Abstract

A brief review of laser-induced material modification in glassy materials is presented. The mechanisms of energy transfer from the laser and the subsequent structural modifications are reviewed. Specific features of femtosecond (fs) and continuous wave (CW) laser irradiation of glass are presented and the impact of the process parameters on the properties is discussed. The diverse responses exhibited by various glass families are presented and contrasted, with a focus on the use of these materials and processes for a wide variety of novel applications. Finally, suggestions of future directions for laser-induced material modification are presented.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (6)

A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser induced photochemistry in materials tailored with photosensitive agents [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 866–882 (2011).

H. Pribylova, K. Antoine, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Kinetics of laser-induced photodarkening in arsenic based chalcogenide glasses,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3950–3953 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bernier, S. Gagnon, and R. Vallée, “Role of the 1D optical filamentation process in the writing of first order fiber Bragg gratings with femtosecond pulses at 800nm [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 832–844 (2011).

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(2), 276–283 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallee, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil'ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Plotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, “Second-order Bragg gratings in single-mode chalcogenide fibres,” Quantum Electron. 41(5), 465–468 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (3)

2008 (7)

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons in optics,” Phys. Rep. 463(1-3), 1–126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Jiyeon Choi, Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, H. S. Jain, A. T. Ganjoo, D. H. Zhao, Y. S. Xu, H. D. Zeng, and G. R. Chen, “A photo-stable chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10565–10571 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jain and M. Vlcek, “Glasses for lithography,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1401–1406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
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Y. Liu, B. Zhu, L. Wang, Y. Dai, H. Ma, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser direct writing of TiO2 crystalline patterns in glass,” Appl. Phys. B 93(2-3), 613–617 (2008).
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P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, T. Honma, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, “Creation of ferroelectric, single-crystal architecture in Sm0.5La0.5BGeO5 glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91(1), 110–114 (2008).
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2007 (6)

C. H. Tsai and B. C. Lin, “Laser cutting with controlled fracture and pre-bending applied to LCD glass separation,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 32(11-12), 1155–1162 (2007).
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R. Kitamura, L. Pilon, and M. Jonasz, “Optical constants of silica glass from extreme ultraviolet to far infrared at near room temperature,” Appl. Opt. 46(33), 8118–8133 (2007).
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T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato, H. G. Kim, and T. Fujiwara, “Patterning of non-linear optical crystals in glass by laser-induced crystallization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(3), 699–705 (2007).
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L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Couzi, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Effect of IR femtosecond laser irradiation on the structure of new sulfo-selenide glasses,” Opt. Mater. 29(8), 1075–1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. L. Ma, S. M. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. R. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced space-selective precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in rare-earth-doped glasses,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6069–6074 (2007).
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A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007).
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2006 (4)

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
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V. P. Veiko, Q. K. Kieu, N. V. Nikonorov, and P. A. Skiba, “On the reversibility of laser-induced phase-structure modification of glass-ceramics,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 1(2), 149–154 (2006).
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Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. R. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
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P. Nandi, G. Jose, C. Jayakrishnan, S. Debbarma, K. Chalapathi, K. Alti, A. K. Dharmadhikari, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, “Femtosecond laser written channel waveguides in tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12145–12150 (2006).
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2005 (3)

K. Tanaka, “Optical nonlinearity in photonic glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 16(10), 633–643 (2005).
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L. Russo, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Arsenic sulphide glasses as novel photoresist materials,” Glass Technol. 46, 94–98 (2005).

M. L. Trunov, “Photo-induced plasticity in amorphous chalcogenides: An overview of mechanisms and applications,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 7, 2235–2246 (2005).

