Abstract

We study the ultrafast time resolved response of 30 nm films of VO2 on a TiO2 substrate when 3.1 eV (400 nm wavelength) pump pulses were used to excite the insulator to metal transition (IMT). We found that the IMT threshold for these samples (≤30µJ/cm2) is more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than that generally reported for a more traditional 1.55 eV (800 nm wavelength) excitation. The samples also exhibited unusual reflectivity dynamics at near-threshold values of pump fluence where their fractional relative reflectivity ΔR/R initially increased before becoming negative after several hundreds of picoseconds, in stark contrast with uniformly negative ΔR/R observed for both higher 400 nm pump fluences and for 800 nm pump pulses. We explain the observed behavior by the interference of the reflected probe beam from the inhomogeneous layers formed inside the film by different phases of VO2 and use a simple diffusion model of the VO2 phase transition to support qualitatively this hypothesis. We also compare the characteristics of the VO2 films grown on undoped TiO2 and on doped TiO2:Nb substrates and observe more pronounced reflectivity variation during IMT and faster relaxation to the insulating state for the VO2/TiO2:Nb sample.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. S. Lysenko, V. Vikhnin, G. Zhang, A. Rua, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Insulator-to-metal phase transformation of VO2 films upon femtosecond laser excitation,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(10), 1866–1872 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent Structural Dynamics and Electronic Correlations during an Ultrafast Insulator-to-Metal Phase Transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 116401 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Pashkin, C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 195120 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. van Veenendaal, “Ultrafast photoinduced insulator-to-metal transitions in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 87(23), 235118 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. Wegkamp and J. Stähler, “Ultrafast dynamics during the photoinduced phase transition in VO2,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 90(4), 464–502 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. C. N. Berglund and H. J. Guggenheim, “Electronic Properties of VO2 near the Semiconductor-Metal Transition,” Phys. Rev. 185(3), 1022–1033 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  25. V. S. Vikhnin, S. Lysenko, A. Rua, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “The model of ultrafast light-induced insulator-metal phase transition in vanadium oxide,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 21, 44–49 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  36. B. Lazarovits, K. Kim, K. Haule, and G. Kotliar, “Effects of strain on the electronic structure of VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 81(11), 115117 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  37. N. Émond, A. Ibrahim, B. Torriss, A. Hendaoui, I. Al-Naib, T. Ozaki, and M. Chaker, “Impact of tungsten doping on the dynamics of the photo-induced insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 thin film investigated by optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092105 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  38. H. Kizuka, T. Yagi, J. Jia, Y. Yamashita, S. Nakamura, N. Taketoshi, and Y. Shigesato, “Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of VO2thin films across metal–insulator transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(5), 053201 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  39. M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
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    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Growth and Characterization of Vanadium Dioxide/Niobium Doped Titanium Dioxide Heterostructures for Ultraviolet Detection,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(23), 1901143 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, M. R. Beebe, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Structural and Photoelectric Properties of Epitaxially Grown Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films on c-Plane Sapphire and Titanium Dioxide,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 9362 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Intrinsic anomalous scaling of epitaxial vanadium dioxide thin films on titanium dioxide,” AIP Adv. 9(9), 095045 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

S. E. Madaras, J. Creeden, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Insulator to metal transition induced by surface plasmon polaritons in VO2/Au thin films,” Opt. Express 26(20), 25657–25666 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wall, S. Yang, L. Vidas, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, M. Kozina, T. Katayama, T. Henighan, M. Jiang, T. A. Miller, D. A. Reis, L. A. Boatner, O. Delaire, and M. Trigo, “Ultrafast disordering of vanadium dimers in photoexcited VO2,” Science 362(6414), 572–576 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

N. Émond, A. Ibrahim, B. Torriss, A. Hendaoui, I. Al-Naib, T. Ozaki, and M. Chaker, “Impact of tungsten doping on the dynamics of the photo-induced insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 thin film investigated by optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092105 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. R. Beebe, J. M. Klopf, Y. Wang, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Time-resolved light-induced insulator-metal transition in niobium dioxide and vanadium dioxide thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(1), 213–223 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

A. Shah, A. Mahmood, U. Aziz, R. Rashid, Q. Raza, and Z. Ali, “Influence of Nb content on the structural and optical properties of anatase TiO2 polycrystalline thin film by e-beam technique,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 180, 383–389 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

