Abstract

Results on the growth of highly organized, periodic microstructures on a copper substrate utilizing a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YVO4 laser at 532 nm are reported. At the laser energy fluence of ~2.5 J/cm2 (intensity of ~0.21 GW/cm2) arrays of microstructures with average periods ranging from ~40 μm to ~80 μm, depending on the distance between the consecutive laser scans, are generated. The employed technique for irradiating copper and the mechanism for formation of the highly organized microstructures are discussed.

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2009

B. Wu, M. Zhou, J. Li, X. Ye, G. Li, and L. Cai, “Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by microstructuring of stainless steel using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(1), 61–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, J. P. Ulerich, E. Abelev, A. Fasasi, C. B. Arnold, and W. O. Soboyejo, “An investigation of the initial attachment and orientation of osteoblast-like cells on laser grooved Ti-6Al-4V surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C29(4), 1442–1452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Abdolvand, R. Lloyd, M. Schmidt, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Formation of highly organized, periodic microstructures on steel surfaces upon pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(2), 447–452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Lloyd, A. Abdolvand, M. Schmidt, P. Crouse, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Laser-assisted generation of self-assembled microstructures on stainless steel,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 117–122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. I. Dolgaev, N. A. Kirichenko, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Laser-assisted growth of microstructures on spatially confined substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(19), 7987–7991 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

N. S. Murthy, R. D. Prabhu, J. J. Martin, L. Zhou, and R. L. Headrick, “Self-assembled and etched cones on laser ablated polymer surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 023538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Dolgaev, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, J. L. Morenza, P. Serra, and G. A. Shafeev, “Growth of large microcones in steel under multipulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.83(3), 417–420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of periodic structures by laser ablation of metals in liquids,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(13), 4457–4461 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. György, A. P. Pino, P. Serra, and J. L. Morenza, “Laser-induced growth of titanium nitride microcolumns on biased titanium targets,” J. Mater. Res.20(01), 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Starikov, C. Boney, R. Pillai, A. Bensaoula, G. A. Shafeev, and A. V. Simakin, “Spectral and surface analysis of heated micro-column arrays fabricated by laser-assisted surface modification,” Infrared Phys. Technol.45(3), 159–167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bensaoula, C. Boney, R. Pillai, G. A. Shafeev, A. V. Simakin, and D. Starikov, “Arrays of 3D micro-columns generated by laser ablation of Ta and steel: modelling of a black body emitter,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 973–975 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(2), 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. H. Lowndes, “Laser ablation and column formation in silicon under oxygen-rich atmospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(19), 3018–30121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kántor, Zs. Geretovszky, and T. Szorenyi, “The effect of target temperature on the deterioration of metal surfaces under pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154–155(1-4), 78–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. F. Silvain, H. Niino, S. Ono, S. Nakaoka, and A. Yebe, “Surface modification of elastomerrcarbon composite by Nd:YAG laser and KrF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.141(1-2), 25–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Heitz, J. D. Pedarnig, D. Bäuerle, and G. Petzow, “Excimer-laser ablation and micro-patterning of ceramic Si3N4,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.65(3), 259–261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegenhausen, “Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets,” Opt. Commun.129(1-2), 134–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. J. Krajnovich and J. E. Vazquez, “Formation of intrinsic surface defects during 248 nm photoablation of polyimide,” J. Appl. Phys.73(6), 3001–3008 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. E. Dyer, S. D. Jenkins, and J. Sidhu, “Development and origin of conical structures on XeCl laser ablated polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(8), 453–455 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emelyanov, N. I. Koroteev, and V. N. Seminogov, “Interaction of powerful laser radiation with the surfaces of semiconductors and metals: nonlinear optical effects and nonlinear optical diagnostics,” Sov. Phys. Usp.28(12), 1084–1124 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Kelly and J. E. Rothenberg, “Laser sputtering. Part III. The mechanism of the sputtering of metals low energy densities,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B7-8, 755–763 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1969

T. J. Bastow, “Ordering of microcraters produced by a laser on a metal surface,” Nature222(5198), 1058–1060 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abdolvand, A.

