Abstract

Alternative plasmonic materials are gaining more and more interest since they deliver a plethora of advantages in designing of optical metadevices. Among other alternatives, titanium nitride (TiN) has shown an exceptional combination of encouraging properties, such as CMOS- and bio-compatibility, high carrier concentration, tunability and outstanding robustness (high mechanical, chemical and temperature durability). Optical constants of TiN can be tuned at the synthesis stage. This allows for the adjustment of the spectral position of a plasmon resonance within the visible and near-infrared (NIR) range in order to match the desired working wavelength of a particular device. Together, these factors made TiN a popular material of choice in a diversity of recent plasmonic applications. Titanium oxynitride (TiON), which can be produced through the oxidation of TiN, have a great potential to build upon the success of TiN. Recently, it has been demonstrated that TiON thin films can exhibit a negative double-epsilon-near-zero (2ENZ) dielectric function. This unusual behavior of the permittivity opens up novel opportunities for the excitation of the plasmon resonance at several distinct frequencies within the visible and NIR region. Multi-resonant plasmonic components are beneficial for applications, where the enhanced light-matter interaction at multiple frequencies is demanded, such as nonlinear optics, up- and down-conversion, wavelength multiplexing and broadband absorption. This work begins with a brief survey of the recent progress in plasmonics made with TiN-based structures. Then we focus on TiON thin films with the 2ENZ behavior by discussing their potential in plasmonics. The experimental approaches useful for characterization of TiON thin films and the corresponding results are analyzed. These results are valuable for the development of 2ENZ plasmonic materials with large figure-of-merits in a diversity of applications. We believe that 2ENZ media is a powerful concept for multi-resonant plasmonics that will augment the functionalities and extend the operation bandwidth of plasmonic devices.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (27)