E. Radue, L. Wang, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, E. Rossi, R. A. Lukaszew, and I. Novikova, “Substrate-induced microstructure effects on the dynamics of the photo-induced metal–insulator transition in VO 2 thin films,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025503 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kizuka, T. Yagi, J. Jia, Y. Yamashita, S. Nakamura, N. Taketoshi, and Y. Shigesato, “Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of VO2thin films across metal–insulator transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(5), 053201 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wegkamp and J. Stähler, “Ultrafast dynamics during the photoinduced phase transition in VO2,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 90(4), 464–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez-Vega, M. T. Simons, E. Radue, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. A. Lukaszew, I. Novikova, and E. Rossi, “Effect of inhomogeneities and substrate on the dynamics of the metal-insulator transition in VO2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92(11), 115420 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. J. Huffman, P. Xu, A. J. Hollingshad, M. M. Qazilbash, L. Wang, R. A. Lukaszew, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, and S. A. Wolf, “Modification of electronic structure in compressively strained vanadium dioxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 91(20), 205140 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Bai, Q. Li, S. A. Corr, Y. Meng, C. Park, S. V. Sinogeikin, C. Ko, J. Wu, and G. Shen, “Pressure-induced phase transitions and metallization in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(10), 104110 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

V. R. Morrison, R. P. Chatelain, K. L. Tiwari, A. Hendaoui, A. Bruhács, M. Chaker, and B. J. Siwick, “A photoinduced metal-like phase of monoclinic VO2 revealed by ultrafast electron diffraction,” Science 346(6208), 445–448 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Wegkamp, M. Herzog, L. Xian, M. Gatti, P. Cudazzo, C. L. McGahan, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, A. Rubio, M. Wolf, and J. Stähler, “Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 216401 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. van Veenendaal, “Ultrafast photoinduced insulator-to-metal transitions in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 87(23), 235118 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Radue, E. Crisman, L. Wang, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. Wincheski, R. A. Lukaszew, and I. Novikova, “Effect of a substrate-induced microstructure on the optical properties of the insulator-metal transition temperature in VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, G. Holloway, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Phase diagram of the ultrafast photoinduced insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155120 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. A. Kruger, A. Joushaghani, and J. K. S. Poon, “Design of electrically driven hybrid vanadium dioxide (VO2) plasmonic switches,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23598–23609 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Hada, K. Okimura, and J. Matsuo, “Photo-induced lattice softening of excited-state VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051903 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Pashkin, C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 195120 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

M. Hada, K. Okimura, and J. Matsuo, “Characterization of structural dynamics of VO2 thin film on c-Al2O3 using in-air time-resolved x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 153401 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Lysenko, V. Vikhnin, A. Rúa, F. Fernández, and H. Liu, “Critical behavior and size effects in light-induced transition of nanostructured VO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205425 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Lazarovits, K. Kim, K. Haule, and G. Kotliar, “Effects of strain on the electronic structure of VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 81(11), 115117 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Cao, E. Ertekin, V. Srinivasan, W. Fan, S. Huang, H. Zheng, J. W. L. Yim, D. R. Khanal, D. F. Ogletree, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal–insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 732–737 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Rini, Z. Hao, R. W. Schoenlein, C. Giannetti, F. Parmigiani, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Fujimori, M. Onoda, S. Wall, and A. Cavalleri, “Optical switching in VO2 films by below-gap excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181904 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent Structural Dynamics and Electronic Correlations during an Ultrafast Insulator-to-Metal Phase Transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 116401 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Lysenko, V. Vikhnin, G. Zhang, A. Rua, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Insulator-to-metal phase transformation of VO2 films upon femtosecond laser excitation,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(10), 1866–1872 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-Selective Measurements of Electron Dynamics in VO2 Using Femtosecond Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. S. Vikhnin, S. Lysenko, A. Rua, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “The model of ultrafast light-induced insulator-metal phase transition in vanadium oxide,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 21, 44–49 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. Stefanovich, A. Pergament, and D. Stefanovich, “Electrical switching and mott transition in VO2,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12(41), 8837–8845 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. F. Becker, A. B. Buckman, R. M. Walser, T. Lépine, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Femtosecond laser excitation of the semiconductor-metal phase transition in VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(12), 1507–1509 (1994).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

C. N. Berglund and H. J. Guggenheim, “Electronic Properties of VO2 near the Semiconductor-Metal Transition,” Phys. Rev. 185(3), 1022–1033 (1969).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959).
[Crossref]

Ali, Z.

