Scherger, C. Jördens, and M. Koch, “Variable-focus terahertz lens,” Opt. Express19(5), 4528–4535 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vieweg, M. K. Shakfa, and M. Koch, “BL037: A nematic mixture with high terahertz birefringence,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1887–1889 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ku, C. P.

C. P. Ku, C. C. Shih, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “THz optical constants of the liquid crystal MDA-00-3461,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)541(1), 65/[303]–70/[308] (2011).
[CrossRef]

Le Cor, T.

S. Gauza, Y. Zhao, T. Le Cor, S. T. Wu, J. Dziaduszek, G. Sasnouski, R. Dabrowski, and L. C. Chien, “Enhancing birefringence by doping fluorinated phenyltolanes,” J. Disp. Technol.2(4), 327–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lim, M.

Lin, C. J.

C. P. Ku, C. C. Shih, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “THz optical constants of the liquid crystal MDA-00-3461,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)541(1), 65/[303]–70/[308] (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. W.

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv.1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. F.

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. X.

Lu, X. H.

J. He, R. Zhang, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Molecular design and simulation of nematic liquid crystal of fast response and high birefringence,” Chin. J. Liq. Cryst. Disp.24(1), 15–21 (2009).

Lu, Y. Q.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv.1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C. L.

C. P. Ku, C. C. Shih, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “THz optical constants of the liquid crystal MDA-00-3461,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)541(1), 65/[303]–70/[308] (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R. P.

C. P. Ku, C. C. Shih, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “THz optical constants of the liquid crystal MDA-00-3461,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)541(1), 65/[303]–70/[308] (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, C. L. Pan, C. F. Hsieh, Y. F. Lin, and R. P. Pan, “Liquid-crystal-based terahertz tunable Lyot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(10), 101107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

Parrott, E. P. J.

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

Rungsawang, R.

Sambles, J. R.

F. Z. Yang and J. R. Sambles, “Microwave liquid crystal wavelength selector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(22), 3717–3719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sasnouski, G.

S. Gauza, Y. Zhao, T. Le Cor, S. T. Wu, J. Dziaduszek, G. Sasnouski, R. Dabrowski, and L. C. Chien, “Enhancing birefringence by doping fluorinated phenyltolanes,” J. Disp. Technol.2(4), 327–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scherger, B.

Shakfa, M. K.

N. Vieweg, M. K. Shakfa, and M. Koch, “BL037: A nematic mixture with high terahertz birefringence,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1887–1889 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shih, C. C.

C. P. Ku, C. C. Shih, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, and C. L. Pan, “THz optical constants of the liquid crystal MDA-00-3461,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)541(1), 65/[303]–70/[308] (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shyu, K. F.

S. T. Wu, C. S. Hsu, and K. F. Shyu, “High birefringence and wide nematic range bis-tolane liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(3), 344–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A.

Srivastava, A. K.

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. T.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trushkevych, O.

Vieweg, N.

N. Vieweg, M. K. Shakfa, and M. Koch, “BL037: A nematic mixture with high terahertz birefringence,” Opt. Commun.284(7), 1887–1889 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. S.

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “A three-band model for liquid-crystal birefringence dispersion,” J. Appl. Phys.66(11), 5297–5301 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. B.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv.1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

S. Gauza, Y. Zhao, T. Le Cor, S. T. Wu, J. Dziaduszek, G. Sasnouski, R. Dabrowski, and L. C. Chien, “Enhancing birefringence by doping fluorinated phenyltolanes,” J. Disp. Technol.2(4), 327–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, C. S. Hsu, and K. F. Shyu, “High birefringence and wide nematic range bis-tolane liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(3), 344–346 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “A three-band model for liquid-crystal birefringence dispersion,” J. Appl. Phys.66(11), 5297–5301 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt.23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Z. J.

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv.1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

W. Hu, A. Srivastava, F. Xu, J. T. Sun, X. W. Lin, H. Q. Cui, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Liquid crystal gratings based on alternate TN and PA photoalignment,” Opt. Express20(5), 5384–5391 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv.1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. A.

Xuan, L.

J. He, R. Zhang, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Molecular design and simulation of nematic liquid crystal of fast response and high birefringence,” Chin. J. Liq. Cryst. Disp.24(1), 15–21 (2009).

Yang, F. Z.

F. Z. Yang and J. R. Sambles, “Microwave liquid crystal wavelength selector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(22), 3717–3719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zeitler, J. A.

Zhang, R.

J. He, R. Zhang, X. H. Lu, and L. Xuan, “Molecular design and simulation of nematic liquid crystal of fast response and high birefringence,” Chin. J. Liq. Cryst. Disp.24(1), 15–21 (2009).

Zhao, Y.

S. Gauza, Y. Zhao, T. Le Cor, S. T. Wu, J. Dziaduszek, G. Sasnouski, R. Dabrowski, and L. C. Chien, “Enhancing birefringence by doping fluorinated phenyltolanes,” J. Disp. Technol.2(4), 327–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. G.

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv.1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

W. Hu, A. K. Srivastava, X. W. Lin, X. Liang, Z. J. Wu, J. T. Sun, G. Zhu, V. Chigrinov, and Y. Q. Lu, “Polarization independent liquid crystal gratings based on orthogonal photoalignments,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Lin, J. B. Wu, W. Hu, Z. G. Zheng, Z. J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B. B. Jin, and Y. Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv.1(3), 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structures of the four components in NJU-LDn-4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustrations of the measurements of ño and ñe of NJU-LDn-4, with the director perpendicular (a) and parallel (b) to the polarization of the incident terahertz wave.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The THz time-domain spectra transmitted through the empty cell and LC-filled cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Frequency-dependent birefringence Δn and refractive indices: real part n (a) and imaginary part κ (b) of NJU-LDn-4.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Physical Properties of NJU-LDn-4*

Equations (3)

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E Ref (ω)= E 0 (ω) T air-s P s T s-air P air T air-s P s T s-air  ,
E LC (ω)= E 0 (ω) T air-s P s T s-LC P LC T LC-s P s T s-air  ,
T(ω)= E LC (ω) E Ref (ω) = ( n ˜ s + n ˜ air ) 2 n ˜ LC ( n ˜ s + n ˜ LC ) 2 n ˜ air exp[ i( n ˜ LC n ˜ air ) ωd c ] .

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