A. Abdolvand, R. Lloyd, M. Schmidt, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Formation of highly organized, periodic microstructures on steel surfaces upon pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(2), 447–452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lloyd, A. Abdolvand, M. Schmidt, P. Crouse, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Laser-assisted generation of self-assembled microstructures on stainless steel,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 117–122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Abelev, E.

J. Chen, J. P. Ulerich, E. Abelev, A. Fasasi, C. B. Arnold, and W. O. Soboyejo, “An investigation of the initial attachment and orientation of osteoblast-like cells on laser grooved Ti-6Al-4V surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C29(4), 1442–1452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emelyanov, N. I. Koroteev, and V. N. Seminogov, “Interaction of powerful laser radiation with the surfaces of semiconductors and metals: nonlinear optical effects and nonlinear optical diagnostics,” Sov. Phys. Usp.28(12), 1084–1124 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. B.

J. Chen, J. P. Ulerich, E. Abelev, A. Fasasi, C. B. Arnold, and W. O. Soboyejo, “An investigation of the initial attachment and orientation of osteoblast-like cells on laser grooved Ti-6Al-4V surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C29(4), 1442–1452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bastow, T. J.

T. J. Bastow, “Ordering of microcraters produced by a laser on a metal surface,” Nature222(5198), 1058–1060 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bäuerle, D.

J. Heitz, J. D. Pedarnig, D. Bäuerle, and G. Petzow, “Excimer-laser ablation and micro-patterning of ceramic Si3N4,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.65(3), 259–261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bensaoula, A.

A. Bensaoula, C. Boney, R. Pillai, G. A. Shafeev, A. V. Simakin, and D. Starikov, “Arrays of 3D micro-columns generated by laser ablation of Ta and steel: modelling of a black body emitter,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 973–975 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Starikov, C. Boney, R. Pillai, A. Bensaoula, G. A. Shafeev, and A. V. Simakin, “Spectral and surface analysis of heated micro-column arrays fabricated by laser-assisted surface modification,” Infrared Phys. Technol.45(3), 159–167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boney, C.

D. Starikov, C. Boney, R. Pillai, A. Bensaoula, G. A. Shafeev, and A. V. Simakin, “Spectral and surface analysis of heated micro-column arrays fabricated by laser-assisted surface modification,” Infrared Phys. Technol.45(3), 159–167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Bensaoula, C. Boney, R. Pillai, G. A. Shafeev, A. V. Simakin, and D. Starikov, “Arrays of 3D micro-columns generated by laser ablation of Ta and steel: modelling of a black body emitter,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 973–975 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cai, L.

B. Wu, M. Zhou, J. Li, X. Ye, G. Li, and L. Cai, “Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by microstructuring of stainless steel using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(1), 61–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, J. P. Ulerich, E. Abelev, A. Fasasi, C. B. Arnold, and W. O. Soboyejo, “An investigation of the initial attachment and orientation of osteoblast-like cells on laser grooved Ti-6Al-4V surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C29(4), 1442–1452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegenhausen, “Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets,” Opt. Commun.129(1-2), 134–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crouse, P.

R. Lloyd, A. Abdolvand, M. Schmidt, P. Crouse, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Laser-assisted generation of self-assembled microstructures on stainless steel,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 117–122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deliwala, S.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dolgaev, S. I.

S. I. Dolgaev, N. A. Kirichenko, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Laser-assisted growth of microstructures on spatially confined substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(19), 7987–7991 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Dolgaev, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, J. L. Morenza, P. Serra, and G. A. Shafeev, “Growth of large microcones in steel under multipulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.83(3), 417–420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(2), 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, S. D. Jenkins, and J. Sidhu, “Development and origin of conical structures on XeCl laser ablated polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(8), 453–455 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Emelyanov, V. I.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emelyanov, N. I. Koroteev, and V. N. Seminogov, “Interaction of powerful laser radiation with the surfaces of semiconductors and metals: nonlinear optical effects and nonlinear optical diagnostics,” Sov. Phys. Usp.28(12), 1084–1124 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fasasi, A.

