Abstract

The dramatic enhancement of charge carrier interaction makes many-body effects of great prominence in two-dimensional materials. Here we report the defect-assisted Auger scattering combined with band-to-band Auger recombination as playing the dominant recovery mechanism in the charge carriers of atomically thin-layered ReS2. Time resolved transient absorption spectra investigation reveals two different decay processes over the visible and near- infrared range, which is attributed to the shallow and deep defects introduced by the existence of sulfur (S) vacancy. A rate equation system is invoked to rationalize our peculiar pump and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics quantitatively. These findings provide theoretical insights into the significant role played by nonradiative Auger processes and may pave the way for the development of diverse ReS2-based high performance photonic and optoelectronic devices.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (7)

X. Wang, K. Shinokita, H. E. Lim, N. B. Mohamed, Y. Miyauchi, N. T. Cuong, S. Okada, and K. Matsuda, “Direct and indirect exciton dynamics in few-layered ReS2 revealed by photoluminescence and pump-probe spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(6), 1806169 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Liu, X. Zhao, X.-Q. Yan, J. Xie, W. Hui, X. Xin, Z.-B. Liu, and J.-G. Tian, “Ultrafast nonlinear absorption and carrier relaxation in ReS2 and ReSe2 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 125(17), 173105 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Li, M.-F. Lin, X. Zhang, A. Britz, A. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ma, R. K. Kalia, A. Nakano, P. Vashishta, P. Ajayan, M. C. Hoffmann, D. M. Fritz, U. Bergmann, and O. V. Prezhdo, “Phonon-suppressed auger scattering of charge carriers in defective two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nano Lett. 19(9), 6078–6086 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, X. Jiang, Z. He, W. Liang, S. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Third-order nonlinear optical responses and carrier dynamics in antimonene,” Opt. Mater. 95, 109209 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, L. Wang, C. O. Coileain, H. Wang, C. P. Cullen, C. Chen, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Surface-state assisted carrier recombination and optical nonlinearities in bulk to 2D nonlayered PtS,” ACS Nano 13(11), 13390–13402 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, S. F. Zhang, N. McEvoy, Y. Y. Sun, J. W. Huang, Y. F. Xie, N. N. Dong, X. Y. Zhang, I. M. Kislyakov, J. M. Nunzi, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Nonlinear optical signatures of the transition from semiconductor to semimetal in PtSe2,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(8), 1900052 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Cui, Y. Li, J. Chang, H. Zhao, and C. Xu, “Temporally resolving synchronous degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption in 2D semiconducting monolayers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(2), 1800225 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

L. Du, G. Jiang, L. Miao, B. Huang, J. Yi, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Few-layer rhenium diselenide: an ambient-stable nonlinear optical modulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 926–935 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. B. Mohamed, K. Shinokita, X. Wang, H. E. Lim, D. Tan, Y. Miyauchi, and K. Matsuda, “Photoluminescence quantum yields for atomically thin-layered ReS2: Identification of indirect-bandgap semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(12), 121112 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Sim, D. Lee, A. V. Trifonov, T. Kim, S. Cha, J. H. Sung, S. Cho, W. Shim, M.-H. Jo, and H. Choi, “Ultrafast quantum beats of anisotropic excitons in atomically thin ReS2,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 351 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Meng, Y. Zhou, K. Chen, R. H. Roberts, W. Wu, J.-F. Lin, R. T. Chen, X. Xu, and Y. Wang, “Anisotropic saturable and excited-state absorption in bulk ReS2,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(14), 1800137 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, S. Zhang, Y. Xie, J. Huang, L. Wang, Y. Cui, and J. Wang, “Tailoring the nonlinear optical performance of two-dimensional MoS2 nanofilms via defect engineering,” Nanoscale 10(37), 17924–17932 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Miao, G. Zhang, F. Wang, H. Yan, and M. Ji, “Layer-dependent ultrafast carrier and coherent phonon dynamics in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 3053–3059 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Jiang, C. Ling, T. Xu, W. Wang, X. Niu, A. Zafar, Z. Yan, X. Wang, Y. You, L. Sun, J. Lu, J. Wang, and Z. Ni, “Defect engineering for modulating the trap states in 2D photoconductors,” Adv. Mater. 30(40), 1804332 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

