Abstract

We investigate into a new type of liquid crystal (LC) heterogeneous system that contains hydrogen-bonded polymer-azo-dye complexes at a low concentration. The suspension shows a unique self-orienting property and a spontaneous anchoring transition from planar to homeotropic alignment on a rubbed polyimide surface. We suggest a simple polymer adsorption model to explain the universal homeotropic orienting property. The complex-doped LC suspension can be used as a new liquid crystalline material that does not require any additional alignment processing or treatment.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(5), 051709 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst.30(10), 1235–1239 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Ouskova, O. Buluy, C. Blanc, H. Dietsch, and A. Mertelj, “Enhanced magneto-optical properties of suspensions of spindle type mono-dispersed hematite nano-particles in liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)525(1), 104–111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong cubic optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles suspension in nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Buluy, S. Nepijko, V. Reshetnyak, E. Ouskova, V. Zadorozhnii, A. Leonhardt, M. Ritschel, G. Schönhense, and Yu. Reznikov, “Magnetic sensitivity of dispersion of aggregated ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes in liquid crystal,” Soft Matter7(2), 644–649 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Luo, X. W. Sun, H. T. Dai, and H. V. Demir, “Polarization-dependent circular Dammann grating made of azo-dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt.50(15), 2316–2321 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry peculiarities of surface-mediated liquid crystals gratings recorded due to light-induced anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, “Efficient surface-relief gratings in hydrogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces1(6), 1183–1189 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. F. J. Faul and M. Antonietti, “Ionic self-assembly: facile synthesis of supramolecular materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(9), 673–683 (2003).
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  22. V. Shibaev, A. Bobrovsky, and N. Boiko, “Photoactive liquid crystalline polymer systems with light-controllable structure and optical properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci.28(5), 729–836 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. polyimide poly(4,4'-oxydiphenylene-pyromellitimide was synthesized by I. Gerus (Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Ukraine), analogue to Kapton® from DuPont.
  24. S. Faetti and P. Marianelli, “Strong azimuthal anchoring energy at a nematic-polyimide interface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(5), 051708 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Materials and rubbing dependence on azimuthal anchoring energy of rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(19), 3869–3871 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. M. Blinov, Electro-Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 1983).
  27. S.-T. Wu, “Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.84(8), 4462–4465 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. Lu, Y. J. Choi, H. S. Lim, D. Kwak, C. Shim, S. G. Lee, and K. Cho, “pH-Induced antireflection coatings derived from hydrogen-bonding-directed multilayer films,” Langmuir26(22), 17749–17755 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. L. M. Blinov and V. G. Chigrinov, Electrooptic Effects in Liquid Crystal Materials (Springer, 1994).
  30. N. V. Madhusudana and R. Pratibha, “Elasticity and orientational order in some cyanobiphenyls: Part IV. Reanalysis of the data,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)89(1-4), 249–257 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  31. W.-Z. Chen, Y.-T. Tsai, and T.-H. Lin, “Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 201114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S.-C. Hong, M. Oh-e, X. Zhuang, Y. R. Shen, J. J. Ge, F. W. Harris, and S. Z. D. Cheng, “Orientations of side chains and adsorbed liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyimide surface studied by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(5), 051706 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. Guo, Yu. Reznikov, K. Slyusarenko, and S. Kumar, “Dynamics of molecular exchange between aligning adsorbed film of liquid crystal and the bulk,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121911 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong cubic optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles suspension in nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Buluy, S. Nepijko, V. Reshetnyak, E. Ouskova, V. Zadorozhnii, A. Leonhardt, M. Ritschel, G. Schönhense, and Yu. Reznikov, “Magnetic sensitivity of dispersion of aggregated ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes in liquid crystal,” Soft Matter7(2), 644–649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Luo, X. W. Sun, H. T. Dai, and H. V. Demir, “Polarization-dependent circular Dammann grating made of azo-dye-doped liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt.50(15), 2316–2321 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