J. Chen, J. P. Ulerich, E. Abelev, A. Fasasi, C. B. Arnold, and W. O. Soboyejo, “An investigation of the initial attachment and orientation of osteoblast-like cells on laser grooved Ti-6Al-4V surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C29(4), 1442–1452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Pradas, J. M.

S. I. Dolgaev, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, J. L. Morenza, P. Serra, and G. A. Shafeev, “Growth of large microcones in steel under multipulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.83(3), 417–420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fowlkes, J. D.

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. H. Lowndes, “Laser ablation and column formation in silicon under oxygen-rich atmospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(19), 3018–30121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geretovszky, Zs.

Z. Kántor, Zs. Geretovszky, and T. Szorenyi, “The effect of target temperature on the deterioration of metal surfaces under pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154–155(1-4), 78–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

György, E.

E. György, A. P. Pino, P. Serra, and J. L. Morenza, “Laser-induced growth of titanium nitride microcolumns on biased titanium targets,” J. Mater. Res.20(01), 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Headrick, R. L.

N. S. Murthy, R. D. Prabhu, J. J. Martin, L. Zhou, and R. L. Headrick, “Self-assembled and etched cones on laser ablated polymer surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 023538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heitz, J.

J. Heitz, J. D. Pedarnig, D. Bäuerle, and G. Petzow, “Excimer-laser ablation and micro-patterning of ceramic Si3N4,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.65(3), 259–261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Her, T.-H.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, S. D.

P. E. Dyer, S. D. Jenkins, and J. Sidhu, “Development and origin of conical structures on XeCl laser ablated polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(8), 453–455 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kántor, Z.

Z. Kántor, Zs. Geretovszky, and T. Szorenyi, “The effect of target temperature on the deterioration of metal surfaces under pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154–155(1-4), 78–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kazakevich, P. V.

P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of periodic structures by laser ablation of metals in liquids,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(13), 4457–4461 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, R.

R. Kelly and J. E. Rothenberg, “Laser sputtering. Part III. The mechanism of the sputtering of metals low energy densities,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B7-8, 755–763 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kirichenko, N. A.

S. I. Dolgaev, N. A. Kirichenko, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Laser-assisted growth of microstructures on spatially confined substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(19), 7987–7991 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koroteev, N. I.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emelyanov, N. I. Koroteev, and V. N. Seminogov, “Interaction of powerful laser radiation with the surfaces of semiconductors and metals: nonlinear optical effects and nonlinear optical diagnostics,” Sov. Phys. Usp.28(12), 1084–1124 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Krajnovich, D. J.

D. J. Krajnovich and J. E. Vazquez, “Formation of intrinsic surface defects during 248 nm photoablation of polyimide,” J. Appl. Phys.73(6), 3001–3008 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lavrishev, S. V.

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(2), 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

B. Wu, M. Zhou, J. Li, X. Ye, G. Li, and L. Cai, “Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by microstructuring of stainless steel using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(1), 61–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

B. Wu, M. Zhou, J. Li, X. Ye, G. Li, and L. Cai, “Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by microstructuring of stainless steel using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(1), 61–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

A. Abdolvand, R. Lloyd, M. Schmidt, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Formation of highly organized, periodic microstructures on steel surfaces upon pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(2), 447–452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lloyd, A. Abdolvand, M. Schmidt, P. Crouse, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Laser-assisted generation of self-assembled microstructures on stainless steel,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 117–122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

A. Abdolvand, R. Lloyd, M. Schmidt, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Formation of highly organized, periodic microstructures on steel surfaces upon pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(2), 447–452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lloyd, A. Abdolvand, M. Schmidt, P. Crouse, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Laser-assisted generation of self-assembled microstructures on stainless steel,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 117–122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd, R.

