Abstract

We report on the first synthesis and structural characterizations of a new Erbium (Er) compound, the erbium chloride silicate (ECS, Er3Cl(SiO4)2) single crystal in a Si-ECS core-shell nanowire form. The Er-concentration in ECS at 1.6x1022 cm−3 is three orders of magnitude higher than that of the Er-doped materials. Photoluminescence spectra at both low and room temperatures exhibit well separated sharp emission lines in the near infrared region. The new single-crystal erbium-compound nanowires provide a unique Si-compatible material for high-gain light emission in communication wavelength and for many other photonic applications.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Pacelli, and A. Lacaita, “Direct evidence of impact excitation and spatial profiling of excited Er in light emitting Si diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(1), 93–95 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Wang and J. L. Coffer, “Erbium surface-enriched silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(11), 1303–1305 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. St. John, J. L. Coffer, Y. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.121(9), 1888–1892 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. G. Elliman, A. R. Wilkinson, T. H. Kim, P. K. Sekhar, and S. Bhansali, “Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 104304 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Sun, W. J. Xu, B. Zhang, L. P. You, G. Z. Ran, and G. G. Qin, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence through amorphous Si nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology19(10), 105708 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Yada, M. Mihara, S. Mouri, M. Kuroki, and T. Kijima, “Rare earth (Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) oxide nanotubes templated by dodecylsulfate assemblies,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(4), 309–313 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Miritello, M. Lo Savio, A. M. Piro, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Optical and structural properties of Er2O3 films grown by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.100(1), 013502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Thommen and P. Mandel, “Left-handed properties of erbium-doped crystals,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1803–1805 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Lauritzen, J. Minár, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(8), 080502 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Huber, C. Kränkel, and K. Petermann, “Solid-state lasers: status and future,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(11), B93–B105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(4), 288–292 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+–Er3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(5), 833–839 (2000).
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  16. P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Cooperative upconversion as the gain-limiting factor in Er doped miniature Al2O3 optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Appl. Phys.93(9), 5008–5012 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Carrada, F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, and R. Rizk, “Influence of Er concentration on the emission properties of Er-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron co-sputtering,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 915–919 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys.82(1), 1–39 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Isshiki, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, and T. Kimura, “Self-assembled infrared-luminescent Er-Si-O crystallites on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(19), 4343–4345 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Masaki, H. Isshiki, and T. Kimura, “Erbium–silicon–oxide crystalline films prepared by MOMBE,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 876–879 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. J. Choi, J. H. Shin, K. Suh, H. K. Seong, H. C. Han, and J. C. Lee, “Self-organized growth of Si/Silica/Er2Si2O7 core-shell nanowire heterostructures and their luminescence,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2432–2437 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. Suh, J. H. Shin, S.-J. Seo, and B.-S. Bae, “Large-scale fabrication of single-phase Er2SiO5 nanocrystal aggregates using Si nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Kimura, Y. Tanaka, H. Ueda, and H. Isshiki, “Formation of highly oriented layer-structured Er2SiO5 films by pulsed laser deposition,” Physica E41(6), 1063–1066 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Isshiki and T. Kimura, “Toward small size waveguide amplifiers based on rrbium silicate for silicon photonics,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E91(C), 138–144 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. Piro, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “The influence of stoichiometry on the structural stability and on the optical emission of erbium silicate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021919 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of 1.53 mm photoluminescence from spin-coated Er–Si–O (Er2SiO5) crystalline films by nitrogen plasma treatment,” J. Cryst. Growth289(1), 178–182 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Pan, W. Zhou, E. S. P. Leong, R. Liu, A. H. Chin, B. Zou, and C. Z. Ning, “Continuous alloy-composition spatial grading and superbroad wavelength-tunable nanowire lasers on a single chip,” Nano Lett.9(2), 784–788 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Quaternary alloy semiconductor nanobelts with bandgap spanning the entire visible spectrum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(27), 9502–9503 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Spatial composition grading of quaternary ZnCdSSe alloy nanowires with tunable light emission between 350 and 710 nm on a single substrate,” ACS Nano4(2), 671–680 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. N. N. Ha, K. Dohnalová, T. Gregorkiewicz, and J. Valenta, “Optical gain of the 1.54 μm emission in MBE-grown Si:Er nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. B81(19), 195206 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, L. Bigot, and