E. Ouskova, O. Buluy, C. Blanc, H. Dietsch, and A. Mertelj, “Enhanced magneto-optical properties of suspensions of spindle type mono-dispersed hematite nano-particles in liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)525(1), 104–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-C. Chen, S.-Y. Huang, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary liquid crystal alignments based on photoalignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystals and their application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry peculiarities of surface-mediated liquid crystals gratings recorded due to light-induced anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, Y. J. Choi, H. S. Lim, D. Kwak, C. Shim, S. G. Lee, and K. Cho, “pH-Induced antireflection coatings derived from hydrogen-bonding-directed multilayer films,” Langmuir26(22), 17749–17755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

W.-Z. Chen, Y.-T. Tsai, and T.-H. Lin, “Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, “Efficient surface-relief gratings in hydrogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces1(6), 1183–1189 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

R. Guo, Yu. Reznikov, K. Slyusarenko, and S. Kumar, “Dynamics of molecular exchange between aligning adsorbed film of liquid crystal and the bulk,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20(20), 6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Faetti and P. Marianelli, “Strong azimuthal anchoring energy at a nematic-polyimide interface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(5), 051708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

C. F. J. Faul and M. Antonietti, “Ionic self-assembly: facile synthesis of supramolecular materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(9), 673–683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Shibaev, A. Bobrovsky, and N. Boiko, “Photoactive liquid crystalline polymer systems with light-controllable structure and optical properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci.28(5), 729–836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst.30(10), 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev.102(11), 4139–4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-C. Hong, M. Oh-e, X. Zhuang, Y. R. Shen, J. J. Ge, F. W. Harris, and S. Z. D. Cheng, “Orientations of side chains and adsorbed liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyimide surface studied by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(5), 051706 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Materials and rubbing dependence on azimuthal anchoring energy of rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(19), 3869–3871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S.-T. Wu, “Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.84(8), 4462–4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

N. V. Madhusudana and R. Pratibha, “Elasticity and orientational order in some cyanobiphenyls: Part IV. Reanalysis of the data,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)89(1-4), 249–257 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alasaarela, T.

J. Vapaavuori, V. Valtavirta, A. Priimagi, T. Alasaarela, J. Mamiya, A. Shishido, and M. Kaivola, “Efficient surface structuring and photoalignment of supramolecular polymer-azobenzene complexes through rational chromophore design,” J. Mater. Chem. (to be published).

Antonietti, M.

C. F. J. Faul and M. Antonietti, “Ionic self-assembly: facile synthesis of supramolecular materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(9), 673–683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aryasova, N.

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry peculiarities of surface-mediated liquid crystals gratings recorded due to light-induced anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ban, B. S.

B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Materials and rubbing dependence on azimuthal anchoring energy of rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(19), 3869–3871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, C.

E. Ouskova, O. Buluy, C. Blanc, H. Dietsch, and A. Mertelj, “Enhanced magneto-optical properties of suspensions of spindle type mono-dispersed hematite nano-particles in liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)525(1), 104–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bobrovsky, A.

V. Shibaev, A. Bobrovsky, and N. Boiko, “Photoactive liquid crystalline polymer systems with light-controllable structure and optical properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci.28(5), 729–836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boichuk, V.

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry peculiarities of surface-mediated liquid crystals gratings recorded due to light-induced anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boiko, N.

V. Shibaev, A. Bobrovsky, and N. Boiko, “Photoactive liquid crystalline polymer systems with light-controllable structure and optical properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci.28(5), 729–836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buchnev, O.

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst.30(10), 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buluy, O.

O. Buluy, S. Nepijko, V. Reshetnyak, E. Ouskova, V. Zadorozhnii, A. Leonhardt, M. Ritschel, G. Schönhense, and Yu. Reznikov, “Magnetic sensitivity of dispersion of aggregated ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes in liquid crystal,” Soft Matter7(2), 644–649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, O. Buluy, C. Blanc, H. Dietsch, and A. Mertelj, “Enhanced magneto-optical properties of suspensions of spindle type mono-dispersed hematite nano-particles in liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)525(1), 104–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-C. Chen, S.-Y. Huang, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary liquid crystal alignments based on photoalignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystals and their application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-Z.