2004 (4)

S. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(7), 1695–1709 (2004).
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F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
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M. L. Povinelli, S. G. Johnson, E. Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, “Effect of a photonic band gap on scattering from waveguide disorder,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3639–3641 (2004).
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A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 748–750 (2004).
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2003 (8)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
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S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, “Microexplosions in tellurite glasses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 379–384 (2003).
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R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
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C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
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Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, “Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glasses by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 472–475 (2003).
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S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
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J. B. Lonzaga, S. M. Avanesyan, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4332–4340 (2003).
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C. Florea and K. A. Winick, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 246–253 (2003).
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2002 (1)

2001 (5)

2000 (4)

A. Kaiser, B. Rethfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, “Microscopic processes in dielectrics under irradiation by subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 61(17), 11437–11450 (2000).
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Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
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J. Li and D. A. Drabold, “Direct calculation of light-induced structural change and diffusive motion in glassy As2Se3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2785–2788 (2000).
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C. R. Schardt, J. H. Simmons, P. Lucas, L. Le Neindre, and J. Lucas, “Photodarkening in Ge3Se17 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 274(1-3), 23–29 (2000).
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1999 (3)

J. Kruger and W. Kautek, “The femtosecond pulse laser: a new tool for micromachining,” Laser Phys. 9, 30–40 (1999).

R. Prieto-Alcón, E. Marquez, J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, R. Jimenez-Garay, A. V. Kolobov, and M. Frumar, “Reversible and athermal photo-vitrification of As50Se50 thin films deposited onto silicon wafer and glass substrates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(6), 653–661 (1999).
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O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, L. N. Glebova, K. C. Richardson, and V. I. Smirnov, “High-efficiency Bragg gratings in photothermorefractive glass,” Appl. Opt. 38(4), 619–627 (1999).
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1998 (2)

1997 (2)

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
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E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
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1996 (3)

1995 (2)

1994 (4)

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
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V. P. Veiko and Y. B. Yakovlev, “Physical fundamentals of laser forming of micro-optical components,” Opt. Eng. 33(11), 3567–3571 (1994).
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T. Chia, L. L. Hench, C. Qin, and C. K. Hsieh, “Thermal modeling of laser-densified microlenses,” Appl. Opt. 33(16), 3486–3492 (1994).
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H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, “Giant photoexpansion in As2S3 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(23), 2925–2927 (1994).
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1993 (3)

V. P. Veiko, A. K. Kromin, and E. B. Yakovlev, “Laser fabrication of MOC based on soft laser heating of glass and glasslike materials,” Proc. SPIE 1992, 159–167 (1993).
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C. Pfleiderer, N. Leclerc, and K. O. Greulich, “The UV-induced 210-nm absorption-band in fused-silica with different thermal history and stoichiometry,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159(1-2), 145–153 (1993).
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V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. Digiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, “Ultraviolet-laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical-fiber gratings and of germania-doped channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(13), 1727–1729 (1993).
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1992 (2)

E. Marquez, J. Ramirezmalo, P. Villares, R. Jimenezgaray, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, “Calculation of the thickness and optical-constants of amorphous arsenic sulfide films from their transmission spectra,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 25(3), 535–541 (1992).
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D. J. Taylor and B. D. Fabes, “Laser processing of sol-gel coatings,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147-148, 457–462 (1992).
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1991 (2)

V. P. Veiko, E. B. Yakovlev, V. V. Frolov, V. A. Chujko, A. K. Kromin, M. O. Abbakumov, A. T. Shakola, and P. A. Fomichev, “Laser heating and evaporation of glass and glass-borning materials and its application for creating MOC,” Proc. SPIE 1544, 152–163 (1991).
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A. V. Kolobov and S. R. Elliott, “Photodoping of amorphous chalcogenides by metals,” Adv. Phys. 40(5), 625–684 (1991).
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1988 (1)

C. T. Kirk, “Quantitative analysis of the effect of disorder-induced mode coupling on infrared absorption in silica,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 38(2), 1255–1273 (1988).
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1986 (1)

S. R. Elliott, “A unified model for reversible photostructural effects in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 81(1-2), 71–98 (1986).
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1985 (1)

J. Pellegrino and J. M. Galligan, “Photoplasticity and fracture in HgCdTe,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3(1), 160–162 (1985).
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1983 (1)

M. Frumar, A. P. Firth, and A. E. Owen, “A model for photostructural changes in the amorphous As-S system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59-60, 921–924 (1983).
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1977 (1)

R. A. Street, “Non-radiative recombination in chalcogenide glasses,” Solid State Commun. 24(5), 363–365 (1977).
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1972 (1)

J. R. Ferraro and M. H. Manghnani, “Infrared-absorption spectra of sodium silicate-glasses at high-pressures,” J. Appl. Phys. 43(11), 4595–4599 (1972).
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1971 (1)

J. Feinleib, J. deNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsk, “Rapid reversible light-induced crystallization of amorphous semiconductors,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 18, 254–257 (1971).