A. Shah, A. Mahmood, U. Aziz, R. Rashid, Q. Raza, and Z. Ali, “Influence of Nb content on the structural and optical properties of anatase TiO2 polycrystalline thin film by e-beam technique,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 180, 383–389 (2016).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I.

N. Émond, A. Ibrahim, B. Torriss, A. Hendaoui, I. Al-Naib, T. Ozaki, and M. Chaker, “Impact of tungsten doping on the dynamics of the photo-induced insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 thin film investigated by optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Andreev, G. O.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aziz, U.

A. Shah, A. Mahmood, U. Aziz, R. Rashid, Q. Raza, and Z. Ali, “Influence of Nb content on the structural and optical properties of anatase TiO2 polycrystalline thin film by e-beam technique,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 180, 383–389 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bai, L.

L. Bai, Q. Li, S. A. Corr, Y. Meng, C. Park, S. V. Sinogeikin, C. Ko, J. Wu, and G. Shen, “Pressure-induced phase transitions and metallization in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(10), 104110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Balatsky, A. V.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bandulet, H. C.

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J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, M. R. Beebe, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Structural and Photoelectric Properties of Epitaxially Grown Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films on c-Plane Sapphire and Titanium Dioxide,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 9362 (2019).
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J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Growth and Characterization of Vanadium Dioxide/Niobium Doped Titanium Dioxide Heterostructures for Ultraviolet Detection,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(23), 1901143 (2019).
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J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Intrinsic anomalous scaling of epitaxial vanadium dioxide thin films on titanium dioxide,” AIP Adv. 9(9), 095045 (2019).
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T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, G. Holloway, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Phase diagram of the ultrafast photoinduced insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155120 (2012).
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M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
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M. F. Becker, A. B. Buckman, R. M. Walser, T. Lépine, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Femtosecond laser excitation of the semiconductor-metal phase transition in VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(12), 1507–1509 (1994).
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M. Rini, Z. Hao, R. W. Schoenlein, C. Giannetti, F. Parmigiani, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Fujimori, M. Onoda, S. Wall, and A. Cavalleri, “Optical switching in VO2 films by below-gap excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181904 (2008).
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A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-Selective Measurements of Electron Dynamics in VO2 Using Femtosecond Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
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A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
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A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
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N. Émond, A. Ibrahim, B. Torriss, A. Hendaoui, I. Al-Naib, T. Ozaki, and M. Chaker, “Impact of tungsten doping on the dynamics of the photo-induced insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 thin film investigated by optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092105 (2017).
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V. R. Morrison, R. P. Chatelain, K. L. Tiwari, A. Hendaoui, A. Bruhács, M. Chaker, and B. J. Siwick, “A photoinduced metal-like phase of monoclinic VO2 revealed by ultrafast electron diffraction,” Science 346(6208), 445–448 (2014).
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A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-Selective Measurements of Electron Dynamics in VO2 Using Femtosecond Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
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A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
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T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, G. Holloway, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Phase diagram of the ultrafast photoinduced insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155120 (2012).
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J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Growth and Characterization of Vanadium Dioxide/Niobium Doped Titanium Dioxide Heterostructures for Ultraviolet Detection,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(23), 1901143 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Intrinsic anomalous scaling of epitaxial vanadium dioxide thin films on titanium dioxide,” AIP Adv. 9(9), 095045 (2019).
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J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, M. R. Beebe, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Structural and Photoelectric Properties of Epitaxially Grown Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films on c-Plane Sapphire and Titanium Dioxide,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 9362 (2019).
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S. Wall, S. Yang, L. Vidas, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, M. Kozina, T. Katayama, T. Henighan, M. Jiang, T. A. Miller, D. A. Reis, L. A. Boatner, O. Delaire, and M. Trigo, “Ultrafast disordering of vanadium dimers in photoexcited VO2,” Science 362(6414), 572–576 (2018).
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C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent Structural Dynamics and Electronic Correlations during an Ultrafast Insulator-to-Metal Phase Transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 116401 (2007).
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T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, G. Holloway, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Phase diagram of the ultrafast photoinduced insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155120 (2012).
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N. Émond, A. Ibrahim, B. Torriss, A. Hendaoui, I. Al-Naib, T. Ozaki, and M. Chaker, “Impact of tungsten doping on the dynamics of the photo-induced insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 thin film investigated by optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092105 (2017).
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J. Cao, E. Ertekin, V. Srinivasan, W. Fan, S. Huang, H. Zheng, J. W. L. Yim, D. R. Khanal, D. F. Ogletree, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal–insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 732–737 (2009).
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T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, G. Holloway, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Phase diagram of the ultrafast photoinduced insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155120 (2012).
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M. Rini, Z. Hao, R. W. Schoenlein, C. Giannetti, F. Parmigiani, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Fujimori, M. Onoda, S. Wall, and A. Cavalleri, “Optical switching in VO2 films by below-gap excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181904 (2008).
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A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-Selective Measurements of Electron Dynamics in VO2 Using Femtosecond Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
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M. Rini, Z. Hao, R. W. Schoenlein, C. Giannetti, F. Parmigiani, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Fujimori, M. Onoda, S. Wall, and A. Cavalleri, “Optical switching in VO2 films by below-gap excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181904 (2008).
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D. Wegkamp, M. Herzog, L. Xian, M. Gatti, P. Cudazzo, C. L. McGahan, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, A. Rubio, M. Wolf, and J. Stähler, “Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 216401 (2014).
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M. F. Becker, A. B. Buckman, R. M. Walser, T. Lépine, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Femtosecond laser excitation of the semiconductor-metal phase transition in VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(12), 1507–1509 (1994).
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M. Rini, Z. Hao, R. W. Schoenlein, C. Giannetti, F. Parmigiani, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Fujimori, M. Onoda, S. Wall, and A. Cavalleri, “Optical switching in VO2 films by below-gap excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181904 (2008).
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A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-Selective Measurements of Electron Dynamics in VO2 Using Femtosecond Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
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S. Wall, S. Yang, L. Vidas, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, M. Kozina, T. Katayama, T. Henighan, M. Jiang, T. A. Miller, D. A. Reis, L. A. Boatner, O. Delaire, and M. Trigo, “Ultrafast disordering of vanadium dimers in photoexcited VO2,” Science 362(6414), 572–576 (2018).
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Grossman, J. C.