W.-Z. Chen, Y.-T. Tsai, and T.-H. Lin, “Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.-T.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-C. Chen, S.-Y. Huang, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary liquid crystal alignments based on photoalignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystals and their application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S. Z. D.

S.-C. Hong, M. Oh-e, X. Zhuang, Y. R. Shen, J. J. Ge, F. W. Harris, and S. Z. D. Cheng, “Orientations of side chains and adsorbed liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyimide surface studied by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(5), 051706 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, K.

Y. Lu, Y. J. Choi, H. S. Lim, D. Kwak, C. Shim, S. G. Lee, and K. Cho, “pH-Induced antireflection coatings derived from hydrogen-bonding-directed multilayer films,” Langmuir26(22), 17749–17755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y. J.

Y. Lu, Y. J. Choi, H. S. Lim, D. Kwak, C. Shim, S. G. Lee, and K. Cho, “pH-Induced antireflection coatings derived from hydrogen-bonding-directed multilayer films,” Langmuir26(22), 17749–17755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cseh, L.

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong cubic optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles suspension in nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H. T.

Demir, H. V.

Dietsch, H.

E. Ouskova, O. Buluy, C. Blanc, H. Dietsch, and A. Mertelj, “Enhanced magneto-optical properties of suspensions of spindle type mono-dispersed hematite nano-particles in liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)525(1), 104–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Faetti, S.

S. Faetti and P. Marianelli, “Strong azimuthal anchoring energy at a nematic-polyimide interface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(5), 051708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faul, C. F. J.

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20(20), 6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. F. J. Faul and M. Antonietti, “Ionic self-assembly: facile synthesis of supramolecular materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(9), 673–683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fedorenko, D.

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry peculiarities of surface-mediated liquid crystals gratings recorded due to light-induced anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francescangeli, O.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-C. Chen, S.-Y. Huang, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary liquid crystal alignments based on photoalignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystals and their application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ge, J. J.

S.-C. Hong, M. Oh-e, X. Zhuang, Y. R. Shen, J. J. Ge, F. W. Harris, and S. Z. D. Cheng, “Orientations of side chains and adsorbed liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyimide surface studied by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(5), 051706 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, R.

R. Guo, Yu. Reznikov, K. Slyusarenko, and S. Kumar, “Dynamics of molecular exchange between aligning adsorbed film of liquid crystal and the bulk,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ha, K.-R.

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, F. W.

S.-C. Hong, M. Oh-e, X. Zhuang, Y. R. Shen, J. J. Ge, F. W. Harris, and S. Z. D. Cheng, “Orientations of side chains and adsorbed liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyimide surface studied by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(5), 051706 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heino, M. T.

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20(20), 6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.-C.

S.-C. Hong, M. Oh-e, X. Zhuang, Y. R. Shen, J. J. Ge, F. W. Harris, and S. Z. D. Cheng, “Orientations of side chains and adsorbed liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyimide surface studied by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(5), 051706 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S.-Y.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-C. Chen, S.-Y. Huang, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary liquid crystal alignments based on photoalignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystals and their application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ikkala, O.

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20(20), 6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeng, S.-C.

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaivola, M.

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, “Efficient surface-relief gratings in hydrogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces1(6), 1183–1189 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20(20), 6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vapaavuori, V. Valtavirta, A. Priimagi, T. Alasaarela, J. Mamiya, A. Shishido, and M. Kaivola, “Efficient surface structuring and photoalignment of supramolecular polymer-azobenzene complexes through rational chromophore design,” J. Mater. Chem. (to be published).

Karapinar, R.

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauranen, M.

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20(20), 6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. B.

B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Materials and rubbing dependence on azimuthal anchoring energy of rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(19), 3869–3871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kresse, H.

