Abstract

Optical enhancement is demonstrated in a bilayer P3HT-C60 solar cell by embedding gold nanoparticles directly into the P3HT layer of the photovoltaic device. FDTD simulations are used to model the observed performance gain. A qualitative agreement between the experimental and numerical results is achieved. This validates the numerical model and the simulation is subsequently extended to predict the performance gain of the bilayer device constructed with thinner P3HT layer. The numerical results reveal that the plasmonic structure has even larger effect on such thinner bilayer device. The enhancement is expected to be most significant when the p-n interface is allowed to assume the conformal hemispherical profile of the metal particles.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, and K. Ostrikov, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells through the excitation of higher-order nanoparticle plasmon modes,” Opt. Express17(12), 10195–10205 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. Li, N. P. Hylton, V. Giannini, K. H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, “Bridging electromagnetic and carrier transport calculations for three-dimensional modelling of plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express19(S4), A888–A896 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S.-S. Kim, S.-I. Na, J. Jo, D.-Y. Kim, and Y.-C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. J. Morfa, T. H. Reilly, J. C. Johnson, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmons in solar energy conversion,” (SPIE Newsroom, 2009), http://spie.org/x35474.xml?ArticleID=x35474 .
  8. T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic backcontact grating for P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells enabling strong optical absorption increased in all polarizations,” Opt. Express19(15), 14200–14209 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Bai, Q. Gan, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Kafafi, and F. Bartoli, “Broadband short-range surface plasmon structures for absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaics,” Opt. Express18(S4), A620–A630 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. N. Lal, B. F. Soares, J. K. Sinha, F. Huang, S. Mahajan, P. N. Bartlett, N. C. Greenham, and J. J. Baumberg, “Enhancing solar cells with localized plasmons in nanovoids,” Opt. Express19(12), 11256–11263 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. O. Reese, A. J. Morfa, M. S. White, N. Kopidakis, S. E. Shaheen, G. Rumbles, and D. S. Ginley, “Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM based devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 746–752 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. N. Saeta, B. I. Greene, A. R. Kortan, N. Kopylov, and F. A. Thiel, “Optical studies of single-crystal C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett.190(3-4), 184–186 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, and K. Ostrikov, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells through the excitation of higher-order nanoparticle plasmon modes,” Opt. Express17(12), 10195–10205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Kim, S.-I. Na, J. Jo, D.-Y. Kim, and Y.-C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Reese, A. J. Morfa, M. S. White, N. Kopidakis, S. E. Shaheen, G. Rumbles, and D. S. Ginley, “Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM based devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 746–752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. N. Saeta, B. I. Greene, A. R. Kortan, N. Kopylov, and F. A. Thiel, “Optical studies of single-crystal C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett.190(3-4), 184–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, Y. A.

Atwater, H. A.

Bai, W.

Bartlett, P. N.

Bartoli, F.

Baumberg, J. J.

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Demir, H. V.

Duche, D.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ekins-Daukes, N. J.

Escoubas, L.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

Flory, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Q.

Giannini, V.

Ginley, D. S.

M. O. Reese, A. J. Morfa, M. S. White, N. Kopidakis, S. E. Shaheen, G. Rumbles, and D. S. Ginley, “Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM based devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 746–752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Greene, B. I.

P. N. Saeta, B. I. Greene, A. R. Kortan, N. Kopylov, and F. A. Thiel, “Optical studies of single-crystal C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett.190(3-4), 184–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Greenham, N. C.

Huang, F.

Hylton, N. P.

Jo, J.

S.-S. Kim, S.-I. Na, J. Jo, D.-Y. Kim, and Y.-C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kafafi, Z.

Kim, D.-Y.

S.-S. Kim, S.-I. Na, J. Jo, D.-Y. Kim, and Y.-C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-S.

S.-S. Kim, S.-I. Na, J. Jo, D.-Y. Kim, and Y.-C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koh, W. S.

Kopidakis, N.

M. O. Reese, A. J. Morfa, M. S. White, N. Kopidakis, S. E. Shaheen, G. Rumbles, and D. S. Ginley, “Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM based devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 746–752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kopylov, N.

P. N. Saeta, B. I. Greene, A. R. Kortan, N. Kopylov, and F. A. Thiel, “Optical studies of single-crystal C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett.190(3-4), 184–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kortan, A. R.

P. N. Saeta, B. I. Greene, A. R. Kortan, N. Kopylov, and F. A. Thiel, “Optical studies of single-crystal C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett.190(3-4), 184–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lal, N. N.

Lee, K. H.

Li, H. B.

Li, X.

Mahajan, S.

Maier, S. A.