J. Cao, E. Ertekin, V. Srinivasan, W. Fan, S. Huang, H. Zheng, J. W. L. Yim, D. R. Khanal, D. F. Ogletree, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal–insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 732–737 (2009).
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C. N. Berglund and H. J. Guggenheim, “Electronic Properties of VO2 near the Semiconductor-Metal Transition,” Phys. Rev. 185(3), 1022–1033 (1969).
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M. Hada, K. Okimura, and J. Matsuo, “Photo-induced lattice softening of excited-state VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051903 (2011).
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M. Hada, K. Okimura, and J. Matsuo, “Characterization of structural dynamics of VO2 thin film on c-Al2O3 using in-air time-resolved x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 153401 (2010).
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D. Wegkamp, M. Herzog, L. Xian, M. Gatti, P. Cudazzo, C. L. McGahan, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, A. Rubio, M. Wolf, and J. Stähler, “Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 216401 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Pashkin, C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 195120 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent Structural Dynamics and Electronic Correlations during an Ultrafast Insulator-to-Metal Phase Transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 116401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Halabica, A.

A. Pashkin, C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 195120 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Huber, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Coherent Structural Dynamics and Electronic Correlations during an Ultrafast Insulator-to-Metal Phase Transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 116401 (2007).
[Crossref]

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M. Rini, Z. Hao, R. W. Schoenlein, C. Giannetti, F. Parmigiani, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Fujimori, M. Onoda, S. Wall, and A. Cavalleri, “Optical switching in VO2 films by below-gap excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181904 (2008).
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T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, G. Holloway, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Phase diagram of the ultrafast photoinduced insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heimann, P. A.

