Abstract

We propose a dual-controlled switchable broadband terahertz (THz) metamaterial absorber based on a hybrid of vanadium dioxide (VO2) and graphene that demonstrates strong polarization-independent characteristics and works well at a wide range of incidence angles. The peak absorptance of the proposed absorber can be tuned from 26 to 99.2% by changing the Fermi energy of the graphene; the absorptance can be dynamically tuned from 9 to 99.2% by adjusting the conductivity of the vanadium dioxide because of its unique insulator-to-metal transition characteristic. Using these two independent controls in tandem, we found that the state of the proposed absorber can be switched from absorption (>96%) to reflection (>73.5%), and the transmittance can be tuned from 0% to 65% while maintaining broad bandwidth (1.05-1.6 THz), resulting in a better-performing switchable broadband terahertz absorber. Furthermore, we have provided a discussion of the interference theory in which the physical mechanism of the absorption is explained from an optical point of view. The absorber achieves dual-controlled absorptance switching via two independently controllable pathways, offering a new method for switching and modulation of broadband THz radiation.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]

2019 (13)

T. S. Rappaport, Y. Xing, O. Kanhere, S. Ju, A. Madanayake, S. Mandal, A. Alkhateeb, and G. C. Trichopoulos, “Wireless communications and applications above 100 GHz: opportunities and challenges for 6G and beyond,” IEEE Access 7, 78729–78757 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators, A 287(1), 21–28 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Wei, Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Liu, and Q. Chen, “Large-angle mid-infrared absorption switch enabled by polarization-independent GST metasurfaces,” Mater. Lett. 236(1), 350–353 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Qi, C. Liu, and S. M. A. Shah, “A broad dual-band switchable graphene-based terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Carbon 153, 179–188 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Ye, F. Zeng, Y. Zhang, and Q. H. Liu, “Composite graphene-metal microstructures for enhanced multiband absorption covering the entire terahertz range,” Carbon 148, 317–325 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, G. Zhou, J. Wu, Y. Tang, Q. Wen, S. Li, J. Han, B. Jin, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Active control of terahertz waves using vanadium-dioxide-embedded metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(5), 054016 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Terahertz toroidal metamaterial with tunable properties,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5792–5797 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Song, A. Chen, J. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Integrated metamaterial with functionalities of absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 27(18), 25196–25204 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, Z. H. Wang, L. Li, Y. X. Fan, and Z. Y. Tao, “Vanadium dioxide-assisted broadband tunable terahertz metamaterial absorber,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 5751 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, Q. Xu, X. Chen, E. Plum, H. Li, X. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Zou, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Temperature-Controlled asymmetric transmission of electromagnetic waves,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 4097 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Hajian, A. Ghobadi, A. E. Serebryannikov, B. Butun, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, and E. Ozbay, “VO2-hBN-graphene-based bi-functional metamaterial for mid-infrared bi-tunable asymmetric transmission and nearly perfect resonant absorption,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36(6), 1607–1615 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Kumar, A. Lakhtakia, and P. K. Jain, “Tricontrollable pixelated metasurface for absorbing terahertz radiation,” Appl. Opt. 58(35), 9614–9623 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, D. Zha, L. Miao, Y. He, and J. Jiang, “Graphene-based single-layer elliptical pattern metamaterial absorber for adjustable broadband absorption in terahertz range,” Phys. Scr. 94(10), 105507 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (8)

T. Lu, D. Zhang, P. Qiu, J. Lian, M. Jing, B. Yu, J. Wen, and S. Zhuang, “Dual-band perfect metamaterial absorber based on an asymmetric H-shaped structure for terahertz waves,” Materials 11(11), 2193 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, J. Lu, and X. R. Wang, “Metamaterials based on the phase transition of VO2,” Nanotechnology 29(2), 024002 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Song, K. Wang, J. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband tunable terahertz absorber based on vanadium dioxide metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Chu, Z. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Omnidirectional tunable terahertz analog of electromagnetically induced transparency realized by isotropic vanadium dioxide metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(8), 082203 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Z. Shu, F. F. Yu, R. W. Peng, Y. Y. Zhu, B. Xiong, R. H. Fan, Z. H. Wang, Y. Liu, and M. Wang, “Dynamic plasmonic color generation based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(7), 1700939 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Jia, F. Z. Shu, Y. J. Gao, F. Cheng, R. W. Peng, R. H. Fan, Y. Liu, and M. Wang, “Dynamically Switching the Polarization State of Light Based on the Phase Transition of Vanadium Dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(3), 034009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, Q. Shi, S. Liang, W. Huang, W. Kou, and Z. Yang, “Dynamic photoinduced controlling of the large phase shift of terahertz waves via vanadium dioxide coupling nanostructures,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3040–3050 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Wang and Z. Song, “Multipole plasmons in graphene nanoellipses,” Phys. B 530(1), 142–146 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