J. Lee, K. T. Crampton, N. Tallarida, and V. A. Apkarian, “Visualizing vibrational normal modes of a single molecule with atomically confined light,” Nature 568(7750), 78–82 (2019).
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W. A. Britton, Y. Chen, and L. Dal Negro, “Double-plasmon broadband response of engineered titanium silicon oxynitride,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(2), 878–891 (2019).
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S. A. S. Tali and W. Zhou, “Multiresonant plasmonics with spatial mode overlap: overview and outlook,” Nanophotonics 8(7), 1199–1225 (2019).
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P. Yu, L. V. Besteiro, Y. J. Huang, J. Wu, L. Fu, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, G. P. Wiederrecht, A. O. Govorov, and Z. M. Wang, “Broadband Metamaterial Absorbers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(3), 1800995 (2019).
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W. Wang, F. L. Chen, R. N. Ji, M. M. Hou, F. Yi, W. B. Zheng, T. Zhang, and W. Lu, “Large-Area Low-Cost Dielectric Perfect Absorber by One-Step Sputtering,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(9), 1801596 (2019).
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R. Q. Piao, Q. Xu, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and D. L. Zhang, “A Theoretical Study of Broadband Nearly Perfect Metasurface Absorber Based on Nanoarray of Titanium Nitride,” Adv. Theory Simul. 2(7), 1900042 (2019).
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L. L. Wang, G. H. Zhu, M. Wang, W. Yu, J. Zeng, X. X. Yu, H. Q. Xie, and Q. Li, “Dual plasmonic Au/TiN nanofluids for efficient solar photothermal conversion,” Sol. Energy 184, 240–248 (2019).
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O. Reshef, I. De Leon, M. Z. Alam, and R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear optical effects in epsilon-near-zero media,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 4(8), 535–551 (2019).
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Y. H. Xian, Y. Cai, X. Y. Sun, X. F. Liu, Q. B. Guo, Z. X. Zhang, L. M. Tong, and J. R. Qiu, “Refractory Plasmonic Metal Nitride Nanoparticles for Broadband Near-Infrared Optical Switches,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13, 1900029 (2019).
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H. L. Qian, S. L. Li, C. F. Chen, S. W. Hsu, S. E. Bopp, Q. Ma, A. R. Tao, and Z. W. Liu, “Large optical nonlinearity enabled by coupled metallic quantum wells,” Light: Sci. Appl. 8(1), 13 (2019).
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K. Chaudhuri, A. Shaltout, D. Shah, U. Guler, A. Dutta, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Photonic Spin Hall Effect in Robust Phase Gradient Metasurfaces Utilizing Transition Metal Nitrides,” ACS Photonics 6(1), 99–106 (2019).
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K. Yatsugi and K. Nishikawa, “Highly anisotropic titanium nitride nanowire arrays for low-loss hyperbolic metamaterials fabricated via dynamic oblique deposition,” Nanotechnology 30(33), 335705 (2019).
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S. Ishii, S. L. Shinde, and T. Nagao, “Nonmetallic Materials for Plasmonic Hot Carrier Excitation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1800603 (2019).
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N. A. Gusken, A. Lauri, Y. Li, T. Matsui, B. Doiron, R. Bower, A. Regoutz, A. Mihai, P. K. Petrov, R. F. Oulton, L. F. Cohen, and S. A. Maier, “TiO2-x-Enhanced IR Hot Carrier Based Photodetection in Metal Thin Film-Si Junctions,” ACS Photonics 6(4), 953–960 (2019).