A. Abdolvand, R. Lloyd, M. Schmidt, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Formation of highly organized, periodic microstructures on steel surfaces upon pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(2), 447–452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lloyd, A. Abdolvand, M. Schmidt, P. Crouse, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Laser-assisted generation of self-assembled microstructures on stainless steel,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 117–122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lowndes, D. H.

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. H. Lowndes, “Laser ablation and column formation in silicon under oxygen-rich atmospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(19), 3018–30121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lyalin, A. A.

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(2), 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. J.

N. S. Murthy, R. D. Prabhu, J. J. Martin, L. Zhou, and R. L. Headrick, “Self-assembled and etched cones on laser ablated polymer surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 023538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Momma, C.

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegenhausen, “Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets,” Opt. Commun.129(1-2), 134–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morenza, J. L.

S. I. Dolgaev, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, J. L. Morenza, P. Serra, and G. A. Shafeev, “Growth of large microcones in steel under multipulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.83(3), 417–420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. György, A. P. Pino, P. Serra, and J. L. Morenza, “Laser-induced growth of titanium nitride microcolumns on biased titanium targets,” J. Mater. Res.20(01), 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, N. S.

N. S. Murthy, R. D. Prabhu, J. J. Martin, L. Zhou, and R. L. Headrick, “Self-assembled and etched cones on laser ablated polymer surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 023538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakaoka, S.

J. F. Silvain, H. Niino, S. Ono, S. Nakaoka, and A. Yebe, “Surface modification of elastomerrcarbon composite by Nd:YAG laser and KrF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.141(1-2), 25–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niino, H.

J. F. Silvain, H. Niino, S. Ono, S. Nakaoka, and A. Yebe, “Surface modification of elastomerrcarbon composite by Nd:YAG laser and KrF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.141(1-2), 25–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegenhausen, “Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets,” Opt. Commun.129(1-2), 134–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ono, S.

J. F. Silvain, H. Niino, S. Ono, S. Nakaoka, and A. Yebe, “Surface modification of elastomerrcarbon composite by Nd:YAG laser and KrF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.141(1-2), 25–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pedarnig, J. D.

J. Heitz, J. D. Pedarnig, D. Bäuerle, and G. Petzow, “Excimer-laser ablation and micro-patterning of ceramic Si3N4,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.65(3), 259–261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pedraza, A. J.

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. H. Lowndes, “Laser ablation and column formation in silicon under oxygen-rich atmospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(19), 3018–30121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petzow, G.

J. Heitz, J. D. Pedarnig, D. Bäuerle, and G. Petzow, “Excimer-laser ablation and micro-patterning of ceramic Si3N4,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.65(3), 259–261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, R.

A. Bensaoula, C. Boney, R. Pillai, G. A. Shafeev, A. V. Simakin, and D. Starikov, “Arrays of 3D micro-columns generated by laser ablation of Ta and steel: modelling of a black body emitter,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 973–975 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Starikov, C. Boney, R. Pillai, A. Bensaoula, G. A. Shafeev, and A. V. Simakin, “Spectral and surface analysis of heated micro-column arrays fabricated by laser-assisted surface modification,” Infrared Phys. Technol.45(3), 159–167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pino, A. P.

E. György, A. P. Pino, P. Serra, and J. L. Morenza, “Laser-induced growth of titanium nitride microcolumns on biased titanium targets,” J. Mater. Res.20(01), 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prabhu, R. D.

N. S. Murthy, R. D. Prabhu, J. J. Martin, L. Zhou, and R. L. Headrick, “Self-assembled and etched cones on laser ablated polymer surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 023538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. S.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J. E.