B. Jacquier, “Exceptionally narrow homogeneous linewidth in erbium-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett.31(23), 3453–3455 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. C. P. Michael, H. B. Yuen, V. A. Sabnis, T. J. Johnson, R. Sewell, R. Smith, A. Jamora, A. Clark, S. Semans, P. B. Atanackovic, and O. Painter, “Growth, processing, and optical properties of epitaxial Er2O3 on silicon,” Opt. Express16(24), 19649–19666 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Spatial composition grading of quaternary ZnCdSSe alloy nanowires with tunable light emission between 350 and 710 nm on a single substrate,” ACS Nano4(2), 671–680 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Ha, K. Dohnalová, T. Gregorkiewicz, and J. Valenta, “Optical gain of the 1.54 μm emission in MBE-grown Si:Er nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. B81(19), 195206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Lauritzen, J. Minár, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(8), 080502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Huber, C. Kränkel, and K. Petermann, “Solid-state lasers: status and future,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(11), B93–B105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Pan, W. Zhou, E. S. P. Leong, R. Liu, A. H. Chin, B. Zou, and C. Z. Ning, “Continuous alloy-composition spatial grading and superbroad wavelength-tunable nanowire lasers on a single chip,” Nano Lett.9(2), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Quaternary alloy semiconductor nanobelts with bandgap spanning the entire visible spectrum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(27), 9502–9503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kimura, Y. Tanaka, H. Ueda, and H. Isshiki, “Formation of highly oriented layer-structured Er2SiO5 films by pulsed laser deposition,” Physica E41(6), 1063–1066 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Isshiki and T. Kimura, “Toward small size waveguide amplifiers based on rrbium silicate for silicon photonics,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E91(C), 138–144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. Piro, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “The influence of stoichiometry on the structural stability and on the optical emission of erbium silicate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Michael, H. B. Yuen, V. A. Sabnis, T. J. Johnson, R. Sewell, R. Smith, A. Jamora, A. Clark, S. Semans, P. B. Atanackovic, and O. Painter, “Growth, processing, and optical properties of epitaxial Er2O3 on silicon,” Opt. Express16(24), 19649–19666 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Elliman, A. R. Wilkinson, T. H. Kim, P. K. Sekhar, and S. Bhansali, “Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 104304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sun, W. J. Xu, B. Zhang, L. P. You, G. Z. Ran, and G. G. Qin, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence through amorphous Si nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology19(10), 105708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Suh, J. H. Shin, S.-J. Seo, and B.-S. Bae, “Large-scale fabrication of single-phase Er2SiO5 nanocrystal aggregates using Si nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of 1.53 mm photoluminescence from spin-coated Er–Si–O (Er2SiO5) crystalline films by nitrogen plasma treatment,” J. Cryst. Growth289(1), 178–182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, M. Lo Savio, A. M. Piro, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Optical and structural properties of Er2O3 films grown by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.100(1), 013502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Thommen and P. Mandel, “Left-handed properties of erbium-doped crystals,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1803–1805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, L. Bigot, and B. Jacquier, “Exceptionally narrow homogeneous linewidth in erbium-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett.31(23), 3453–3455 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Carrada, F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, and R. Rizk, “Influence of Er concentration on the emission properties of Er-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron co-sputtering,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 915–919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Masaki, H. Isshiki, and T. Kimura, “Erbium–silicon–oxide crystalline films prepared by MOMBE,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Choi, J. H. Shin, K. Suh, H. K. Seong, H. C. Han, and J. C. Lee, “Self-organized growth of Si/Silica/Er2Si2O7 core-shell nanowire heterostructures and their luminescence,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2432–2437 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. Isshiki, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, and T. Kimura, “Self-assembled infrared-luminescent Er-Si-O crystallites on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(19), 4343–4345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Cooperative upconversion as the gain-limiting factor in Er doped miniature Al2O3 optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Appl. Phys.93(9), 5008–5012 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Yada, M. Mihara, S. Mouri, M. Kuroki, and T. Kijima, “Rare earth (Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) oxide nanotubes templated by dodecylsulfate assemblies,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(4), 309–313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang and J. L. Coffer, “Erbium surface-enriched silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(11), 1303–1305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(4), 288–292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. St. John, J. L. Coffer, Y. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.121(9), 1888–1892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Pacelli, and A. Lacaita, “Direct evidence of impact excitation and spatial profiling of excited Er in light emitting Si diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(1), 93–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys.82(1), 1–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Afzelius, M.