1949 (1)

S. D. Stookey, “Photosensitive glass—a new photographic medium,” Ind. Eng. Chem. 41(4), 856–861 (1949).
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1937 (1)

G. Wannier, “The structure of electronic excitation levels in insulating crystals,” Phys. Rev. 52(3), 191–197 (1937).
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Abbakumov, M. O.

V. P. Veiko, E. B. Yakovlev, V. V. Frolov, V. A. Chujko, A. K. Kromin, M. O. Abbakumov, A. T. Shakola, and P. A. Fomichev, “Laser heating and evaporation of glass and glass-borning materials and its application for creating MOC,” Proc. SPIE 1544, 152–163 (1991).
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Absil, P. P.

Alti, K.

Ams, M.

Anderson, T.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Jiyeon Choi, Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
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L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Couzi, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Effect of IR femtosecond laser irradiation on the structure of new sulfo-selenide glasses,” Opt. Mater. 29(8), 1075–1083 (2007).
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Antoine, K.

H. Pribylova, K. Antoine, M. Vlcek, and H. Jain, “Kinetics of laser-induced photodarkening in arsenic based chalcogenide glasses,” Thin Solid Films 519(11), 3950–3953 (2011).
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Archambault, J. L.

Asatryan, K.

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallee, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil'ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Plotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, “Second-order Bragg gratings in single-mode chalcogenide fibres,” Quantum Electron. 41(5), 465–468 (2011).
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Assanto, G.

F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons in optics,” Phys. Rep. 463(1-3), 1–126 (2008).
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Atkins, R. M.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. Digiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, “Ultraviolet-laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical-fiber gratings and of germania-doped channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(13), 1727–1729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Avanesyan, S. M.

J. B. Lonzaga, S. M. Avanesyan, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4332–4340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, “Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses,” Electron. Lett. 36(3), 226–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Benino, Y.

P. Gupta, H. Jain, D. B. Williams, T. Honma, Y. Benino, and T. Komatsu, “Creation of ferroelectric, single-crystal architecture in Sm0.5La0.5BGeO5 glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91(1), 110–114 (2008).
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T. Komatsu, R. Ihara, T. Honma, Y. Benino, R. Sato, H. G. Kim, and T. Fujiwara, “Patterning of non-linear optical crystals in glass by laser-induced crystallization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(3), 699–705 (2007).
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T. D. Bennett and L. Li, “Modeling laser texturing of silicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 942–950 (2001).
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M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallee, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil'ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Plotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, “Second-order Bragg gratings in single-mode chalcogenide fibres,” Quantum Electron. 41(5), 465–468 (2011).
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M. Bernier, S. Gagnon, and R. Vallée, “Role of the 1D optical filamentation process in the writing of first order fiber Bragg gratings with femtosecond pulses at 800nm [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 832–844 (2011).

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel wave-guides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. T.

Borrelli, N. F.

Bruneel, J. L.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Callan, J. P.

Canioni, L.

Canning, J.

Cardinal, T.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Jiyeon Choi, Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Progress on the photoresponse of chalcogenide glasses and films to near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1323–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Couzi, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Effect of IR femtosecond laser irradiation on the structure of new sulfo-selenide glasses,” Opt. Mater. 29(8), 1075–1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cech, J.

A. Kovalskiy, J. Cech, M. Vlcek, C. M. Waits, M. Dubey, W. R. Heffner, and H. Jain, “Chalcogenide glass e-beam and photoresists for ultrathin grayscale patterning,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 8(4), 043012 (2009).
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Cerullo, G.

Chalapathi, K.

Chan, J. W.

Chen, G. R.

Chen, K. P.

Chia, T.