I. E. Carranza, J. P. Grant, J. Gough, and D. Cumming, “Terahertz metamaterial absorbers implemented in CMOS technology for imaging applications: scaling to large format focal plane arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (2)

H. Hu, F. Zhai, D. Hu, Z. Li, B. Bai, X. Yang, and Q. Dai, “Broadly tunable graphene plasmons using an ion-gel top gate with low control voltage,” Nanoscale 7(46), 19493–19500 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (8)

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Bağcı, “An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29938–29948 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Yahiaoui, J. P. Guillet, F. Miollis, and P. Mounaix, “Ultra-flexible multiband terahertz metamaterial absorber for conformal geometry application,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 4988–4990 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Alves, D. Grbovic, B. Kearney, N. V. Lavrik, and G. Karunasiri, “Bi-material terahertz sensors using metamaterial structures,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13256–13271 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wilbert, M. P. Hokmabadi, J. Martinez, P. Kung, and S. M. Kim, “Terahertz metamaterials perfect absorbers for sensing and imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8585, 85850Y (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Chiang and T.-J. Yen, “A composite-metamaterial-based terahertz-wave polarization rotator with an ultrathin thickness, an excellent conversion ratio, and enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011129 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Graphene metamaterials based tunable terahertz absorber: effective surface conductivity approach,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9144–9155 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

H. T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2010 (3)

H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4328–4334 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

W. Withayachumnankul and D. Abbott, “Metamaterials in the terahertz regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 99–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Cheng, F.

Z. Y. Jia, F. Z. Shu, Y. J. Gao, F. Cheng, R. W. Peng, R. H. Fan, Y. Liu, and M. Wang, “Dynamically Switching the Polarization State of Light Based on the Phase Transition of Vanadium Dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(3), 034009 (2018).
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Choi, M.

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S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
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N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4328–4334 (2010).
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L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
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S. A. Cummer and B.-I. Popa, “Wave fields measured inside a negative refractive index metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4564–4566 (2004).
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Cumming, D.

I. E. Carranza, J. P. Grant, J. Gough, and D. Cumming, “Terahertz metamaterial absorbers implemented in CMOS technology for imaging applications: scaling to large format focal plane arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–8 (2017).
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Dai, Q.

H. Hu, F. Zhai, D. Hu, Z. Li, B. Bai, X. Yang, and Q. Dai, “Broadly tunable graphene plasmons using an ion-gel top gate with low control voltage,” Nanoscale 7(46), 19493–19500 (2015).
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N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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Deng, Y.

M. Wei, Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Liu, and Q. Chen, “Large-angle mid-infrared absorption switch enabled by polarization-independent GST metasurfaces,” Mater. Lett. 236(1), 350–353 (2019).
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Z. Song, Y. Deng, Y. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “Terahertz toroidal metamaterial with tunable properties,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5792–5797 (2019).
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Duan, G.

G. Duan, J. Schalch, X. Zhao, A. Li, C. Chen, R. D. Averitt, and X. Zhang, “A survey of theoretical models for terahertz electromagnetic metamaterial absorbers,” Sens. Actuators, A 287(1), 21–28 (2019).
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H. Tao, C. M. Bingham, D. Pilon, K. Fan, A. C. Strikwerda, D. Shrekenhamer, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “A dual band terahertz metamaterial absorber,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(22), 225102 (2010).
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Fan, R. H.

Z. Y. Jia, F. Z. Shu, Y. J. Gao, F. Cheng, R. W. Peng, R. H. Fan, Y. Liu, and M. Wang, “Dynamically Switching the Polarization State of Light Based on the Phase Transition of Vanadium Dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(3), 034009 (2018).
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F. Z. Shu, F. F. Yu, R. W. Peng, Y. Y. Zhu, B. Xiong, R. H. Fan, Z. H. Wang, Y. Liu, and M. Wang, “Dynamic plasmonic color generation based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(7), 1700939 (2018).
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Feng, Y.

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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund Jr, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
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X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4328–4334 (2010).
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Gao, Y. J.