B. Lauritzen, J. Minár, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(8), 080502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alkemade, P. F. A.

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atanackovic, P. B.

Bae, B.-S.

K. Suh, J. H. Shin, S.-J. Seo, and B.-S. Bae, “Large-scale fabrication of single-phase Er2SiO5 nanocrystal aggregates using Si nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhansali, S.

R. G. Elliman, A. R. Wilkinson, T. H. Kim, P. K. Sekhar, and S. Bhansali, “Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 104304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, L.

Bongiorno, C.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, M. Lo Savio, A. M. Piro, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Optical and structural properties of Er2O3 films grown by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.100(1), 013502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carrada, M.

M. Carrada, F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, and R. Rizk, “Influence of Er concentration on the emission properties of Er-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron co-sputtering,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 915–919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. J.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, U. S.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. St. John, J. L. Coffer, Y. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.121(9), 1888–1892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, B. W.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of 1.53 mm photoluminescence from spin-coated Er–Si–O (Er2SiO5) crystalline films by nitrogen plasma treatment,” J. Cryst. Growth289(1), 178–182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, A. H.

A. Pan, W. Zhou, E. S. P. Leong, R. Liu, A. H. Chin, B. Zou, and C. Z. Ning, “Continuous alloy-composition spatial grading and superbroad wavelength-tunable nanowire lasers on a single chip,” Nano Lett.9(2), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. J.

H. J. Choi, J. H. Shin, K. Suh, H. K. Seong, H. C. Han, and J. C. Lee, “Self-organized growth of Si/Silica/Er2Si2O7 core-shell nanowire heterostructures and their luminescence,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2432–2437 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, A.

Coffa, S.

S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Pacelli, and A. Lacaita, “Direct evidence of impact excitation and spatial profiling of excited Er in light emitting Si diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(1), 93–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coffer, J. L.

Z. Wang and J. L. Coffer, “Erbium surface-enriched silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(11), 1303–1305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. St. John, J. L. Coffer, Y. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.121(9), 1888–1892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cone, R. L.

Custer, J. S.

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dahal, R.

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Dood, M. J. A.

H. Isshiki, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, and T. Kimura, “Self-assembled infrared-luminescent Er-Si-O crystallites on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(19), 4343–4345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Riedmatten, H.

B. Lauritzen, J. Minár, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(8), 080502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dohnalová, K.

N. N. Ha, K. Dohnalová, T. Gregorkiewicz, and J. Valenta, “Optical gain of the 1.54 μm emission in MBE-grown Si:Er nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. B81(19), 195206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dufour, C.

M. Carrada, F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, and R. Rizk, “Influence of Er concentration on the emission properties of Er-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron co-sputtering,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 915–919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elliman, R. G.

R. G. Elliman, A. R. Wilkinson, T. H. Kim, P. K. Sekhar, and S. Bhansali, “Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 104304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(4), 288–292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Franzò, G.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, M. Lo Savio, A. M. Piro, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Optical and structural properties of Er2O3 films grown by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.100(1), 013502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Pacelli, and A. Lacaita, “Direct evidence of impact excitation and spatial profiling of excited Er in light emitting Si diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(1), 93–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

B. Lauritzen, J. Minár, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(8), 080502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gösele, U.