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst.30(10), 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ksondzyk, S.

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong cubic optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles suspension in nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuksenok, O. V.

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, J.

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

R. Guo, Yu. Reznikov, K. Slyusarenko, and S. Kumar, “Dynamics of molecular exchange between aligning adsorbed film of liquid crystal and the bulk,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-W.

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, D.

Y. Lu, Y. J. Choi, H. S. Lim, D. Kwak, C. Shim, S. G. Lee, and K. Cho, “pH-Induced antireflection coatings derived from hydrogen-bonding-directed multilayer films,” Langmuir26(22), 17749–17755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. G.

Y. Lu, Y. J. Choi, H. S. Lim, D. Kwak, C. Shim, S. G. Lee, and K. Cho, “pH-Induced antireflection coatings derived from hydrogen-bonding-directed multilayer films,” Langmuir26(22), 17749–17755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, A.

O. Buluy, S. Nepijko, V. Reshetnyak, E. Ouskova, V. Zadorozhnii, A. Leonhardt, M. Ritschel, G. Schönhense, and Yu. Reznikov, “Magnetic sensitivity of dispersion of aggregated ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes in liquid crystal,” Soft Matter7(2), 644–649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-C.

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H. S.

Y. Lu, Y. J. Choi, H. S. Lim, D. Kwak, C. Shim, S. G. Lee, and K. Cho, “pH-Induced antireflection coatings derived from hydrogen-bonding-directed multilayer films,” Langmuir26(22), 17749–17755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, T.-H.

W.-Z. Chen, Y.-T. Tsai, and T.-H. Lin, “Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindfors, K.

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, “Efficient surface-relief gratings in hydrogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces1(6), 1183–1189 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, Y. J. Choi, H. S. Lim, D. Kwak, C. Shim, S. G. Lee, and K. Cho, “pH-Induced antireflection coatings derived from hydrogen-bonding-directed multilayer films,” Langmuir26(22), 17749–17755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, D.

Lysenko, D.

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong cubic optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles suspension in nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

Madhusudana, N. V.

N. V. Madhusudana and R. Pratibha, “Elasticity and orientational order in some cyanobiphenyls: Part IV. Reanalysis of the data,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)89(1-4), 249–257 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mamiya, J.

J. Vapaavuori, V. Valtavirta, A. Priimagi, T. Alasaarela, J. Mamiya, A. Shishido, and M. Kaivola, “Efficient surface structuring and photoalignment of supramolecular polymer-azobenzene complexes through rational chromophore design,” J. Mater. Chem. (to be published).

Marianelli, P.

S. Faetti and P. Marianelli, “Strong azimuthal anchoring energy at a nematic-polyimide interface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(5), 051708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehl, G. H.

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong cubic optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles suspension in nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mertelj, A.

E. Ouskova, O. Buluy, C. Blanc, H. Dietsch, and A. Mertelj, “Enhanced magneto-optical properties of suspensions of spindle type mono-dispersed hematite nano-particles in liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)525(1), 104–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev.102(11), 4139–4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nepijko, S.

O. Buluy, S. Nepijko, V. Reshetnyak, E. Ouskova, V. Zadorozhnii, A. Leonhardt, M. Ritschel, G. Schönhense, and Yu. Reznikov, “Magnetic sensitivity of dispersion of aggregated ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes in liquid crystal,” Soft Matter7(2), 644–649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

S.-C. Hong, M. Oh-e, X. Zhuang, Y. R. Shen, J. J. Ge, F. W. Harris, and S. Z. D. Cheng, “Orientations of side chains and adsorbed liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyimide surface studied by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(5), 051706 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouskova, E.