R. Kelly and J. E. Rothenberg, “Laser sputtering. Part III. The mechanism of the sputtering of metals low energy densities,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B7-8, 755–763 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

A. Abdolvand, R. Lloyd, M. Schmidt, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Formation of highly organized, periodic microstructures on steel surfaces upon pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(2), 447–452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lloyd, A. Abdolvand, M. Schmidt, P. Crouse, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Laser-assisted generation of self-assembled microstructures on stainless steel,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 117–122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seminogov, V. N.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emelyanov, N. I. Koroteev, and V. N. Seminogov, “Interaction of powerful laser radiation with the surfaces of semiconductors and metals: nonlinear optical effects and nonlinear optical diagnostics,” Sov. Phys. Usp.28(12), 1084–1124 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Serra, P.

S. I. Dolgaev, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, J. L. Morenza, P. Serra, and G. A. Shafeev, “Growth of large microcones in steel under multipulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.83(3), 417–420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. György, A. P. Pino, P. Serra, and J. L. Morenza, “Laser-induced growth of titanium nitride microcolumns on biased titanium targets,” J. Mater. Res.20(01), 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shafeev, G. A.

S. I. Dolgaev, N. A. Kirichenko, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Laser-assisted growth of microstructures on spatially confined substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(19), 7987–7991 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of periodic structures by laser ablation of metals in liquids,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(13), 4457–4461 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Dolgaev, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, J. L. Morenza, P. Serra, and G. A. Shafeev, “Growth of large microcones in steel under multipulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.83(3), 417–420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bensaoula, C. Boney, R. Pillai, G. A. Shafeev, A. V. Simakin, and D. Starikov, “Arrays of 3D micro-columns generated by laser ablation of Ta and steel: modelling of a black body emitter,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 973–975 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Starikov, C. Boney, R. Pillai, A. Bensaoula, G. A. Shafeev, and A. V. Simakin, “Spectral and surface analysis of heated micro-column arrays fabricated by laser-assisted surface modification,” Infrared Phys. Technol.45(3), 159–167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(2), 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sidhu, J.

P. E. Dyer, S. D. Jenkins, and J. Sidhu, “Development and origin of conical structures on XeCl laser ablated polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(8), 453–455 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Silvain, J. F.

J. F. Silvain, H. Niino, S. Ono, S. Nakaoka, and A. Yebe, “Surface modification of elastomerrcarbon composite by Nd:YAG laser and KrF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.141(1-2), 25–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Simakin, A. V.

S. I. Dolgaev, N. A. Kirichenko, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Laser-assisted growth of microstructures on spatially confined substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(19), 7987–7991 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of periodic structures by laser ablation of metals in liquids,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(13), 4457–4461 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bensaoula, C. Boney, R. Pillai, G. A. Shafeev, A. V. Simakin, and D. Starikov, “Arrays of 3D micro-columns generated by laser ablation of Ta and steel: modelling of a black body emitter,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 973–975 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Starikov, C. Boney, R. Pillai, A. Bensaoula, G. A. Shafeev, and A. V. Simakin, “Spectral and surface analysis of heated micro-column arrays fabricated by laser-assisted surface modification,” Infrared Phys. Technol.45(3), 159–167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(2), 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Soboyejo, W. O.

J. Chen, J. P. Ulerich, E. Abelev, A. Fasasi, C. B. Arnold, and W. O. Soboyejo, “An investigation of the initial attachment and orientation of osteoblast-like cells on laser grooved Ti-6Al-4V surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C29(4), 1442–1452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Starikov, D.

A. Bensaoula, C. Boney, R. Pillai, G. A. Shafeev, A. V. Simakin, and D. Starikov, “Arrays of 3D micro-columns generated by laser ablation of Ta and steel: modelling of a black body emitter,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 973–975 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Starikov, C. Boney, R. Pillai, A. Bensaoula, G. A. Shafeev, and A. V. Simakin, “Spectral and surface analysis of heated micro-column arrays fabricated by laser-assisted surface modification,” Infrared Phys. Technol.45(3), 159–167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Szorenyi, T.

Z. Kántor, Zs. Geretovszky, and T. Szorenyi, “The effect of target temperature on the deterioration of metal surfaces under pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154–155(1-4), 78–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegenhausen, “Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets,” Opt. Commun.129(1-2), 134–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ulerich, J. P.