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gourbilleau, F.

M. Carrada, F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, and R. Rizk, “Influence of Er concentration on the emission properties of Er-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron co-sputtering,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 915–919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gregorkiewicz, T.

N. N. Ha, K. Dohnalová, T. Gregorkiewicz, and J. Valenta, “Optical gain of the 1.54 μm emission in MBE-grown Si:Er nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. B81(19), 195206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ha, N. N.

N. N. Ha, K. Dohnalová, T. Gregorkiewicz, and J. Valenta, “Optical gain of the 1.54 μm emission in MBE-grown Si:Er nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. B81(19), 195206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, H. C.

H. J. Choi, J. H. Shin, K. Suh, H. K. Seong, H. C. Han, and J. C. Lee, “Self-organized growth of Si/Silica/Er2Si2O7 core-shell nanowire heterostructures and their luminescence,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2432–2437 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsin, C. L.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. T.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. W.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Hwang, B.-C.

Iacona, F.

R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. Piro, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “The influence of stoichiometry on the structural stability and on the optical emission of erbium silicate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, M. Lo Savio, A. M. Piro, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Optical and structural properties of Er2O3 films grown by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.100(1), 013502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Irrera, A.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Isshiki, H.

T. Kimura, Y. Tanaka, H. Ueda, and H. Isshiki, “Formation of highly oriented layer-structured Er2SiO5 films by pulsed laser deposition,” Physica E41(6), 1063–1066 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Isshiki and T. Kimura, “Toward small size waveguide amplifiers based on rrbium silicate for silicon photonics,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E91(C), 138–144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Masaki, H. Isshiki, and T. Kimura, “Erbium–silicon–oxide crystalline films prepared by MOMBE,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Isshiki, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, and T. Kimura, “Self-assembled infrared-luminescent Er-Si-O crystallites on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(19), 4343–4345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jacquier, B.

Jamora, A.

Jiang, H. X.

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

Johnson, T. J.

Katschorek, H.

M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(4), 288–292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kijima, T.

M. Yada, M. Mihara, S. Mouri, M. Kuroki, and T. Kijima, “Rare earth (Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) oxide nanotubes templated by dodecylsulfate assemblies,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(4), 309–313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Cooperative upconversion as the gain-limiting factor in Er doped miniature Al2O3 optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Appl. Phys.93(9), 5008–5012 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T. H.

R. G. Elliman, A. R. Wilkinson, T. H. Kim, P. K. Sekhar, and S. Bhansali, “Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 104304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

T. Kimura, Y. Tanaka, H. Ueda, and H. Isshiki, “Formation of highly oriented layer-structured Er2SiO5 films by pulsed laser deposition,” Physica E41(6), 1063–1066 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Isshiki and T. Kimura, “Toward small size waveguide amplifiers based on rrbium silicate for silicon photonics,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E91(C), 138–144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Masaki, H. Isshiki, and T. Kimura, “Erbium–silicon–oxide crystalline films prepared by MOMBE,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Isshiki, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, and T. Kimura, “Self-assembled infrared-luminescent Er-Si-O crystallites on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(19), 4343–4345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kohls, M.

M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(4), 288–292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kränkel, C.

Kuroki, M.

M. Yada, M. Mihara, S. Mouri, M. Kuroki, and T. Kijima, “Rare earth (Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) oxide nanotubes templated by dodecylsulfate assemblies,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(4), 309–313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lacaita, A.

S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Pacelli, and A. Lacaita, “Direct evidence of impact excitation and spatial profiling of excited Er in light emitting Si diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(1), 93–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lauritzen, B.

B. Lauritzen, J. Minár, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(8), 080502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. Y.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. C.

H. J. Choi, J. H. Shin, K. Suh, H. K. Seong, H. C. Han, and J. C. Lee, “Self-organized growth of Si/Silica/Er2Si2O7 core-shell nanowire heterostructures and their luminescence,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2432–2437 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leong, E. S. P.