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong cubic optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles suspension in nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Buluy, S. Nepijko, V. Reshetnyak, E. Ouskova, V. Zadorozhnii, A. Leonhardt, M. Ritschel, G. Schönhense, and Yu. Reznikov, “Magnetic sensitivity of dispersion of aggregated ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes in liquid crystal,” Soft Matter7(2), 644–649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, O. Buluy, C. Blanc, H. Dietsch, and A. Mertelj, “Enhanced magneto-optical properties of suspensions of spindle type mono-dispersed hematite nano-particles in liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)525(1), 104–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry peculiarities of surface-mediated liquid crystals gratings recorded due to light-induced anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst.30(10), 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pratibha, R.

N. V. Madhusudana and R. Pratibha, “Elasticity and orientational order in some cyanobiphenyls: Part IV. Reanalysis of the data,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)89(1-4), 249–257 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Priimagi, A.

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, “Efficient surface-relief gratings in hydrogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces1(6), 1183–1189 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20(20), 6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vapaavuori, V. Valtavirta, A. Priimagi, T. Alasaarela, J. Mamiya, A. Shishido, and M. Kaivola, “Efficient surface structuring and photoalignment of supramolecular polymer-azobenzene complexes through rational chromophore design,” J. Mater. Chem. (to be published).

Reshetnyak, V.

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong cubic optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles suspension in nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Buluy, S. Nepijko, V. Reshetnyak, E. Ouskova, V. Zadorozhnii, A. Leonhardt, M. Ritschel, G. Schönhense, and Yu. Reznikov, “Magnetic sensitivity of dispersion of aggregated ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes in liquid crystal,” Soft Matter7(2), 644–649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst.30(10), 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Yu.

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong cubic optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles suspension in nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Buluy, S. Nepijko, V. Reshetnyak, E. Ouskova, V. Zadorozhnii, A. Leonhardt, M. Ritschel, G. Schönhense, and Yu. Reznikov, “Magnetic sensitivity of dispersion of aggregated ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes in liquid crystal,” Soft Matter7(2), 644–649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry peculiarities of surface-mediated liquid crystals gratings recorded due to light-induced anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Guo, Yu. Reznikov, K. Slyusarenko, and S. Kumar, “Dynamics of molecular exchange between aligning adsorbed film of liquid crystal and the bulk,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst.30(10), 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritschel, M.

O. Buluy, S. Nepijko, V. Reshetnyak, E. Ouskova, V. Zadorozhnii, A. Leonhardt, M. Ritschel, G. Schönhense, and Yu. Reznikov, “Magnetic sensitivity of dispersion of aggregated ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes in liquid crystal,” Soft Matter7(2), 644–649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, “Efficient surface-relief gratings in hydrogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces1(6), 1183–1189 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev.102(11), 4139–4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, F. J.

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20(20), 6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, L.

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schönhense, G.

O. Buluy, S. Nepijko, V. Reshetnyak, E. Ouskova, V. Zadorozhnii, A. Leonhardt, M. Ritschel, G. Schönhense, and Yu. Reznikov, “Magnetic sensitivity of dispersion of aggregated ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes in liquid crystal,” Soft Matter7(2), 644–649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

S.-C. Hong, M. Oh-e, X. Zhuang, Y. R. Shen, J. J. Ge, F. W. Harris, and S. Z. D. Cheng, “Orientations of side chains and adsorbed liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyimide surface studied by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(5), 051706 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibaev, V.

V. Shibaev, A. Bobrovsky, and N. Boiko, “Photoactive liquid crystalline polymer systems with light-controllable structure and optical properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci.28(5), 729–836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shim, C.

Y. Lu, Y. J. Choi, H. S. Lim, D. Kwak, C. Shim, S. G. Lee, and K. Cho, “pH-Induced antireflection coatings derived from hydrogen-bonding-directed multilayer films,” Langmuir26(22), 17749–17755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishido, A.

J. Vapaavuori, V. Valtavirta, A. Priimagi, T. Alasaarela, J. Mamiya, A. Shishido, and M. Kaivola, “Efficient surface structuring and photoalignment of supramolecular polymer-azobenzene complexes through rational chromophore design,” J. Mater. Chem. (to be published).

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simoni, F.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slyusarenko, K.