A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-Selective Measurements of Electron Dynamics in VO2 Using Femtosecond Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hendaoui, A.

N. Émond, A. Ibrahim, B. Torriss, A. Hendaoui, I. Al-Naib, T. Ozaki, and M. Chaker, “Impact of tungsten doping on the dynamics of the photo-induced insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 thin film investigated by optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092105 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. R. Morrison, R. P. Chatelain, K. L. Tiwari, A. Hendaoui, A. Bruhács, M. Chaker, and B. J. Siwick, “A photoinduced metal-like phase of monoclinic VO2 revealed by ultrafast electron diffraction,” Science 346(6208), 445–448 (2014).
[Crossref]

Henighan, T.

S. Wall, S. Yang, L. Vidas, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, M. Kozina, T. Katayama, T. Henighan, M. Jiang, T. A. Miller, D. A. Reis, L. A. Boatner, O. Delaire, and M. Trigo, “Ultrafast disordering of vanadium dimers in photoexcited VO2,” Science 362(6414), 572–576 (2018).
[Crossref]

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D. Wegkamp, M. Herzog, L. Xian, M. Gatti, P. Cudazzo, C. L. McGahan, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, A. Rubio, M. Wolf, and J. Stähler, “Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 216401 (2014).
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M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
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T. J. Huffman, P. Xu, A. J. Hollingshad, M. M. Qazilbash, L. Wang, R. A. Lukaszew, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, and S. A. Wolf, “Modification of electronic structure in compressively strained vanadium dioxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 91(20), 205140 (2015).
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T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, G. Holloway, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Phase diagram of the ultrafast photoinduced insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

J. Cao, E. Ertekin, V. Srinivasan, W. Fan, S. Huang, H. Zheng, J. W. L. Yim, D. R. Khanal, D. F. Ogletree, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal–insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 732–737 (2009).
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E. Radue, L. Wang, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, E. Rossi, R. A. Lukaszew, and I. Novikova, “Substrate-induced microstructure effects on the dynamics of the photo-induced metal–insulator transition in VO 2 thin films,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025503 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Growth and Characterization of Vanadium Dioxide/Niobium Doped Titanium Dioxide Heterostructures for Ultraviolet Detection,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(23), 1901143 (2019).
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J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Intrinsic anomalous scaling of epitaxial vanadium dioxide thin films on titanium dioxide,” AIP Adv. 9(9), 095045 (2019).
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J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, M. R. Beebe, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Structural and Photoelectric Properties of Epitaxially Grown Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films on c-Plane Sapphire and Titanium Dioxide,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 9362 (2019).
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J. A. Creeden, S. E. Madaras, D. B. Beringer, I. Novikova, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Growth and Characterization of Vanadium Dioxide/Niobium Doped Titanium Dioxide Heterostructures for Ultraviolet Detection,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(23), 1901143 (2019).
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E. Radue, L. Wang, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, E. Rossi, R. A. Lukaszew, and I. Novikova, “Substrate-induced microstructure effects on the dynamics of the photo-induced metal–insulator transition in VO 2 thin films,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025503 (2015).
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E. Radue, E. Crisman, L. Wang, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. Wincheski, R. A. Lukaszew, and I. Novikova, “Effect of a substrate-induced microstructure on the optical properties of the insulator-metal transition temperature in VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233104 (2013).
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A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
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A. Shah, A. Mahmood, U. Aziz, R. Rashid, Q. Raza, and Z. Ali, “Influence of Nb content on the structural and optical properties of anatase TiO2 polycrystalline thin film by e-beam technique,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 180, 383–389 (2016).
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S. Wall, S. Yang, L. Vidas, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, M. Kozina, T. Katayama, T. Henighan, M. Jiang, T. A. Miller, D. A. Reis, L. A. Boatner, O. Delaire, and M. Trigo, “Ultrafast disordering of vanadium dimers in photoexcited VO2,” Science 362(6414), 572–576 (2018).
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A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-Selective Measurements of Electron Dynamics in VO2 Using Femtosecond Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
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M. Rodriguez-Vega, M. T. Simons, E. Radue, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. A. Lukaszew, I. Novikova, and E. Rossi, “Effect of inhomogeneities and substrate on the dynamics of the metal-insulator transition in VO2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92(11), 115420 (2015).
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Rossi, E.