A. Pan, W. Zhou, E. S. P. Leong, R. Liu, A. H. Chin, B. Zou, and C. Z. Ning, “Continuous alloy-composition spatial grading and superbroad wavelength-tunable nanowire lasers on a single chip,” Nano Lett.9(2), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levalois, M.

M. Carrada, F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, and R. Rizk, “Influence of Er concentration on the emission properties of Er-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron co-sputtering,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 915–919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Spatial composition grading of quaternary ZnCdSSe alloy nanowires with tunable light emission between 350 and 710 nm on a single substrate,” ACS Nano4(2), 671–680 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pan, W. Zhou, E. S. P. Leong, R. Liu, A. H. Chin, B. Zou, and C. Z. Ning, “Continuous alloy-composition spatial grading and superbroad wavelength-tunable nanowire lasers on a single chip,” Nano Lett.9(2), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Quaternary alloy semiconductor nanobelts with bandgap spanning the entire visible spectrum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(27), 9502–9503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo Savio, M.

M. Miritello, M. Lo Savio, A. M. Piro, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Optical and structural properties of Er2O3 films grown by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.100(1), 013502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lo Savio, R.

R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. Piro, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “The influence of stoichiometry on the structural stability and on the optical emission of erbium silicate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

Mais, N.

M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(4), 288–292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, P.

Masaki, K.

K. Masaki, H. Isshiki, and T. Kimura, “Erbium–silicon–oxide crystalline films prepared by MOMBE,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michael, C. P.

Mihara, M.

M. Yada, M. Mihara, S. Mouri, M. Kuroki, and T. Kijima, “Rare earth (Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) oxide nanotubes templated by dodecylsulfate assemblies,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(4), 309–313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Minár, J.

B. Lauritzen, J. Minár, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(8), 080502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miritello, M.

R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. Piro, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “The influence of stoichiometry on the structural stability and on the optical emission of erbium silicate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, M. Lo Savio, A. M. Piro, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Optical and structural properties of Er2O3 films grown by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.100(1), 013502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mouri, S.

M. Yada, M. Mihara, S. Mouri, M. Kuroki, and T. Kijima, “Rare earth (Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) oxide nanotubes templated by dodecylsulfate assemblies,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(4), 309–313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Müller, G.

M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(4), 288–292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ning, C. Z.

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Spatial composition grading of quaternary ZnCdSSe alloy nanowires with tunable light emission between 350 and 710 nm on a single substrate,” ACS Nano4(2), 671–680 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pan, W. Zhou, E. S. P. Leong, R. Liu, A. H. Chin, B. Zou, and C. Z. Ning, “Continuous alloy-composition spatial grading and superbroad wavelength-tunable nanowire lasers on a single chip,” Nano Lett.9(2), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Quaternary alloy semiconductor nanobelts with bandgap spanning the entire visible spectrum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(27), 9502–9503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacelli, A.

S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Pacelli, and A. Lacaita, “Direct evidence of impact excitation and spatial profiling of excited Er in light emitting Si diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(1), 93–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Pan, A.

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Spatial composition grading of quaternary ZnCdSSe alloy nanowires with tunable light emission between 350 and 710 nm on a single substrate,” ACS Nano4(2), 671–680 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Quaternary alloy semiconductor nanobelts with bandgap spanning the entire visible spectrum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(27), 9502–9503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pan, W. Zhou, E. S. P. Leong, R. Liu, A. H. Chin, B. Zou, and C. Z. Ning, “Continuous alloy-composition spatial grading and superbroad wavelength-tunable nanowire lasers on a single chip,” Nano Lett.9(2), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, A. L.

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petermann, K.

Peyghambarian, N.

Pinizzotto, R. F.

J. St. John, J. L. Coffer, Y. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.121(9), 1888–1892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Piro, A.