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry peculiarities of surface-mediated liquid crystals gratings recorded due to light-induced anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Guo, Yu. Reznikov, K. Slyusarenko, and S. Kumar, “Dynamics of molecular exchange between aligning adsorbed film of liquid crystal and the bulk,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, L.

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X. W.

Tripathy, S.

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y.-T.

W.-Z. Chen, Y.-T. Tsai, and T.-H. Lin, “Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Valtavirta, V.

J. Vapaavuori, V. Valtavirta, A. Priimagi, T. Alasaarela, J. Mamiya, A. Shishido, and M. Kaivola, “Efficient surface structuring and photoalignment of supramolecular polymer-azobenzene complexes through rational chromophore design,” J. Mater. Chem. (to be published).

Vapaavuori, J.

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20(20), 6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vapaavuori, V. Valtavirta, A. Priimagi, T. Alasaarela, J. Mamiya, A. Shishido, and M. Kaivola, “Efficient surface structuring and photoalignment of supramolecular polymer-azobenzene complexes through rational chromophore design,” J. Mater. Chem. (to be published).

Viswanathan, N.

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-L.

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J.

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

S.-T. Wu, “Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.84(8), 4462–4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zadorozhnii, V.

O. Buluy, S. Nepijko, V. Reshetnyak, E. Ouskova, V. Zadorozhnii, A. Leonhardt, M. Ritschel, G. Schönhense, and Yu. Reznikov, “Magnetic sensitivity of dispersion of aggregated ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes in liquid crystal,” Soft Matter7(2), 644–649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, X.

S.-C. Hong, M. Oh-e, X. Zhuang, Y. R. Shen, J. J. Ge, F. W. Harris, and S. Z. D. Cheng, “Orientations of side chains and adsorbed liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyimide surface studied by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(5), 051706 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

A. Priimagi, K. Lindfors, M. Kaivola, and P. Rochon, “Efficient surface-relief gratings in hydrogen-bonded polymer-azobenzene complexes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces1(6), 1183–1189 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

C. F. J. Faul and M. Antonietti, “Ionic self-assembly: facile synthesis of supramolecular materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(9), 673–683 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. Guo, Yu. Reznikov, K. Slyusarenko, and S. Kumar, “Dynamics of molecular exchange between aligning adsorbed film of liquid crystal and the bulk,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(12), 121911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-C. Chen, S.-Y. Huang, and K.-T. Cheng, “Binary liquid crystal alignments based on photoalignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystals and their application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-Z. Chen, Y.-T. Tsai, and T.-H. Lin, “Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

A. Priimagi, J. Vapaavuori, F. J. Rodriguez, C. F. J. Faul, M. T. Heino, O. Ikkala, M. Kauranen, and M. Kaivola, “Hydrogen-bonded polymer–azobenzene complexes: enhanced photoinduced birefringence with high temporal stability through interplay of intermolecular interactions,” Chem. Mater.20(20), 6358–6363 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, “Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers,” Chem. Rev.102(11), 4139–4176 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.-T. Wu, “Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.84(8), 4462–4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

N. Viswanathan, D. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 1941–1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vapaavuori, V. Valtavirta, A. Priimagi, T. Alasaarela, J. Mamiya, A. Shishido, and M. Kaivola, “Efficient surface structuring and photoalignment of supramolecular polymer-azobenzene complexes through rational chromophore design,” J. Mater. Chem. (to be published).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Materials and rubbing dependence on azimuthal anchoring energy of rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B103(19), 3869–3871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

Y. Lu, Y. J. Choi, H. S. Lim, D. Kwak, C. Shim, S. G. Lee, and K. Cho, “pH-Induced antireflection coatings derived from hydrogen-bonding-directed multilayer films,” Langmuir26(22), 17749–17755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

E. Ouskova, O. Buchnev, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and H. Kresse, “Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric Sn2P2S6 nanoparticles,” Liq. Cryst.30(10), 1235–1239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (4)