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B. Doiron, Y. Li, A. Mihai, R. Bower, N. M. Alford, P. K. Petrov, S. A. Maier, and R. F. Oulton, “Plasmon-Enhanced Electron Harvesting in Robust Titanium Nitride Nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 123(30), 18521–18527 (2019).
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S. L. Shinde, S. Ishii, and T. Nagao, “Sub-Band Gap Photodetection from the Titanium Nitride/Germanium Heterostructure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(24), 21965–21972 (2019).
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E. B. Clatworthy, S. Yick, A. T. Murdock, M. C. Allison, A. Bendavid, A. F. Masters, and T. Maschmeyer, “Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution with TiO2-TiN Nanoparticle Composites,” J. Phys. Chem. C 123(6), 3740–3749 (2019).
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C. M. Wang, C. Dai, Z. Q. Hu, H. Q. Li, L. D. Yu, H. Lin, J. W. Bai, and Y. Chen, “Photonic cancer nanomedicine using the near infrared-II biowindow enabled by biocompatible titanium nitride nanoplatforms,” Nanoscale Horiz. 4(2), 415–425 (2019).
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W. Q. Jiang, Q. G. Fu, H. Y. Wei, and A. H. Yao, “TiN nanoparticles: synthesis and application as near-infrared photothermal agents for cancer therapy,” J. Mater. Sci. 54(7), 5743–5756 (2019).
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P. M. Gschwend, S. Conti, A. Kaech, C. Maake, and S. E. Pratsinis, “Silica-Coated TiN Particles for Killing Cancer Cells,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(25), 22550–22560 (2019).
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L. Kang, R. P. Jenkins, and D. H. Werner, “Recent Progress in Active Optical Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(14), 1801813 (2019).
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H. Jiang, H. Reddy, D. Shah, Z. A. Kudyshev, S. Choudhury, D. Wang, Y. Y. Jiang, and A. V. Kildishev, “Modulating phase by metasurfaces with gated ultra-thin TiN films,” Nanoscale 11(23), 11167–11172 (2019).
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V. Kaur and S. Singh, “Design of titanium nitride coated PCF-SPR sensor for liquid sensing applications,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 48, 159–164 (2019).
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C. C. Hong, S. Yang, and J. C. Ndukaife, “Optofluidic control using plasmonic TiN bowtie nanoantenna [lnvited],” Opt. Mater. Express 9(3), 953–964 (2019).
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X. J. Wang, J. Jian, S. Diaz-Amaya, C. E. Kumah, P. Lu, J. J. Huang, D. G. Lim, V. G. Pol, J. P. Youngblood, A. Boltasseva, L. A. Stanciu, D. M. O’Carroll, X. H. Zhang, and H. Y. Wang, “Hybrid plasmonic Au-TiN vertically aligned nanocomposites: a nanoscale platform towards tunable optical sensing,” Nanoscale Adv. 1(3), 1045–1054 (2019).
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S. S. Kharintsev, A. V. Kharitonov, A. M. Alekseev, and S. G. Kazarian, “Superresolution stimulated Raman scattering microscopy using 2-ENZ nano-composites,” Nanoscale 11(16), 7710–7719 (2019).
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S. S. Kharintsev, “Far-field Raman color superlensing based on disordered plasmonics,” Opt. Lett. 44(24), 5909 (2019).
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2018 (22)