R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. Piro, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “The influence of stoichiometry on the structural stability and on the optical emission of erbium silicate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piro, A. M.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, M. Lo Savio, A. M. Piro, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Optical and structural properties of Er2O3 films grown by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.100(1), 013502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. Isshiki, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, and T. Kimura, “Self-assembled infrared-luminescent Er-Si-O crystallites on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(19), 4343–4345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Cooperative upconversion as the gain-limiting factor in Er doped miniature Al2O3 optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Appl. Phys.93(9), 5008–5012 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys.82(1), 1–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. Piro, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “The influence of stoichiometry on the structural stability and on the optical emission of erbium silicate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, M. Lo Savio, A. M. Piro, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Optical and structural properties of Er2O3 films grown by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.100(1), 013502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Pacelli, and A. Lacaita, “Direct evidence of impact excitation and spatial profiling of excited Er in light emitting Si diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(1), 93–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G. G.

K. Sun, W. J. Xu, B. Zhang, L. P. You, G. Z. Ran, and G. G. Qin, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence through amorphous Si nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology19(10), 105708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, Y.

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ran, G. Z.

K. Sun, W. J. Xu, B. Zhang, L. P. You, G. Z. Ran, and G. G. Qin, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence through amorphous Si nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology19(10), 105708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rizk, R.

M. Carrada, F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, and R. Rizk, “Influence of Er concentration on the emission properties of Er-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron co-sputtering,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 915–919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sabnis, V. A.

Sangouard, N.

B. Lauritzen, J. Minár, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(8), 080502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, T.

M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(4), 288–292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sekhar, P. K.

R. G. Elliman, A. R. Wilkinson, T. H. Kim, P. K. Sekhar, and S. Bhansali, “Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 104304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Semans, S.

Seo, S.-J.

K. Suh, J. H. Shin, S.-J. Seo, and B.-S. Bae, “Large-scale fabrication of single-phase Er2SiO5 nanocrystal aggregates using Si nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seong, H. K.

H. J. Choi, J. H. Shin, K. Suh, H. K. Seong, H. C. Han, and J. C. Lee, “Self-organized growth of Si/Silica/Er2Si2O7 core-shell nanowire heterostructures and their luminescence,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2432–2437 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serna, R.

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, R.

Shin, J. H.

K. Suh, J. H. Shin, S.-J. Seo, and B.-S. Bae, “Large-scale fabrication of single-phase Er2SiO5 nanocrystal aggregates using Si nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Choi, J. H. Shin, K. Suh, H. K. Seong, H. C. Han, and J. C. Lee, “Self-organized growth of Si/Silica/Er2Si2O7 core-shell nanowire heterostructures and their luminescence,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2432–2437 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simon, C.

B. Lauritzen, J. Minár, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(8), 080502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R.

Sorbello, G.

Spanhel, L.

M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(4), 288–292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

St. John, J.

J. St. John, J. L. Coffer, Y. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.121(9), 1888–1892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suh, K.

K. Suh, J. H. Shin, S.-J. Seo, and B.-S. Bae, “Large-scale fabrication of single-phase Er2SiO5 nanocrystal aggregates using Si nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Choi, J. H. Shin, K. Suh, H. K. Seong, H. C. Han, and J. C. Lee, “Self-organized growth of Si/Silica/Er2Si2O7 core-shell nanowire heterostructures and their luminescence,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2432–2437 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, K.

K. Sun, W. J. Xu, B. Zhang, L. P. You, G. Z. Ran, and G. G. Qin, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence through amorphous Si nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology19(10), 105708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, M.

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Spatial composition grading of quaternary ZnCdSSe alloy nanowires with tunable light emission between 350 and 710 nm on a single substrate,” ACS Nano4(2), 671–680 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Quaternary alloy semiconductor nanobelts with bandgap spanning the entire visible spectrum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(27), 9502–9503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Tanaka, Y.

T. Kimura, Y. Tanaka, H. Ueda, and H. Isshiki, “Formation of highly oriented layer-structured Er2SiO5 films by pulsed laser deposition,” Physica E41(6), 1063–1066 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thommen, Q.

Ueda, H.

T. Kimura, Y. Tanaka, H. Ueda, and H. Isshiki, “Formation of highly oriented layer-structured Er2SiO5 films by pulsed laser deposition,” Physica E41(6), 1063–1066 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ugolini, C.