J. Chen, J. P. Ulerich, E. Abelev, A. Fasasi, C. B. Arnold, and W. O. Soboyejo, “An investigation of the initial attachment and orientation of osteoblast-like cells on laser grooved Ti-6Al-4V surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C29(4), 1442–1452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez, J. E.

D. J. Krajnovich and J. E. Vazquez, “Formation of intrinsic surface defects during 248 nm photoablation of polyimide,” J. Appl. Phys.73(6), 3001–3008 (1993).
[CrossRef]

von Alvensleben, F.

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegenhausen, “Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets,” Opt. Commun.129(1-2), 134–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, V. V.

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(2), 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wellegenhausen, B.

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegenhausen, “Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets,” Opt. Commun.129(1-2), 134–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegenhausen, “Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets,” Opt. Commun.129(1-2), 134–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, D.

A. Abdolvand, R. Lloyd, M. Schmidt, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Formation of highly organized, periodic microstructures on steel surfaces upon pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(2), 447–452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lloyd, A. Abdolvand, M. Schmidt, P. Crouse, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Laser-assisted generation of self-assembled microstructures on stainless steel,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 117–122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

B. Wu, M. Zhou, J. Li, X. Ye, G. Li, and L. Cai, “Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by microstructuring of stainless steel using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(1), 61–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ye, X.

B. Wu, M. Zhou, J. Li, X. Ye, G. Li, and L. Cai, “Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by microstructuring of stainless steel using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(1), 61–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yebe, A.

J. F. Silvain, H. Niino, S. Ono, S. Nakaoka, and A. Yebe, “Surface modification of elastomerrcarbon composite by Nd:YAG laser and KrF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.141(1-2), 25–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

N. S. Murthy, R. D. Prabhu, J. J. Martin, L. Zhou, and R. L. Headrick, “Self-assembled and etched cones on laser ablated polymer surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 023538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, M.

B. Wu, M. Zhou, J. Li, X. Ye, G. Li, and L. Cai, “Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by microstructuring of stainless steel using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(1), 61–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. E. Dyer, S. D. Jenkins, and J. Sidhu, “Development and origin of conical structures on XeCl laser ablated polyimide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(8), 453–455 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. H. Lowndes, “Laser ablation and column formation in silicon under oxygen-rich atmospheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(19), 3018–30121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

R. Lloyd, A. Abdolvand, M. Schmidt, P. Crouse, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Laser-assisted generation of self-assembled microstructures on stainless steel,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 117–122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Dolgaev, S. V. Lavrishev, A. A. Lyalin, A. V. Simakin, V. V. Voronov, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of conical microstructures upon laser evaporation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.73(2), 177–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Dolgaev, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, J. L. Morenza, P. Serra, and G. A. Shafeev, “Growth of large microcones in steel under multipulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.83(3), 417–420 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bensaoula, C. Boney, R. Pillai, G. A. Shafeev, A. V. Simakin, and D. Starikov, “Arrays of 3D micro-columns generated by laser ablation of Ta and steel: modelling of a black body emitter,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4-6), 973–975 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Heitz, J. D. Pedarnig, D. Bäuerle, and G. Petzow, “Excimer-laser ablation and micro-patterning of ceramic Si3N4,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.65(3), 259–261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Abdolvand, R. Lloyd, M. Schmidt, D. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Formation of highly organized, periodic microstructures on steel surfaces upon pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(2), 447–452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

B. Wu, M. Zhou, J. Li, X. Ye, G. Li, and L. Cai, “Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by microstructuring of stainless steel using a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(1), 61–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kántor, Zs. Geretovszky, and T. Szorenyi, “The effect of target temperature on the deterioration of metal surfaces under pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154–155(1-4), 78–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Silvain, H. Niino, S. Ono, S. Nakaoka, and A. Yebe, “Surface modification of elastomerrcarbon composite by Nd:YAG laser and KrF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.141(1-2), 25–34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Dolgaev, N. A. Kirichenko, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Laser-assisted growth of microstructures on spatially confined substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(19), 7987–7991 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Kazakevich, A. V. Simakin, and G. A. Shafeev, “Formation of periodic structures by laser ablation of metals in liquids,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(13), 4457–4461 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol.