N. N. Jiang, X. L. Zhuo, and J. F. Wang, “Active Plasmonics: Principles, Structures, and Applications,” Chem. Rev. 118(6), 3054–3099 (2018).
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N. Kaisar, Y. T. Huang, S. Jou, H. F. Kuo, B. R. Huang, C. C. Chen, Y. F. Hsieh, and Y. C. Chung, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates of flat and wrinkly titanium nitride thin films by sputter deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 337, 434–438 (2018).
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S. L. Shinde, S. Ishii, T. D. Dao, R. P. Sugavaneshwar, T. Tak ei, K. K. Nanda, and T. Nagao, “Enhanced Solar Light Absorption and Photoelectrochemical Conversion Using TiN Nanoparticle-Incorporated C3N4-C Dot Sheets,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(3), 2460–2468 (2018).
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S. Schipporeit and D. Mergel, “Spectral decomposition of Raman spectra of mixed-phase TiO2 thin films on Si and silicate substrates,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 49(7), 1217–1229 (2018).
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A. V. Kharitonov, I. V. Yanilkin, A. I. Gumarov, I. R. Vakhitov, R. V. Yusupov, L. R. Tagirov, S. S. Kharintsev, and M. K. Salakhov, “Synthesis and characterization of titanium nitride thin films for enhancement and localization of optical fields,” Thin Solid Films 653, 200–203 (2018).
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G. Y. Qiu, S. P. Ng, and C. M. L. Wu, “Label-free surface plasmon resonance biosensing with titanium nitride thin film,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 106, 129–135 (2018).
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S. Saha, A. Dutta, N. Kinsey, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “On-Chip Hybrid Photonic-Plasmonic Waveguides with Ultrathin Titanium Nitride Films,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4423–4431 (2018).
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V. I. Zakomirnyi, I. L. Rasskazov, V. S. Gerasimov, A. E. Ershov, S. P. Polyutov, S. V. Karpov, and H. Agren, “Titanium nitride nanoparticles as an alternative platform for plasmonic waveguides in the visib le and telecommunication wavelength ranges,” Photonics Nanostruct. 30, 50–56 (2018).
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X. L. Wen, G. Y. Li, C. Y. Gu, J. X. Zhao, S. J. Wang, C. P. Jiang, S. Palomba, C. M. de Sterke, and Q. H. Xiong, “Doubly Enhanced Second Harmonic Generation through Structural and Epsilon-near-Zero Resonances in TiN Nanostructures,” ACS Photonics 5(6), 2087–2093 (2018).
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E. Rahimi and R. Gordon, “Nonlinear Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(18), 1800274 (2018).
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R. Sato, S. Ishii, T. Nagao, M. Naito, and Y. Takeda, “Broadband Plasmon Resonance Enhanced Third-Order Optical Nonlinearity in Refractory Titanium Nitride Nanostructures,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3452–3458 (2018).
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R. Rashiditabar, N. Nozhat, and M. S. Zare, “Tun able Plasmonic Absorber Based on TiN-Nanosphere Liquid Crystal Hybrid in Visible and Near-Infrared Regions,” Plasmonics 13(6), 1853–1859 (2018).
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N. C. Panoiu, W. E. I. Sha, D. Y. Lei, and G. C. Li, “Nonlinear optics in plasmonic nanostructures,” J. Opt. 20(8), 083001 (2018).
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A. Krasnok, M. Tymchenko, and A. Alu, “Nonlinear metasurfaces: a paradigm shift in nonlinear optics,” Mater. Today 21(1), 8–21 (2018).
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D. W. Huo, J. W. Zhang, Y. C. Wang, C. Wang, H. Su, and H. Zhao, “Broadband Perfect Absorber Based on TiN-Nanocone Metasurface,” Nanomaterials 8(7), 485 (2018).
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S. L. Wu, Y. Ye, and L. S. Chen, “A broadband omnidirectional absorber incorporating plasmonic metasurfaces,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(43), 11593–11597 (2018).
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M. Z. Li, U. Guler, Y. A. Li, A. Rea, E. K. Tanyi, Y. Kim, M. A. Noginov, Y. L. Song, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and N. A. Kotov, “Plasmonic Biomimetic Nanocomposite with Spontaneous Subwavelength Structuring as Broadband Absorbers,” ACS Energy Lett. 3(7), 1578–1583 (2018).
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A. S. Roberts, M. Chirumamilla, D. Y. Wang, L. Q. An, K. Pedersen, N. A. Mortensen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Ultra-thin titanium nitride films for refractory spectral selectivity,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(12), 3717–3728 (2018).
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M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Dutta, J. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, K. F. MacDonald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Gross, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Q. Wang, W. J. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkowski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
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D. Shin, G. Kang, P. Gupta, S. Behera, H. Lee, A. M. Urbas, W. Park, and K. Kim, “Thermoplasmonic and Photothermal Metamaterials for Solar Energy Applications,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(18), 1800317 (2018).
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S. M. Choudhury, D. Wang, K. Chaudhuri, C. DeVault, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Material platforms for optical metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 959–987 (2018).
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P. Patsalas, N. Kalfagiannis, S. Kassavetis, G. Abadias, D. V. Bellas, C. Lekka, and E. Lidorikis, “Conductive nitrides: Growth principles, optical and electronic properties, and their perspectives in photonics and plasmonics,” Mater. Sci. Eng., R 123, 1–55 (2018).
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2017 (23)