Choi, J.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Couzi, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Effect of IR femtosecond laser irradiation on the structure of new sulfo-selenide glasses,” Opt. Mater. 29(8), 1075–1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev, and Y. Silberberg, “Discrete solitons in optics,” Phys. Rep. 463(1-3), 1–126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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V. P. Veiko, E. B. Yakovlev, V. V. Frolov, V. A. Chujko, A. K. Kromin, M. O. Abbakumov, A. T. Shakola, and P. A. Fomichev, “Laser heating and evaporation of glass and glass-borning materials and its application for creating MOC,” Proc. SPIE 1544, 152–163 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Couzi, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, “Effect of IR femtosecond laser irradiation on the structure of new sulfo-selenide glasses,” Opt. Mater. 29(8), 1075–1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001).
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Dai, Y.

Y. Liu, B. Zhu, L. Wang, Y. Dai, H. Ma, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser direct writing of TiO2 crystalline patterns in glass,” Appl. Phys. B 93(2-3), 613–617 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. L. Ma, S. M. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. R. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced space-selective precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in rare-earth-doped glasses,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6069–6074 (2007).
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Davis, K. M.

De Silvestri, S.

Debbarma, S.

Della Valle, G.

deNeufville, J.

J. Feinleib, J. deNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsk, “Rapid reversible light-induced crystallization of amorphous semiconductors,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 18, 254–257 (1971).

DeSalvo, R.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(8), 1324–1333 (1996).
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Dharmadhikari, A. K.

Dharmadhikari, J. A.

Dianov, E. M.

M. Bernier, K. Asatryan, R. Vallee, T. Galstian, S. A. Vasil'ev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Plotnichenko, P. I. Gnusin, and E. M. Dianov, “Second-order Bragg gratings in single-mode chalcogenide fibres,” Quantum Electron. 41(5), 465–468 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, J. T.

J. B. Lonzaga, S. M. Avanesyan, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinson, “Color center formation in soda-lime glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4332–4340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

Digiovanni, D. J.

V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. Digiovanni, and R. M. Atkins, “Ultraviolet-laser fabrication of ultrastrong optical-fiber gratings and of germania-doped channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(13), 1727–1729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Drabold, D. A.

J. Li and D. A. Drabold, “Direct calculation of light-induced structural change and diffusive motion in glassy As2Se3.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2785–2788 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubey, M.

A. Kovalskiy, J. Cech, M. Vlcek, C. M. Waits, M. Dubey, W. R. Heffner, and H. Jain, “Chalcogenide glass e-beam and photoresists for ultrathin grayscale patterning,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 8(4), 043012 (2009).
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J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, P. Zeil, V. Hilbert, K. Rademaker, R. Riedel, S. Ringleb, C. Dubs, J. P. Ruske, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Laser direct writing: enabling monolithic and hybrid integrated solutions on the lithium niobate platform,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(2), 276–283 (2011).
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Eaton, S. M.

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K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44(6), 475–588 (1995).
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A. V. Kolobov and S. R. Elliott, “Photodoping of amorphous chalcogenides by metals,” Adv. Phys. 40(5), 625–684 (1991).
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S. R. Elliott, “A unified model for reversible photostructural effects in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 81(1-2), 71–98 (1986).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of, and (b) defect pair created by the self-trapped exciton process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of material’s response when subjected to CW laser irradiation, delineated into three regimes, mild laser heating/cooling, strong laser heating/cooling and evaporation/ablation, depending on sample surface temperature vs. irradiation time. (b) Bond rearrangement processes in chalcogenide glasses. After [6,8].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A curved LaBGeO5 ferroelectric single crystal ‘written’ in glass of the same composition by heating with a CW Nd:YAG laser of λ = 1064 nm. The photo shows second harmonic generation by this active crystal in the background of inactive glass matrix. Here the orientation of crystal lattice does not change as the laser-written line bends and forms U-shape structure. (b) Evolution of local structure around As atoms in a-As45S55 film, as seen in average bond length, when irradiated with 488 nm Argon ion laser. VP and HP represent vertically and horizontally polarization of the laser

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of ablation conditions as a function of glass type. From [5].

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