M. Rodriguez-Vega, M. T. Simons, E. Radue, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. A. Lukaszew, I. Novikova, and E. Rossi, “Effect of inhomogeneities and substrate on the dynamics of the metal-insulator transition in VO2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92(11), 115420 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Radue, L. Wang, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, E. Rossi, R. A. Lukaszew, and I. Novikova, “Substrate-induced microstructure effects on the dynamics of the photo-induced metal–insulator transition in VO 2 thin films,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025503 (2015).
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S. Lysenko, V. Vikhnin, G. Zhang, A. Rua, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Insulator-to-metal phase transformation of VO2 films upon femtosecond laser excitation,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(10), 1866–1872 (2006).
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V. S. Vikhnin, S. Lysenko, A. Rua, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “The model of ultrafast light-induced insulator-metal phase transition in vanadium oxide,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 21, 44–49 (2005).
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S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
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S. Lysenko, V. Vikhnin, A. Rúa, F. Fernández, and H. Liu, “Critical behavior and size effects in light-induced transition of nanostructured VO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205425 (2010).
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D. Wegkamp, M. Herzog, L. Xian, M. Gatti, P. Cudazzo, C. L. McGahan, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, A. Rubio, M. Wolf, and J. Stähler, “Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 216401 (2014).
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M. Rini, Z. Hao, R. W. Schoenlein, C. Giannetti, F. Parmigiani, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Fujimori, M. Onoda, S. Wall, and A. Cavalleri, “Optical switching in VO2 films by below-gap excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181904 (2008).
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A. Cavalleri, M. Rini, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Band-Selective Measurements of Electron Dynamics in VO2 Using Femtosecond Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 067405 (2005).
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A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70(16), 161102 (2004).
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L. Bai, Q. Li, S. A. Corr, Y. Meng, C. Park, S. V. Sinogeikin, C. Ko, J. Wu, and G. Shen, “Pressure-induced phase transitions and metallization in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(10), 104110 (2015).
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H. Kizuka, T. Yagi, J. Jia, Y. Yamashita, S. Nakamura, N. Taketoshi, and Y. Shigesato, “Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of VO2thin films across metal–insulator transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(5), 053201 (2015).
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A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
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M. Rodriguez-Vega, M. T. Simons, E. Radue, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. A. Lukaszew, I. Novikova, and E. Rossi, “Effect of inhomogeneities and substrate on the dynamics of the metal-insulator transition in VO2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92(11), 115420 (2015).
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L. Bai, Q. Li, S. A. Corr, Y. Meng, C. Park, S. V. Sinogeikin, C. Ko, J. Wu, and G. Shen, “Pressure-induced phase transitions and metallization in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(10), 104110 (2015).
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A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
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D. Wegkamp and J. Stähler, “Ultrafast dynamics during the photoinduced phase transition in VO2,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 90(4), 464–502 (2015).
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D. Wegkamp, M. Herzog, L. Xian, M. Gatti, P. Cudazzo, C. L. McGahan, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, A. Rubio, M. Wolf, and J. Stähler, “Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 216401 (2014).
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G. Stefanovich, A. Pergament, and D. Stefanovich, “Electrical switching and mott transition in VO2,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12(41), 8837–8845 (2000).
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Stefanovich, G.

G. Stefanovich, A. Pergament, and D. Stefanovich, “Electrical switching and mott transition in VO2,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12(41), 8837–8845 (2000).
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N. Émond, A. Ibrahim, B. Torriss, A. Hendaoui, I. Al-Naib, T. Ozaki, and M. Chaker, “Impact of tungsten doping on the dynamics of the photo-induced insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 thin film investigated by optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(9), 092105 (2017).
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A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond structural dynamics in VO2 during an ultrafast solid-solid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
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S. Wall, S. Yang, L. Vidas, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, M. Kozina, T. Katayama, T. Henighan, M. Jiang, T. A. Miller, D. A. Reis, L. A. Boatner, O. Delaire, and M. Trigo, “Ultrafast disordering of vanadium dimers in photoexcited VO2,” Science 362(6414), 572–576 (2018).
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M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008).
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S. Lysenko, V. Vikhnin, A. Rúa, F. Fernández, and H. Liu, “Critical behavior and size effects in light-induced transition of nanostructured VO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205425 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Lysenko, V. Vikhnin, G. Zhang, A. Rua, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Insulator-to-metal phase transformation of VO2 films upon femtosecond laser excitation,” J. Electron. Mater. 35(10), 1866–1872 (2006).
[Crossref]