F. Cao, L. Tang, Y. Li, A. P. Litvinchuk, J. M. Bao, and Z. F. Ren, “A high-temperature stable spectrally-selective solar absorber based on cermet of titanium nitride in SiO2 deposited on lanthanum aluminate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 160, 12–17 (2017).
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D. Y. Jiang and W. Yang, “A dielectric-encapsulated 2D photonic crystal based solar thermophotovoltaic power generator,” Appl. Therm. Eng. 125, 1253–1259 (2017).
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M. Chirumamilla, A. Chirumamilla, Y. Q. Yang, A. S. Roberts, P. K. Kristensen, K. Chaudhuri, A. Boltasseva, D. S. Sutherland, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and K. Pedersen, “Large-Area Ultrabroadband Absorber for Solar Thermophotovoltaics Based on 3D Titanium Nitride Nanopillars,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(22), 1700552 (2017).
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D. W. Huo, J. W. Zhang, H. Wang, X. X. Ren, C. Wang, H. Su, and H. Zhao, “Broadband Perfect Absorber with Monolayer MoS2 and Hexagonal Titanium Nitride Nano-disk Array,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 465 (2017).
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L. Braic, N. Vasilantonakis, A. Mihai, I. J. V. Garcia, S. Fearn, B. Zou, N. M. Alford, B. Doiron, R. F. Oulton, S. A. Maier, A. V. Zayats, and P. K. Petrov, “Titanium Oxynitride Thin Films with Tunable Double Epsilon-Near-Zero Behavior for Nanophotonic Applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(35), 29857–29862 (2017).
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G. Li, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Nonlinear photonic metasurfaces,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(5), 17010 (2017).
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H. Reddy, U. Guler, Z. Kudyshev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(6), 1413–1420 (2017).
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J. A. Briggs, G. V. Naik, Y. Zhao, T. A. Petach, K. Sahasrabuddhe, D. Goldhaber-Gordon, N. A. Melosh, and J. A. Dionne, “Temperature-dependent optical properties of titanium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(10), 101901 (2017).
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S. Kruk and Y. Kivshar, “Functional Meta-Optics and Nanophotonics Govern by Mie Resonances,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2638–2649 (2017).
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W. Y. He, K. L. Ai, C. H. Jiang, Y. Y. Li, X. F. Song, and L. H. Lu, “Plasmonic titanium nitride nanoparticles for in vivo photoacoustic tomography imaging and photothermal cancer therapy,” Biomaterials 132, 37–47 (2017).
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A. Naldoni, U. Guler, Z. X. Wang, M. Marelli, F. Malara, X. G. Meng, L. V. Besteiro, A. O. Govorov, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband Hot-Electron Collection for Solar Water Splitting with Plasmonic Titanium Nitride,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(15), 1601031 (2017).
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V. I. Zakomirnyi, I. L. Rasskazov, V. S. Gerasimov, A. E. Ershov, S. P. Polyutov, and S. V. Karpov, “Refractory titanium nitride two-dimensional structures with extremely narrow surface lattice resonances at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(12), 123107 (2017).
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J. T. Hu, X. C. Ren, A. N. Reed, T. Reese, D. Rhee, B. Howe, L. J. Lauhon, A. M. Urbas, and T. W. Odom, “Evolutionary Design and Prototyping of Single Crystalline Titanium Nitride Lattice Optics,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 606–612 (2017).
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R. C. Prince, R. R. Frontiera, and E. O. Potma, “Stimulated Raman Scattering: From Bulk to Nano,” Chem. Rev. 117(7), 5070–5094 (2017).
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S. S. Kharintsev, A. V. Kharitonov, S. K. Saikin, A. M. Alekseev, and S. G. Kazarian, “Nonlinear Raman Effects Enhanced by Surface Plasmon Excitation in Planar Refractory Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5533–5539 (2017).
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V. R. Supradeepa, Y. Feng, and J. W. Nicholson, “Raman fiber lasers,” J. Opt. 19(2), 023001 (2017).
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J. A. Jackman, A. R. Ferhan, and N. J. Cho, “Nanoplasmonic sensors for biointerfacial science,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 46(12), 3615–3660 (2017).
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E. Shkondin, T. Repan, O. Takayama, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “High aspect ratio titanium nitride trench structures as plasmonic biosensor,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(11), 4171–4182 (2017).
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Y. A. Wan, Y. S. An, and L. G. Deng, “Plasmonic enhanced low-threshold random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals with TiN nanoparticles in capillary tubes,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16185 (2017).
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Y. J. Lu, R. Sokhoyan, W. H. Cheng, G. K. Shirmanesh, A. R. Davoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, and H. A. Atwater, “Dynamically controlled Purcell enhancement of visible spontaneous emission in a gated plasmonic heterostructure,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1631 (2017).
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S. Kharintsev, A. Alekseev, and J. Loos, “Etchant-based design of gold tip apexes for plasmon-enhanced Raman spectromicroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 171, 139–143 (2017).
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J. D. Scherger and M. D. Foster, “Tunable, Liquid Resistant Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Probes: Toward Label-Free Nano-Resolved Imaging of Biological Systems,” Langmuir 33(31), 7818–7825 (2017).
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I. Liberal and N. Engheta, “Near-zero refractive index photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 149–158 (2017).
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2016 (4)