E. Ouskova, O. Buluy, C. Blanc, H. Dietsch, and A. Mertelj, “Enhanced magneto-optical properties of suspensions of spindle type mono-dispersed hematite nano-particles in liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)525(1), 104–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Lysenko, S. Ksondzyk, L. Cseh, G. H. Mehl, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Strong cubic optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles suspension in nematic liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)545(1), 123/[1347]–132/[1356] (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Madhusudana and R. Pratibha, “Elasticity and orientational order in some cyanobiphenyls: Part IV. Reanalysis of the data,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)89(1-4), 249–257 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, N. Aryasova, V. Boichuk, D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, and Yu. Reznikov, “Asymmetry peculiarities of surface-mediated liquid crystals gratings recorded due to light-induced anchoring,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 43/[199]–52/[208] (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (6)

S.-C. Hong, M. Oh-e, X. Zhuang, Y. R. Shen, J. J. Ge, F. W. Harris, and S. Z. D. Cheng, “Orientations of side chains and adsorbed liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyimide surface studied by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(5), 051706 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Faetti and P. Marianelli, “Strong azimuthal anchoring energy at a nematic-polyimide interface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(5), 051708 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fedorenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, “Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: experiment and model,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(3), 031701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fedorenko, K. Slyusarenko, E. Ouskova, V. Reshetnyak, K.-R. Ha, R. Karapinar, and Yu. Reznikov, “Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.77(6), 061705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.63(2), 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(5), 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Polym. Sci. (1)

V. Shibaev, A. Bobrovsky, and N. Boiko, “Photoactive liquid crystalline polymer systems with light-controllable structure and optical properties,” Prog. Polym. Sci.28(5), 729–836 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soft Matter (1)

O. Buluy, S. Nepijko, V. Reshetnyak, E. Ouskova, V. Zadorozhnii, A. Leonhardt, M. Ritschel, G. Schönhense, and Yu. Reznikov, “Magnetic sensitivity of dispersion of aggregated ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes in liquid crystal,” Soft Matter7(2), 644–649 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

G. P. Crawford and S. Zumer, eds., Liquid Crystals in Complex Geometries (Taylor and Francis, 1996).

L.-C. Chien, M. N. Boyden, A. J. Walz, and C. M. Citano, “Recent advances in materials for polymer stabilized liquid crystals,” in ACS Symposium Series 632: Recent Advances in Liquid Crystalline Polymers, A. I. Isayev, ed. (1996), Chap. 11, p. 182.

polyimide poly(4,4'-oxydiphenylene-pyromellitimide was synthesized by I. Gerus (Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Ukraine), analogue to Kapton® from DuPont.

C. McArdle, ed., Side Chain Liquid Crystal Polymers (Blackie, 1989).

L. M. Blinov, Electro-Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 1983).

L. M. Blinov and V. G. Chigrinov, Electrooptic Effects in Liquid Crystal Materials (Springer, 1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structures of the liquid crystal 5CB (a), polymer P4VP (b), and azo-dye CHAB (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs of the LC cell obtained between crossed polarizers at 45° to the rubbing direction. The LC cell was filled with 5CB + 0.5% P4VP(CHAB)0.5. Time after the cell preparation: (a) 70 h, (b) 100 h, (c) 160 h, (d) 190 h, and (e) 220 h.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarized absorption spectra of 5CB doped with 0.5% P4VP(CHAB)0.5 just after filling the planar cell. The absorbance, A, was measured for light polarized parallel (||) and perpendicular ( ) to the LC director. λmax denotes the wavelength of maximum absorption of the azo-dye CHAB.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of maximum absorbance Amax (at λmax) of 5CB + 0.5% P4VP(CHAB)0.5 on the cell’s age. The measurements were done with light polarized parallel (||) and perpendicular ( ) to the rubbing direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A schematic view of the anchoring transition in the complex-doped liquid crystal in time. dLC – LC director.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The Phase Transition Temperature from Nematic to Isotropic State of the Pure, Dye-Doped, Polymer-Doped, and Complex-Doped LC Samples

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