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Valenta, J.

N. N. Ha, K. Dohnalová, T. Gregorkiewicz, and J. Valenta, “Optical gain of the 1.54 μm emission in MBE-grown Si:Er nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. B81(19), 195206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van den Hoven, G. N.

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. M.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of 1.53 mm photoluminescence from spin-coated Er–Si–O (Er2SiO5) crystalline films by nitrogen plasma treatment,” J. Cryst. Growth289(1), 178–182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. X.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of 1.53 mm photoluminescence from spin-coated Er–Si–O (Er2SiO5) crystalline films by nitrogen plasma treatment,” J. Cryst. Growth289(1), 178–182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and J. L. Coffer, “Erbium surface-enriched silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(11), 1303–1305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J.

Werner, P.

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. G. Elliman, A. R. Wilkinson, T. H. Kim, P. K. Sekhar, and S. Bhansali, “Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 104304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, A.

M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(4), 288–292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W. J.

K. Sun, W. J. Xu, B. Zhang, L. P. You, G. Z. Ran, and G. G. Qin, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence through amorphous Si nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology19(10), 105708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yada, M.

M. Yada, M. Mihara, S. Mouri, M. Kuroki, and T. Kijima, “Rare earth (Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) oxide nanotubes templated by dodecylsulfate assemblies,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(4), 309–313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, L.

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, P. H.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

You, L. P.

K. Sun, W. J. Xu, B. Zhang, L. P. You, G. Z. Ran, and G. G. Qin, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence through amorphous Si nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology19(10), 105708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J. Z.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of 1.53 mm photoluminescence from spin-coated Er–Si–O (Er2SiO5) crystalline films by nitrogen plasma treatment,” J. Cryst. Growth289(1), 178–182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, R.

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuen, H. B.

Zacharias, M.

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavada, J. M.

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

K. Sun, W. J. Xu, B. Zhang, L. P. You, G. Z. Ran, and G. G. Qin, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence through amorphous Si nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology19(10), 105708 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. G.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of 1.53 mm photoluminescence from spin-coated Er–Si–O (Er2SiO5) crystalline films by nitrogen plasma treatment,” J. Cryst. Growth289(1), 178–182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

A. Pan, W. Zhou, E. S. P. Leong, R. Liu, A. H. Chin, B. Zou, and C. Z. Ning, “Continuous alloy-composition spatial grading and superbroad wavelength-tunable nanowire lasers on a single chip,” Nano Lett.9(2), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, B.

A. Pan, W. Zhou, E. S. P. Leong, R. Liu, A. H. Chin, B. Zou, and C. Z. Ning, “Continuous alloy-composition spatial grading and superbroad wavelength-tunable nanowire lasers on a single chip,” Nano Lett.9(2), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Spatial composition grading of quaternary ZnCdSSe alloy nanowires with tunable light emission between 350 and 710 nm on a single substrate,” ACS Nano4(2), 671–680 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yada, M. Mihara, S. Mouri, M. Kuroki, and T. Kijima, “Rare earth (Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) oxide nanotubes templated by dodecylsulfate assemblies,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(4), 309–313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(4), 288–292 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Pacelli, and A. Lacaita, “Direct evidence of impact excitation and spatial profiling of excited Er in light emitting Si diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(1), 93–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. Piro, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “The influence of stoichiometry on the structural stability and on the optical emission of erbium silicate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Isshiki, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, and T. Kimura, “Self-assembled infrared-luminescent Er-Si-O crystallites on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(19), 4343–4345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Suh, J. H. Shin, S.-J. Seo, and B.-S. Bae, “Large-scale fabrication of single-phase Er2SiO5 nanocrystal aggregates using Si nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(22), 223102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron.