Z. Y. Jia, F. Z. Shu, Y. J. Gao, F. Cheng, R. W. Peng, R. H. Fan, Y. Liu, and M. Wang, “Dynamically Switching the Polarization State of Light Based on the Phase Transition of Vanadium Dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(3), 034009 (2018).
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I. E. Carranza, J. P. Grant, J. Gough, and D. Cumming, “Terahertz metamaterial absorbers implemented in CMOS technology for imaging applications: scaling to large format focal plane arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–8 (2017).
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N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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I. E. Carranza, J. P. Grant, J. Gough, and D. Cumming, “Terahertz metamaterial absorbers implemented in CMOS technology for imaging applications: scaling to large format focal plane arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 1–8 (2017).
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Haglund Jr, R. F.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund Jr, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
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X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4328–4334 (2010).
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Han, J.

C. Zhang, G. Zhou, J. Wu, Y. Tang, Q. Wen, S. Li, J. Han, B. Jin, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Active control of terahertz waves using vanadium-dioxide-embedded metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(5), 054016 (2019).
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M. Liu, Q. Xu, X. Chen, E. Plum, H. Li, X. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Zou, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Temperature-Controlled asymmetric transmission of electromagnetic waves,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 4097 (2019).
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X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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He, Y.

S. Wu, D. Zha, L. Miao, Y. He, and J. Jiang, “Graphene-based single-layer elliptical pattern metamaterial absorber for adjustable broadband absorption in terahertz range,” Phys. Scr. 94(10), 105507 (2019).
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P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund Jr, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
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N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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H. Hu, F. Zhai, D. Hu, Z. Li, B. Bai, X. Yang, and Q. Dai, “Broadly tunable graphene plasmons using an ion-gel top gate with low control voltage,” Nanoscale 7(46), 19493–19500 (2015).
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P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund Jr, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
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Z. Y. Jia, F. Z. Shu, Y. J. Gao, F. Cheng, R. W. Peng, R. H. Fan, Y. Liu, and M. Wang, “Dynamically Switching the Polarization State of Light Based on the Phase Transition of Vanadium Dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(3), 034009 (2018).
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S. Wu, D. Zha, L. Miao, Y. He, and J. Jiang, “Graphene-based single-layer elliptical pattern metamaterial absorber for adjustable broadband absorption in terahertz range,” Phys. Scr. 94(10), 105507 (2019).
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Jiang, T.

Jin, B.

C. Zhang, G. Zhou, J. Wu, Y. Tang, Q. Wen, S. Li, J. Han, B. Jin, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Active control of terahertz waves using vanadium-dioxide-embedded metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(5), 054016 (2019).
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N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125104 (2009).
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T. S. Rappaport, Y. Xing, O. Kanhere, S. Ju, A. Madanayake, S. Mandal, A. Alkhateeb, and G. C. Trichopoulos, “Wireless communications and applications above 100 GHz: opportunities and challenges for 6G and beyond,” IEEE Access 7, 78729–78757 (2019).
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T. S. Rappaport, Y. Xing, O. Kanhere, S. Ju, A. Madanayake, S. Mandal, A. Alkhateeb, and G. C. Trichopoulos, “Wireless communications and applications above 100 GHz: opportunities and challenges for 6G and beyond,” IEEE Access 7, 78729–78757 (2019).
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Kearney, B.

Kelly, M. M.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 113104 (2011).
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ACS Photonics (1)

Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, Q. Shi, S. Liang, W. Huang, W. Kou, and Z. Yang, “Dynamic photoinduced controlling of the large phase shift of terahertz waves via vanadium dioxide coupling nanostructures,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3040–3050 (2018).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Z. Shu, F. F. Yu, R. W. Peng, Y. Y. Zhu, B. Xiong, R. H. Fan, Z. H. Wang, Y. Liu, and M. Wang, “Dynamic plasmonic color generation based on phase transition of vanadium dioxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(7), 1700939 (2018).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

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Mater. Lett. (1)

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Materials (1)

T. Lu, D. Zhang, P. Qiu, J. Lian, M. Jing, B. Yu, J. Wen, and S. Zhuang, “Dual-band perfect metamaterial absorber based on an asymmetric H-shaped structure for terahertz waves,” Materials 11(11), 2193 (2018).
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Nano Lett. (1)

X. Li, C. W. Magnuson, A. Venugopal, J. An, J. W. Suk, B. Han, M. Borysiak, W. Cai, A. Velamakanni, Y. Zhu, L. Fu, E. M. Vogel, E. Voelkl, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Graphene films with large domain size by a two-step chemical vapor deposition process,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4328–4334 (2010).
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Nanoscale (1)