Y. Zhao, J. Qiao, Z. Yu, P. Yu, K. Xu, S. P. Lau, W. Zhou, Z. Liu, X. Wang, W. Ji, and Y. Chai, “High-electron-mobility and air-stable 2D layered PtSe2 FETs,” Adv. Mater. 29(5), 1604230 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Ceballos and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast laser spectroscopy of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(19), 1604509 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Bellus, M. Li, S. D. Lane, F. Ceballos, Q. Cui, X. C. Zeng, and H. Zhao, “Type-I van der Waals heterostructure formed by MoS2 and ReS2 monolayers,” Nanoscale Horiz. 2(1), 31–36 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Li, R. Long, T. Bertolini, and O. V. Prezhdo, “Sulfur adatom and vacancy accelerate charge recombination in MoS2 but by different mechanisms: time-domain ab Initio analysis,” Nano Lett. 17(12), 7962–7967 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, Y. Wan, M. Yang, J. Snaider, K. Zhu, and L. Huang, “Long-range hot-carrier transport in hybrid perovskites visualized by ultrafast microscopy,” Science 356(6333), 59–62 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, K. Wang, B. M. Szydlowska, A. A. Baker-Murray, J. J. Wang, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of a graphene saturable mirror in the 2 µm wavelength region,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(5), 1700166 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

K. Wang, B. M. Szydlowska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6923–6932 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Liu, M. Long, J. Zeng, W. Luo, Y. Wang, Y. Pan, W. Zhou, B. Wang, W. Hu, Z. Ni, Y. You, X. Zhang, S. Qin, Y. Shi, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, H. Yuan, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, F. Miao, and D. Xing, “High responsivity phototransistors based on few-layer ReS2 for weak signal detection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(12), 1938–1944 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Sim, D. Lee, M. Noh, S. Cha, C. H. Soh, J. H. Sung, M.-H. Jo, and H. Choi, “Selectively tunable optical Stark effect of anisotropic excitons in atomically thin ReS2,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13569 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 216–226 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Why all the fuss about 2D semiconductors?” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 202–204 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. D. Cunningham, K. M. McCreary, and B. T. Jonker, “Auger recombination in chemical vapor deposition-grown monolayer WS2,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7(24), 5242–5246 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

H. Wang, C. Zhang, and F. Rana, “Ultrafast dynamics of defect-assisted electron hole recombination in monolayer MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 339–345 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kar, Y. Su, R. R. Nair, and A. K. Sood, “Probing photoexcited carriers in a few-layer MoS2 laminate by time-resolved optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 9(12), 12004–12010 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Cui, J. He, M. Z. Bellus, M. Mirzokarimov, T. Hofmann, H.-Y. Chiu, M. Antonik, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Transient absorption measurements on anisotropic monolayer ReS2,” Small 11(41), 5565–5571 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Zhang, Y. Jin, X. Yuan, W. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Tang, S. Liu, P. Zhou, W. Hu, and F. Xiu, “ReS2-based field-effect transistors and photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(26), 4076–4082 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. M. Corbett, C. McClellan, A. Rai, S. S. Sonde, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “Field effect transistors with current saturation and voltage gain in ultrathin ReS2,” ACS Nano 9(1), 363–370 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Zhong, S. Gao, J.-J. Shi, and L. Yang, “Quasiparticle band gaps, excitonic effects, and anisotropic optical properties of the monolayer distorted 1 T diamond-chain structures ReS2 and ReSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 92(11), 115438 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Liu, Y. Fu, Y. Wang, Y. Feng, H. Liu, X. Wan, W. Zhou, B. Wang, L. Shao, C.-H. Ho, Y.-S. Huang, Z. Cao, L. Wang, A. Li, J. Zeng, F. Song, X. Wang, Y. Shi, H. Yuan, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, F. Miao, and D. Xing, “Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS2 field-effect transistors,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6991 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Wuerth, D. Geissler, and U. Resch-Genger, “Quantification of anisotropy-related uncertainties in relative photoluminescence quantum yield measurements of nanomaterials - semiconductor quantum dots and rods,” Z. Phys. Chem. 229(1-2), 153–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. S. Ross, P. Klement, A. M. Jones, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, K. Kitamura, W. Yao, D. H. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrically tunable excitonic light-emitting diodes based on monolayer WSe2 p-n junctions,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 268–272 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and T. F. Heinz, “Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 343–350 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Tongay, H. Sahin, C. Ko, A. Luce, W. Fan, K. Liu, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Huang, C.-H. Ho, J. Yan, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Ji, S. Li, J. Li, F. M. Peeters, and J. Wu, “Monolayer behaviour in bulk ReS2 due to electronic and vibrational decoupling,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3252 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. H. Strait, P. Nene, and F. Rana, “High intrinsic mobility and ultrafast carrier dynamics in multilayer metal-dichalcogenide MoS2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(24), 245402 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-Layer MoS2 2D crystals,” ACS Nano 7(2), 1072–1080 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Wuerth, M. Grabolle, J. Pauli, M. Spieles, and U. Resch-Genger, “Relative and absolute determination of fluorescence quantum yields of transparent samples,” Nat. Protoc. 8(8), 1535–1550 (2013).
[Crossref]