G. Greczynski and L. Hultman, “Self-consistent modelling of X-ray photoelectron spectra from air-exposed polycrystalline TiN thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 387, 294–300 (2016).
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L. L. Gui, S. Bagheri, N. Strohfeldt, M. Hentschel, C. M. Zgrabik, B. Metzger, H. Linnenbank, E. L. Hu, and H. Giessen, “Nonlinear Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5708–5713 (2016).
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Z. G. Zhou, E. Sakr, Y. B. Sun, and P. Bermel, “Solar thermophotovoltaics: reshaping the solar spectrum,” Nanophotonics 5(1), 1–21 (2016).
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M. Kumar, N. Umezawa, S. Ishii, and T. Nagao, “Examining the Performance of Refractory Conductive Ceramics as Plasmonic Materials: A Theoretical Approach,” ACS Photonics 3(1), 43–50 (2016).
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2015 (4)

P. Patsalas, N. Kalfagiannis, and S. Kassavetis, “Optical Properties and Plasmonic Performance of Titanium Nitride,” Materials 8(6), 3128–3154 (2015).
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H. Daneshvar, R. Prinja, and N. P. Kherani, “Thermophotovoltaics: Fundamentals, challenges and prospects,” Appl. Energy 159, 560–575 (2015).
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N. Kinsey, A. A. Syed, D. Courtwright, C. DeVault, C. E. Bonner, V. I. Gavrilenko, V. M. Shalaev, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and A. Boltasseva, “Effective third-order nonlinearities in metallic refractory titanium nitride thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(11), 2395–2403 (2015).
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J. Butet, P. F. Brevet, and O. J. F. Martin, “Optical Second Harmonic Generation in Plasmonic Nanostructures: From Fundamental Principles to Advanced Applications,” ACS Nano 9(11), 10545–10562 (2015).
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2014 (3)

U. Guler, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Refractory Plasmonics,” Science 344(6181), 263–264 (2014).
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W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. G. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
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G. V. Naik, B. Saha, J. Liu, S. M. Saber, E. A. Stach, J. M. K. Irudayaraj, T. D. Sands, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Epitaxial superlattices with titanium nitride as a plasmonic component for optical hyperbolic metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(21), 7546–7551 (2014).
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2013 (2)

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative Plasmonic Materials: Beyond Gold and Silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
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M. Cohen, Z. Zalevsky, and R. Shavit, “Towards integrated nanoplasmonic logic circuitry,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5442–5449 (2013).
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2012 (3)

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 737–748 (2012).
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V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R. M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(8), 728–738 (2012).
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G. V. Naik, J. L. Schroeder, X. J. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, T. D. Sands, and A. Boltasseva, “Titanium nitride as a plasmonic material for visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 478–489 (2012).
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2011 (1)

2010 (1)

A. M. Kelley, “Hyper-Raman Scattering by Molecular Vibrations,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 61(1), 41–61 (2010).
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2009 (1)

D. E. Newbury, “Mistakes Encountered During Automatic Peak Identification of Minor and Trace Constituents in Electron-Excited Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis,” Scanning 31(3), 91–101 (2009).
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L. L. Wang, G. H. Zhu, M. Wang, W. Yu, J. Zeng, X. X. Yu, H. Q. Xie, and Q. Li, “Dual plasmonic Au/TiN nanofluids for efficient solar photothermal conversion,” Sol. Energy 184, 240–248 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

F. Cao, L. Tang, Y. Li, A. P. Litvinchuk, J. M. Bao, and Z. F. Ren, “A high-temperature stable spectrally-selective solar absorber based on cermet of titanium nitride in SiO2 deposited on lanthanum aluminate,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 160, 12–17 (2017).
[Crossref]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part A (1)

S. Kharintsev, A. Alekseev, and J. Loos, “Etchant-based design of gold tip apexes for plasmon-enhanced Raman spectromicroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 171, 139–143 (2017).
[Crossref]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