H. Hu, F. Zhai, D. Hu, Z. Li, B. Bai, X. Yang, and Q. Dai, “Broadly tunable graphene plasmons using an ion-gel top gate with low control voltage,” Nanoscale 7(46), 19493–19500 (2015).
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Nanotechnology (1)

H. Liu, J. Lu, and X. R. Wang, “Metamaterials based on the phase transition of VO2,” Nanotechnology 29(2), 024002 (2018).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of graphene- and VO2-based metamaterial broadband absorber geometry. P = 15 µm, Lin= 3.8 µm, Lout= 6.8 µm, win = 0.5 µm, wout = 2 µm, d = 28 µm, and h = 0.7 µm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Calculated absorptance spectra and top view of corresponding geometries for structures with (a) inner square ring only, (b) outer square ring only, and (c) double square rings (EF = 0.5 eV and ${\sigma _{v{o_2}}} = 200000\; \textrm{S}/\textrm{m}$).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Calculated electric field distributions of standalone inner ring, standalone outer ring, and double-square-ring structures at their corresponding absorption peaks (frequencies are indicated below the respective distributions).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Calculated (a) reflectance, (b) transmittance, and (c) absorptance spectra of the proposed absorber at various VO2 conductivities and a fixed graphene Fermi energy of 0.5 eV.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The (a) real and (b) imaginary parts of permittivity of VO2 under different conductivities.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Calculated absorptance spectra at varying VO2 thickness (h) for EF = 0.5 eV and ${\sigma _{v{o_2}}} = 200000\; \textrm{S}/\textrm{m}$.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Calculated (a) reflectance and (b) absorptance spectra of the proposed absorber at graphene Fermi energies ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 eV under a fixed VO2 conductivity of ${\sigma _{v{o_2}}} = 200000\; \textrm{S}/\textrm{m}$.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Calculated (a) reflectance, (b) transmittance, and (c) absorptance spectra of the proposed absorber at various VO2 conductivities and a fixed graphene Fermi energy of 0.01 eV.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Calculated absorptance spectra of the proposed absorber system for different fixed values of the Fermi energy, EF, and VO2 conductivity, ${\sigma _{v{o_2}}}$, as designated in the legend of the figure. (b) Side view of electric field distributions at 1.05 THz.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Real part and imaginary part of the relative impedance with Fermi energy and VO2 conductivity fixed at (a) EF = 0.01 eV, ${\sigma _{v{o_2}}} = 10\; \textrm{S}/\textrm{m}$; (b) EF = 0.01 eV, ${\sigma _{v{o_2}}} = 200000\; \textrm{S}/\textrm{m}$; (c) EF = 0.5 eV, ${\sigma _{v{o_2}}} = 200000\; \textrm{S}/\textrm{m}$, and (d) EF = 0.5 eV, ${\sigma _{v{o_2}}} = 10\; \textrm{S}/\textrm{m}$.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a) Calculated absorptance color map of the broadband absorber with respect to θ, the angle between the polarized electric field and the x-axis of the structure, at EF = 0.5 eV and ${\sigma _{v{o_2}}} = 200000\; \textrm{S}/\textrm{m}$. (b) Calculated the electric field distributions at 1.05THz for θ = 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Calculated color maps of absorptance as a function of incidence angle and frequency under incidence angles ranging from 0 to 80° for (a) TE and (b) TM polarized illumination at EF = 0.5 eV and ${\sigma _{v{o_2}}} = 200000\; \textrm{S}/\textrm{m}$.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. (a) Amplitude and (b) phase of reflection and transmission coefficients at the broadband metamaterial absorber interface (the t21 nearly coincides with t12, and the θ21 is nearly coincides with θ12). (c) Comparison of absorptance spectra produced by theoretical calculation and numerical simulation with the parameters of the structure in Fig. 1 applied at EF = 0.5 eV and ${\sigma _{v{o_2}}} = 200000\; \textrm{S}/\textrm{m}$. (d) Schematic of the multiple reflection and interference model.

Equations (5)

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σ g ( ω ) = i e 2 E F [ π 2 ( ω + i τ 1 ) ]
ε v o 2 ( ω ) = ε ω p 2 ( σ v o 2 ) ω 2 + i γ ω
Z = ± ( 1 + S 11 ) 2 S 21 2 ( 1 S 11 ) 2 S 21 2
r ~ = r ~ 12 t ~ 12 t ~ 21 e i 2 β ~ 1 + r ~ 21 e i 2 β ~
β ~ = β r + i β i = ε ~ s i o 2 k 0 d

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