D. Starikov, C. Boney, R. Pillai, A. Bensaoula, G. A. Shafeev, and A. V. Simakin, “Spectral and surface analysis of heated micro-column arrays fabricated by laser-assisted surface modification,” Infrared Phys. Technol.45(3), 159–167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. S. Murthy, R. D. Prabhu, J. J. Martin, L. Zhou, and R. L. Headrick, “Self-assembled and etched cones on laser ablated polymer surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 023538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Krajnovich and J. E. Vazquez, “Formation of intrinsic surface defects during 248 nm photoablation of polyimide,” J. Appl. Phys.73(6), 3001–3008 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res.

E. György, A. P. Pino, P. Serra, and J. L. Morenza, “Laser-induced growth of titanium nitride microcolumns on biased titanium targets,” J. Mater. Res.20(01), 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. C

J. Chen, J. P. Ulerich, E. Abelev, A. Fasasi, C. B. Arnold, and W. O. Soboyejo, “An investigation of the initial attachment and orientation of osteoblast-like cells on laser grooved Ti-6Al-4V surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C29(4), 1442–1452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. J. Bastow, “Ordering of microcraters produced by a laser on a metal surface,” Nature222(5198), 1058–1060 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

R. Kelly and J. E. Rothenberg, “Laser sputtering. Part III. The mechanism of the sputtering of metals low energy densities,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B7-8, 755–763 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. Momma, B. N. Chichkov, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tunnermann, H. Welling, and B. Wellegenhausen, “Short-pulse laser ablation of solid targets,” Opt. Commun.129(1-2), 134–142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Usp.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emelyanov, N. I. Koroteev, and V. N. Seminogov, “Interaction of powerful laser radiation with the surfaces of semiconductors and metals: nonlinear optical effects and nonlinear optical diagnostics,” Sov. Phys. Usp.28(12), 1084–1124 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. R. Foltyn, Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films, D. B. Christy and G. K. Huber, eds. (Wiley, 1994).

S. I. Anisimov and V. A. Khokhlov, Instabilities in Laser-Matter Interaction (CRC Press, Inc., 1995).

J. P. Holman, Heat Transfer, 9th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

W. M. Steen and J. Mazumder, Laser Material Processing, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2010).

D. Bäuerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2000).

M. von Allmen and A. Blatter, Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Line-hatching (LH) regime for scanning the laser beam over the surface of the copper foil. (b) The cross-hatching (CH) regime where the lasers beam was scanned in both horizontal and vertical directions, to form a grid pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) and (b) are the surface and cross-section of copper after irradiation using laser fluence of ~2 J/cm2. (c) and (d) are the surface and cross-section of the target after irradiation using laser fluence of ~2.5 J/cm2. In both cases the LH regime was employed, the hatch distance is 80 µm, and 1800 pulses per spot were fired onto the target. The depth of the grooves in (d) were measured to be ~77 µm from the original surface of the target. Some structures in the form of melt can be seen on the original surface of the metal and next to the grooves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscope images of the surface after laser irradiation at 2.5 J/cm2 in the LH regime. The hatch distances were varied from (a) to (d) in steps of 10 µm. The hatch distances are 40, 50, 60 and 70 µm form (a) to (d), respectively. In all cases the number of pulses fired per spot is 1800.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microscope images of the copper surface after laser structuring in the CH regime. The laser beam scanned over the surface in both horizontal and vertical directions. In each direction 1800 pulses per spot were fired onto the target. In both directions and in each area, the hatch distance was fixed between the scanned lines. The hatch distances are 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 µm for (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f), respectively.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R= π ϕ 2 4 M 2 λ .
N= ϕf V .
L T 2 Dτ ,

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