Abstract

Nonpolar (100) m-plane n-ZnO/p-GaN light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) were grown by chemical vapor deposition on p-GaN templates which was grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on LiAlO2(100) substrate. Direct current (DC) electroluminescence (EL) measurements yielded a peak at 458nm. The EL peak position was independent of drive current and a full width of half maximum (FWHM) of 21.8 nm was realized at 20mA. The current-voltage characteristics of these diodes showed a forward voltage (Vf) of 6V with a series resistance of 2.2 × 105 Ω.

© 2011 OSA

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  3. T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
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  6. A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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  11. T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
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  13. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S.-H. Park, Y.-T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. K. Sharma and E. Towe, “Impact of strain on deep ultraviolet nitride laser and light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 086104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Jang, J. Kim, and W. Jung, “Synthesis of ZnO nanorods on GaN epitaxial layer and Si (100) substrate using a simple hydrothermal process,” Thin Solid Films 516(23), 8524–8529 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. B. J. Jin, S. Im, and S. Y. Lee, “Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 366(1-2), 107–110 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Epitaxially Laterally Overgrown GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2011

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Sharma and E. Towe, “Impact of strain on deep ultraviolet nitride laser and light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 086104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, Y.-T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Jang, J. Kim, and W. Jung, “Synthesis of ZnO nanorods on GaN epitaxial layer and Si (100) substrate using a simple hydrothermal process,” Thin Solid Films 516(23), 8524–8529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. J. Jin, S. Im, and S. Y. Lee, “Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 366(1-2), 107–110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Epitaxially Laterally Overgrown GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abare, A.

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-C.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. M. C.

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clifton, P. H.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. A.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Craig, R.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Craven, M. D.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y.-K.

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D. F.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. K.

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Haeger, D. A.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, P. S.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T. H.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G. S.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Im, S.

B. J. Jin, S. Im, and S. Y. Lee, “Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 366(1-2), 107–110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iso, K.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iveland, J.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

J. Jang, J. Kim, and W. Jung, “Synthesis of ZnO nanorods on GaN epitaxial layer and Si (100) substrate using a simple hydrothermal process,” Thin Solid Films 516(23), 8524–8529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.-M.

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, B. J.

B. J. Jin, S. Im, and S. Y. Lee, “Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 366(1-2), 107–110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W.

J. Jang, J. Kim, and W. Jung, “Synthesis of ZnO nanorods on GaN epitaxial layer and Si (100) substrate using a simple hydrothermal process,” Thin Solid Films 516(23), 8524–8529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W.-G.

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katsuragawa, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kelchner, K. M.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.-R.

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Jang, J. Kim, and W. Jung, “Synthesis of ZnO nanorods on GaN epitaxial layer and Si (100) substrate using a simple hydrothermal process,” Thin Solid Films 516(23), 8524–8529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-C.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Komori, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koo, B.-H.

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kozodoy, P.

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. W.

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-K.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

B. J. Jin, S. Im, and S. Y. Lee, “Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 366(1-2), 107–110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-T.

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, Y.-T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.-H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-T.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liou, B.-T.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. L.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mack, M.

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mondry, M. J.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Epitaxially Laterally Overgrown GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Epitaxially Laterally Overgrown GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Naveh, D.

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J.-E.

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. J.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, Y.-T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-H.

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, Y.-T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Penn, S. T.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poblenz, C.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prosa, T. J.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raring, J. W.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rudy, P.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. C.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, T. K.

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Sharma and E. Towe, “Impact of strain on deep ultraviolet nitride laser and light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 086104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shivaraman, R.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. J.

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sink, R. K.

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sota, S.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D.

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Towe, E.

T. K. Sharma and E. Towe, “Impact of strain on deep ultraviolet nitride laser and light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 086104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-C.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, F. C.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tun, C. J.

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyagi, A.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walters, B.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yen, S.-H.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zolper, J. C.

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
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H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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ECS Trans.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

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[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Other

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Schematic of m-plane n-ZnO/m-plane p-GaN/LiAlO2 heterostructure LEDs, (B) Room-temperature PL spectra of ZnO thin film on m-plane p-type GaN, (C) Top-view FE-SEM image of as-grown ZnO thin films on m-plane p-GaN film, (D) Cross-sectional FE-SEM image of as-grown ZnO films on p-GaN film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: XRD pattern of as-grown nonpolar ZnO. Right: X-ray rocking curve of nonpolar ZnO.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Current-voltage characteristics of m-plane n-ZnO/m-plane p-GaN/LiAlO2 heterojunction LED at room temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

EL spectra of nonpolar ZnO /p-GaN heterostructure at various drive DC current at 10, 20, and 40mA, respectively.

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