N. Kaisar, Y. T. Huang, S. Jou, H. F. Kuo, B. R. Huang, C. C. Chen, Y. F. Hsieh, and Y. C. Chung, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates of flat and wrinkly titanium nitride thin films by sputter deposition,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 337, 434–438 (2018).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. V. Kharitonov, I. V. Yanilkin, A. I. Gumarov, I. R. Vakhitov, R. V. Yusupov, L. R. Tagirov, S. S. Kharintsev, and M. K. Salakhov, “Synthesis and characterization of titanium nitride thin films for enhancement and localization of optical fields,” Thin Solid Films 653, 200–203 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

NIST data base, http://srdata.nist.gov/xps/

V. M. Shalaev and W. Cai, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer Science & Business Media, 2009).

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M. Quinten, Optical Properties of Nanoparticle Systems (Wiley-VCH, 2011).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity of conventional and alternative plasmonic materials: Au – green curve (data from [19]), TiN – red curve (data from [13]), TiON – blue curve (data from [20]). A grey curve shows the permittivity of an arbitrary dielectric with the opposite sign.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Real and imaginary part of the permittivity plotted as a function of the wavelength for TiON thin films prepared at different conditions. The optical constants of TiON film prepared in this work (green curve) were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The data for the blue curve are taken from [20]).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. EDS spectra obtained from TiON thin film with the 2ENZ behavior, as shown in Fig. 2 (green curve).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. ToF-SIMS depth profiling of TiON thin film, which has 2ENZ dielectric function as shown in Fig. 2(a) (green curve). The curves show the intensities of different positive ions against the sputtering time.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The results of TERS studies of the TiON thin film that exhibits a 2ENZ dielectric function as shown in Fig. 2 (green curve). (a) Sketch of the TERS experiment; (b) transmission electron image of the tip apex of a gold nanoantenna; (c) TERS map of the TiON thin film at 480 cm−1; (d) far-field and near-field Raman spectra of the TiON film.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Scanning probe microscopy of titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium oxynitride (TiON) thin films. (a) Sketch of the experiment; (b), (c) DC electrical current maps probed for TiN and TiON, respectively. The current is measured in the nanoampers.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Real (a) and imaginary (b) part of the dielectric permittivity of titanium oxynitride (TiON) thin films prepared at different temperatures of the Si substrate.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Ti 2p XPS core-level spectra acquired from TiN as well as from a series of TiON thin films, sputtered at different substrate temperatures. Color areas demonstrate the energy regions of characteristic binding energies indicative for presence of different phases.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Examination of 2ENZ materials to exhibit dual-band plasmonic response. (a), (b) dielectric functions of gold and TiSiON, respectively. (c), (d) scattering efficiencies calculated using Mie theory in the limit of negligible losses. The insets show the near-field distribution of the nanospheres at resonant wavelengths. The figure is reproduced from Ref. [22] with permission.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. The performance of metasurface absorbers made of various plasmonic materials. (a), (b) Geometry of the unit cell of the metasurface and its scanning electron image, respectively; (c) The absorption spectra calculated for different material platforms: Au (red curve, dielectric function from [19]), TiN (green and blue curves, dielectric functions from [60] and [13], respectively); TiON (purple curve, dielectric function from [20]). Grey curve displays a solar spectra (AM 1.5 direct + circumsolar). For each material the fraction of the absorbed power of the solar light is indicated. The figures (a) and (b) are reproduced from Ref. [28] with permission.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Superresolution stimulated Raman scattering microscopy of the TiON planar nanostructure. (a) SEM image of the TiON nanostructure with the size of 100 nm and (b), (c) corresponding Raman maps at 460 cm−1 (spontaneous Raman scattering) and 480 cm−1 (stimulated Raman scattering), respectively. (d) Far-field Raman spectra registered in the continuous TiON film (blue curve) and TiON nanostructure (pink curve). (e) Cross-sections along dashed lines that are shown in the Raman maps. For clarity, the line in the figure (c) is interrupted.

Equations (3)

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Re [ ε m ( λ ) ] = Re [ ε d ( λ ) ] ,
χ R,eff ( 3 ) = g p 2 g R 2 χ R ( 3 ) ,
Re [ n ] = Im [ ε ] 2 .

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