H. Isshiki and T. Kimura, “Toward small size waveguide amplifiers based on rrbium silicate for silicon photonics,” IEICE Trans. Electron.E91(C), 138–144 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Quaternary alloy semiconductor nanobelts with bandgap spanning the entire visible spectrum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.131(27), 9502–9503 (2009).
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J. St. John, J. L. Coffer, Y. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.121(9), 1888–1892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Elliman, A. R. Wilkinson, T. H. Kim, P. K. Sekhar, and S. Bhansali, “Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 104304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, M. Lo Savio, A. M. Piro, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Optical and structural properties of Er2O3 films grown by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys.100(1), 013502 (2006).
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A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys.82(1), 1–39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Cooperative upconversion as the gain-limiting factor in Er doped miniature Al2O3 optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Appl. Phys.93(9), 5008–5012 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of 1.53 mm photoluminescence from spin-coated Er–Si–O (Er2SiO5) crystalline films by nitrogen plasma treatment,” J. Cryst. Growth289(1), 178–182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nano Lett.

Z. Wang and J. L. Coffer, “Erbium surface-enriched silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(11), 1303–1305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3413–3417 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pan, W. Zhou, E. S. P. Leong, R. Liu, A. H. Chin, B. Zou, and C. Z. Ning, “Continuous alloy-composition spatial grading and superbroad wavelength-tunable nanowire lasers on a single chip,” Nano Lett.9(2), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Choi, J. H. Shin, K. Suh, H. K. Seong, H. C. Han, and J. C. Lee, “Self-organized growth of Si/Silica/Er2Si2O7 core-shell nanowire heterostructures and their luminescence,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2432–2437 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

K. Sun, W. J. Xu, B. Zhang, L. P. You, G. Z. Ran, and G. G. Qin, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence through amorphous Si nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology19(10), 105708 (2008).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

M. Carrada, F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, and R. Rizk, “Influence of Er concentration on the emission properties of Er-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron co-sputtering,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 915–919 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Masaki, H. Isshiki, and T. Kimura, “Erbium–silicon–oxide crystalline films prepared by MOMBE,” Opt. Mater.27(5), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

N. N. Ha, K. Dohnalová, T. Gregorkiewicz, and J. Valenta, “Optical gain of the 1.54 μm emission in MBE-grown Si:Er nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. B81(19), 195206 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. Lett.

B. Lauritzen, J. Minár, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(8), 080502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica E

T. Kimura, Y. Tanaka, H. Ueda, and H. Isshiki, “Formation of highly oriented layer-structured Er2SiO5 films by pulsed laser deposition,” Physica E41(6), 1063–1066 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of the as-grown Si-ECS nanowires and the corresponding EDS (inset), (b) XRD pattern of the Si-ECS nanowires and the crystal structure of ECS (inset).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Si-ECS core-shell nanowire analysis: (a) TEM image of a representative Si-ECS core-shell nanowire. Insets: EDS collected at the shell and core region, respectively; (b)-(e) Two-dimensional element mapping of O, Cl, Si and Er, respectively; (f) HRTEM image at the core-shell interface of the core-shell wire; (g) The correspongding FFT pattern converted from the interface region as well as from a selected shell region (inset).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) TEM image and the FFT (inset) of a pure ECS nanowrire, (b) HRTEM image of such a wire.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) growth setup for the contrasting experiment (b) SEM image and the corresponding EDS spectrum (c) of the contrasting sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Normalized near infrared PL band of the Si-ECS nanowires at 77K and at the room temperature (inset). (b) FWHM of the 1.53 μm peak at different temperatures (black squares); Red dots: the FWHM reported in the literature [1926,34].

Equations (1)

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[ 0 0 1 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 0 ] ( x y z ) Si =[ k 1 a 2 k 1 b 2 2 k 1 c 2 0.64 k 2 a 2 4 k 2 b 2 1.28 k 2 c 2 2 k 3 a 2 0 k 3 c 2 ] ( X Y Z ) ECS k 1 = a 0 ( 1 a 2 + 1 b 2 + 4 c 2 ) 1 2 ,  k 2 = a 0 ( 0.41 a 2 + 16 b 2 + 1.64 c 2 ) 1 2 ,  k 3 = a 0 ( 4 a 2 + 0 b 2 + 1 c 2 ) 1 2

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