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V. S. Vikhnin, S. Lysenko, A. Rua, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “The model of ultrafast light-induced insulator-metal phase transition in vanadium oxide,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 21, 44–49 (2005).
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S. Wall, S. Yang, L. Vidas, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, M. Kozina, T. Katayama, T. Henighan, M. Jiang, T. A. Miller, D. A. Reis, L. A. Boatner, O. Delaire, and M. Trigo, “Ultrafast disordering of vanadium dimers in photoexcited VO2,” Science 362(6414), 572–576 (2018).
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M. Rini, Z. Hao, R. W. Schoenlein, C. Giannetti, F. Parmigiani, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Fujimori, M. Onoda, S. Wall, and A. Cavalleri, “Optical switching in VO2 films by below-gap excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181904 (2008).
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[Crossref]

T. J. Huffman, P. Xu, A. J. Hollingshad, M. M. Qazilbash, L. Wang, R. A. Lukaszew, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, and S. A. Wolf, “Modification of electronic structure in compressively strained vanadium dioxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 91(20), 205140 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Radue, E. Crisman, L. Wang, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. Wincheski, R. A. Lukaszew, and I. Novikova, “Effect of a substrate-induced microstructure on the optical properties of the insulator-metal transition temperature in VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233104 (2013).
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Wang, Y.

Wegkamp, D.

D. Wegkamp and J. Stähler, “Ultrafast dynamics during the photoinduced phase transition in VO2,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 90(4), 464–502 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wegkamp, M. Herzog, L. Xian, M. Gatti, P. Cudazzo, C. L. McGahan, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, A. Rubio, M. Wolf, and J. Stähler, “Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 216401 (2014).
[Crossref]

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E. Radue, E. Crisman, L. Wang, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. Wincheski, R. A. Lukaszew, and I. Novikova, “Effect of a substrate-induced microstructure on the optical properties of the insulator-metal transition temperature in VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wolf, M.

D. Wegkamp, M. Herzog, L. Xian, M. Gatti, P. Cudazzo, C. L. McGahan, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, A. Rubio, M. Wolf, and J. Stähler, “Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 216401 (2014).
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Wolf, S. A.

M. R. Beebe, J. M. Klopf, Y. Wang, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, and R. A. Lukaszew, “Time-resolved light-induced insulator-metal transition in niobium dioxide and vanadium dioxide thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(1), 213–223 (2017).
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E. Radue, L. Wang, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, E. Rossi, R. A. Lukaszew, and I. Novikova, “Substrate-induced microstructure effects on the dynamics of the photo-induced metal–insulator transition in VO 2 thin films,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025503 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. J. Huffman, P. Xu, A. J. Hollingshad, M. M. Qazilbash, L. Wang, R. A. Lukaszew, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, and S. A. Wolf, “Modification of electronic structure in compressively strained vanadium dioxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 91(20), 205140 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rodriguez-Vega, M. T. Simons, E. Radue, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. A. Lukaszew, I. Novikova, and E. Rossi, “Effect of inhomogeneities and substrate on the dynamics of the metal-insulator transition in VO2 thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92(11), 115420 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Radue, E. Crisman, L. Wang, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. Wincheski, R. A. Lukaszew, and I. Novikova, “Effect of a substrate-induced microstructure on the optical properties of the insulator-metal transition temperature in VO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(23), 233104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

L. Bai, Q. Li, S. A. Corr, Y. Meng, C. Park, S. V. Sinogeikin, C. Ko, J. Wu, and G. Shen, “Pressure-induced phase transitions and metallization in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 91(10), 104110 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Cao, E. Ertekin, V. Srinivasan, W. Fan, S. Huang, H. Zheng, J. W. L. Yim, D. R. Khanal, D. F. Ogletree, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal–insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 732–737 (2009).
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Xian, L.

D. Wegkamp, M. Herzog, L. Xian, M. Gatti, P. Cudazzo, C. L. McGahan, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, A. Rubio, M. Wolf, and J. Stähler, “Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 216401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, P.