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2010 (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) The image of our ReS2 sample. (b) Surface AFM image of 3 L ReS2 film. Inset shows its height profile. (c) Raman spectra of ReS2. (d) Linear transmission and absorption coefficient spectra of ReS2. (e) Raman mapping result of the sample. (f) The optical micrograph of the Raman mapping area.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a)-(b) Visible and near-infrared transient absorption spectra in a false-color plot under a 35 fs-pulsed laser excitation with pump intensity of 0.8 GW/cm2 at 400 nm. (c)-(d) Decay profiles of transient differential absorption monitored at different wavelength (460-620 and 900-1300 nm). The data were plotted with an offset. (e)-(f) Evaluated lifetimes of the fast and slow component in the recovery of the transient differential absorption spectra, plotted versus probe wavelengths.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The zoomed-in transient differential transmission dynamics at 520 nm femtosecond pulse excitation, probed at (a) 520 nm and (d) 1040 nm. The entire transient dynamics probed at (b) 520 nm and (e) 1040 nm with different pump intensity plotted versus delay time between pump and probe pulse. The solid lines represent the fittings using two exponential decay functions. (c) The maximum and minimum values of ΔT/T versus the pump intensity at zero-time delay probed at 520 nm. (f) The maximum values of |ΔT/T| versus the pump intensity at zero-time delay probed at 1040 nm. The linear dependence rules out the existence of bandgap renormalization effect in our dynamics.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Normalized transient transmission ΔT/T of 3 L ReS2 film with different pump intensities probed at (a) 1040 nm and (b) 520 nm. Temperature-dependent transient transmission dynamics of 3 L ReS2 film probed at (c)1040 nm and (d) 520 nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic of charge carriers recombination in 3 L ReS2 film. Different recombination processes include carriers captured by ① shallow traps and ② deep traps through Auger scattering, and ③ band-to-band Auger recombination. (b) The simulation and experiment results of transient dynamics are plotted versus the probe delay at two extreme values of pump intensities used in our experiments, 0.75 and 3 GW/cm2. The inset shows the details for the first 7 ps. The simulated (c) electron and hole densities and (d) electron occupations of shallow and deep defects are plotted versus time delay with 3 GW/cm2 pump excitation.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Fitting results of ultrafast transient absorption spectra measurements.

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Table 2. Fitting results used in the simulation of transient data.

Equations (5)

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T = T s a m p l e T s a p p h i r e = e α L ,
g ( t ) = { D 1 exp ( t τ 1 ) e r f c ( σ 2 τ 1 t 2 σ ) + D 2 exp ( t τ 2 ) e r f c ( σ 2 τ 2 t 2 σ ) D 0 exp ( t τ 0 ) e r f c ( σ 2 τ 0 t 2 σ ) + D 1 exp ( t τ 1 ) e r f c ( σ 2 τ 1 t 2 σ ) + D 2 exp ( t τ 2 ) e r f c ( σ 2 τ 2 t 2 σ )
N = F p e a k h ν ( 1 e α L ) ,
{ d n d t = D n s n s n 2 ( 1 F s ) D n d n d n 2 ( 1 F d ) A n 2 p + g ( t ) d p d t = D p s n s n p F s D p d n d n p F d B n p 2 + g ( t ) n s d F s d t = D n s n s n 2 ( 1 F s ) D p s n s n p F s n d d F d d t = D n d n d n 2 ( 1 F d ) D p d n d n p F d
T T = η 0 2 [ n ( t ) + p ( t ) ] e μ ,

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