Mathian, G.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monestier, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morfa, A. J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Reese, A. J. Morfa, M. S. White, N. Kopidakis, S. E. Shaheen, G. Rumbles, and D. S. Ginley, “Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM based devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 746–752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Na, S.-I.

S.-S. Kim, S.-I. Na, J. Jo, D.-Y. Kim, and Y.-C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nah, Y.-C.

S.-S. Kim, S.-I. Na, J. Jo, D.-Y. Kim, and Y.-C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A. K.

Ostrikov, K.

Polman, A.

Reese, M. O.

M. O. Reese, A. J. Morfa, M. S. White, N. Kopidakis, S. E. Shaheen, G. Rumbles, and D. S. Ginley, “Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM based devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 746–752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, T. H.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Romero, M. J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rowlen, K. L.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rumbles, G.

M. O. Reese, A. J. Morfa, M. S. White, N. Kopidakis, S. E. Shaheen, G. Rumbles, and D. S. Ginley, “Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM based devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 746–752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saeta, P. N.

P. N. Saeta, B. I. Greene, A. R. Kortan, N. Kopylov, and F. A. Thiel, “Optical studies of single-crystal C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett.190(3-4), 184–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, R. E.

Sefunc, M. A.

Shaheen, S. E.

M. O. Reese, A. J. Morfa, M. S. White, N. Kopidakis, S. E. Shaheen, G. Rumbles, and D. S. Ginley, “Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM based devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 746–752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.-J.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, J. K.

Soares, B. F.

Song, G.

Tenent, R. C.

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, F. A.

P. N. Saeta, B. I. Greene, A. R. Kortan, N. Kopylov, and F. A. Thiel, “Optical studies of single-crystal C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett.190(3-4), 184–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van de Lagemaat, J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Verschuuren, M. A.

Walters, R. J.

White, M. S.

M. O. Reese, A. J. Morfa, M. S. White, N. Kopidakis, S. E. Shaheen, G. Rumbles, and D. S. Ginley, “Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM based devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 746–752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Kim, S.-I. Na, J. Jo, D.-Y. Kim, and Y.-C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Reilly, J. van de Lagemaat, R. C. Tenent, A. J. Morfa, and K. L. Rowlen, “Surface-plasmon enhanced transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 243304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

P. N. Saeta, B. I. Greene, A. R. Kortan, N. Kopylov, and F. A. Thiel, “Optical studies of single-crystal C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett.190(3-4), 184–186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, and K. Ostrikov, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells through the excitation of higher-order nanoparticle plasmon modes,” Opt. Express17(12), 10195–10205 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, N. P. Hylton, V. Giannini, K. H. Lee, N. J. Ekins-Daukes, and S. A. Maier, “Bridging electromagnetic and carrier transport calculations for three-dimensional modelling of plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express19(S4), A888–A896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Sefunc, A. K. Okyay, and H. V. Demir, “Plasmonic backcontact grating for P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells enabling strong optical absorption increased in all polarizations,” Opt. Express19(15), 14200–14209 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bai, Q. Gan, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Kafafi, and F. Bartoli, “Broadband short-range surface plasmon structures for absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaics,” Opt. Express18(S4), A620–A630 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Lal, B. F. Soares, J. K. Sinha, F. Huang, S. Mahajan, P. N. Bartlett, N. C. Greenham, and J. J. Baumberg, “Enhancing solar cells with localized plasmons in nanovoids,” Opt. Express19(12), 11256–11263 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

M. O. Reese, A. J. Morfa, M. S. White, N. Kopidakis, S. E. Shaheen, G. Rumbles, and D. S. Ginley, “Pathways for the degradation of organic photovoltaic P3HT:PCBM based devices,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells92(7), 746–752 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. J. Morfa, T. H. Reilly, J. C. Johnson, and J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmons in solar energy conversion,” (SPIE Newsroom, 2009), http://spie.org/x35474.xml?ArticleID=x35474 .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the fabricated organic solar cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM image of the gold nanoparticles evaporated onto the PEDOT:PSS layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

I-V characteristic of solar cells without and with gold nanoparticles. Thickness of the P3HT layer was 140 nm. Four closely spaced curves represent four separate solar cells with and without nanoparticles, respectively (the cells are shown in the inset).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorbance difference corrected for reflection with respect to the case without nanoparticles. The inset compares the experimental EQE against the FDTD result.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorbance difference corrected for reflection with respect to the case without nanoparticles for thinner 40 nm P3HT layer and 35 nm depletion zone.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance of the Solar Cells: A) without and B) with Gold Nanoparticles

Equations (1)

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A=( 1 P R ) P B P A P B

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