T. J. Huffman, P. Xu, A. J. Hollingshad, M. M. Qazilbash, L. Wang, R. A. Lukaszew, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, and S. A. Wolf, “Modification of electronic structure in compressively strained vanadium dioxide films,” Phys. Rev. B 91(20), 205140 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yagi, T.

H. Kizuka, T. Yagi, J. Jia, Y. Yamashita, S. Nakamura, N. Taketoshi, and Y. Shigesato, “Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of VO2thin films across metal–insulator transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(5), 053201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, Y.

H. Kizuka, T. Yagi, J. Jia, Y. Yamashita, S. Nakamura, N. Taketoshi, and Y. Shigesato, “Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of VO2thin films across metal–insulator transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(5), 053201 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

S. Wall, S. Yang, L. Vidas, M. Chollet, J. M. Glownia, M. Kozina, T. Katayama, T. Henighan, M. Jiang, T. A. Miller, D. A. Reis, L. A. Boatner, O. Delaire, and M. Trigo, “Ultrafast disordering of vanadium dimers in photoexcited VO2,” Science 362(6414), 572–576 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yim, J. W. L.

J. Cao, E. Ertekin, V. Srinivasan, W. Fan, S. Huang, H. Zheng, J. W. L. Yim, D. R. Khanal, D. F. Ogletree, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal–insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 732–737 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. J.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B.-G. Chae, P.-C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B.-J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H.-T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. AFM scans of the two-sample used. Left are 30 nm VO2 on TiO2 with 18.8 nm RMS roughness. Right is 30 nm VO2 on TiO2:Nb with 15.5 nm RMS roughness. Top images are 3D and bottom are 2D.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Dielectric function ɛ of 30 nm VO2 on TiO2. Graph (a) is the real component of ɛ and graph (b) is the imaginary component of ɛ. The blue represents the insulating state and the red line represents the metallic state. The dashed blue lines are the components of the Tauc-Lorentz oscillators that make up the real and imaginary component of ɛ in the insulating state.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Characterization of the thermally induced IMT of the VO2 on TiO2 film using the reflectivity of (a) 400 nm and (b) 700 nm incoherent light. The red dots indicate the measurements taken while heating the sample, while the blue dots correspond to the cooling.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. 30 nm VO2 on TiO2 time response for various fluences from 0 to 4000ps. The insert at top right shows times from 0 to 40ps which corresponds to the first 1% of the data and the area of the insert is represented by the small box seen at t=0. The vertical scale of the insert directly aligns with the corresponding main ΔR/R scale.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simulation of diffusion of the insulating VO2 into metallic VO2 layers. Red layers are metallic VO2. Blue layers are insulating. The colors between represent intermixed values of the optical properties of the VO2 layers. The black line shows the values of the real component of the index of the reflection. The two graphs (a) and (b) are for 10ps and then 200ps in time steps for the diffusion of the system.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Optical model response of 30 nm VO2 TiO2 for various relative fluence of light with using a 4 × 4 optical matrix method and the ellipsometry values with a hybrid layer of VO2 between the insulating and metallic states. The relative fluence at level 1 represents the power to fully transition the film in 200ps with blue light.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. 30 nm VO2 on TiO2:Nb time response for various fluences from 0 to 4000ps. The insert at top right shows times from 0 to 40ps which corresponds to 1% of the total data and is represented by the small box seen at t=0 in the main graph. The vertical scale of the insert is equivalent to the main ΔR/R scale.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Time constants for the slow growth and recovery periods of the ΔR/R for the for the two VO2 samples. The blue line is for VO2 on TiO2 and red is for VO2 on TiO2:Nb. The insert is the graph of ΔR/R response of the 30 nm VO2 on TiO2 at 30µJ/cm2 (green line) and 30 nm VO2 on TiO2:Nb at 28µJ/cm2 (purple line). The time constant fits for both samples are shown as orange for the slow growth fit and black for the recovery fit.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Optical properties of VO2 on TiO2.

Equations (1)

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$${\Phi }({x,t} )= \frac{1}{{\sqrt {4\pi \kappa t} }}exp\left( {\frac{{ - {x^2}}}{{4\kappa t}}} \right)$$