Abstract

We discuss thermal evaporation of Germanium thin films as a suitable route to realizing near-infrared detectors integrated on a Silicon platform. We study the structural properties of samples grown at various substrate temperatures by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, showing that Ge thin films are amorphous when deposited below 225°C, mono-crystalline between 225 and 400°C, poly-crystalline above 450°C. We further investigate their optical and electrical properties using differential optical absorption spectroscopy, Hall and photocurrent measurements. Finally, with the evaporated Ge thin films we demonstrate near-infrared photodiodes with low dark current density and good responsivity at 1.55 μm.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, Hsin-Chiao Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Colace, G. Masini, V. Cencelli, F. De Notaristefani, and G. Assanto, “A near-infrared digital camera in polycrystalline germanium integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(4), 311–315 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 658–660 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Evangelisti, M. Garozzo, and G. Conte, “Structure of vapor-deposited Ge films as a function of substrate temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7390–7396 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Low temperature growth of Ge on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(20), 2276–2279 (1991).
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  10. B. Cunningham, J. O. Chu, and S. Akbar, “Heteroepitaxial growth of Ge on (100) Si by ultrahigh vacuum, chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(27), 3574–3576 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Liu, H. J. Kim, O. Hul’ko, Y. H. Xie, S. Sahni, P. Bandaru, and E. Yablonovitch, “Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450°C,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 916–919 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Gay, P. B. Hirsch, and A. Kelly, “The estimation of dislocation densities in metals from X-ray data,” Acta Metall. 1(3), 315–319 (1953).
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  13. G. Capellini, M. De Seta, Y. Busby, M. Pea, F. Evangelisti, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, M. Nardone, and C. Ferrari, “Strain relaxation in high Ge content SiGe layers deposited on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063504 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Ferrari, L. Francesio, P. Franzosi, and S. Gennari, “High resolution x ray diffraction study of the Bragg peak width in highly mismatched III–V heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4233–4235 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. M. Kaganer, R. Köhler, M. Schmidbauer, R. Opitz, and B. Jenichen, “X-ray diffraction peaks due to misfit dislocations in heteroepitaxial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 55(3), 1793–1810 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. D. Nellist and S. J. Pennycook, “The principles and interpretation of annular dark-field Z-contrast imaging,” Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 113, 147–203 (2000).
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  17. J. Tersoff and F. K. LeGoues, “Competing relaxation mechanisms in strained layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(22), 3570–3573 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Mäenpää, T. F. Kuech, M. A. Nicolet, S. S. Lau, and D. K. Sadana, “The heteroepitaxy of Ge on Si: a comparison of chemical vapor and vacuum deposited layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 1076–1083 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. M. Baribeau, T. E. Jackman, D. C. Houghton, P. Maigne, and M. W. Denhoff, “Growth and characterization of Si1-x Gex and Ge epilayers on (100) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(12), 5738–5746 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Monroe, Y. H. Xie, E. A. Fitzgerald, P. J. Silverman, and G. P. Watson, “Comparison of mobility limiting mechanisms in high mobility Si1−xGex heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(4), 1731–1737 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Martinez and J. Piqueras, “On the mobility of polycrystalline semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 23(4), 297–303 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Balbi, and G. Assanto, “Germanium near infrared detector in silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 658–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, Y. Busby, M. Pea, F. Evangelisti, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, M. Nardone, and C. Ferrari, “Strain relaxation in high Ge content SiGe layers deposited on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on silicon for near-infrared light sensing,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near-infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Colace, G. Masini, V. Cencelli, F. De Notaristefani, and G. Assanto, “A near-infrared digital camera in polycrystalline germanium integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(4), 311–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Balbi, and G. Assanto, “Germanium near infrared detector in silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Liu, H. J. Kim, O. Hul’ko, Y. H. Xie, S. Sahni, P. Bandaru, and E. Yablonovitch, “Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450°C,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 916–919 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, Hsin-Chiao Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, and G. Assanto, “Advances in the field of poly-Ge on Si near infrared photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 69-70, 257–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Nellist and S. J. Pennycook, “The principles and interpretation of annular dark-field Z-contrast imaging,” Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 113, 147–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. M. Kaganer, R. Köhler, M. Schmidbauer, R. Opitz, and B. Jenichen, “X-ray diffraction peaks due to misfit dislocations in heteroepitaxial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 55(3), 1793–1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. Ferrari, L. Francesio, P. Franzosi, and S. Gennari, “High resolution x ray diffraction study of the Bragg peak width in highly mismatched III–V heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4233–4235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Tersoff and F. K. LeGoues, “Competing relaxation mechanisms in strained layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(22), 3570–3573 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

D. Monroe, Y. H. Xie, E. A. Fitzgerald, P. J. Silverman, and G. P. Watson, “Comparison of mobility limiting mechanisms in high mobility Si1−xGex heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(4), 1731–1737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Low temperature growth of Ge on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(20), 2276–2279 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, J. O. Chu, and S. Akbar, “Heteroepitaxial growth of Ge on (100) Si by ultrahigh vacuum, chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(27), 3574–3576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. M. Baribeau, T. E. Jackman, D. C. Houghton, P. Maigne, and M. W. Denhoff, “Growth and characterization of Si1-x Gex and Ge epilayers on (100) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(12), 5738–5746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982

F. Evangelisti, M. Garozzo, and G. Conte, “Structure of vapor-deposited Ge films as a function of substrate temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7390–7396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mäenpää, T. F. Kuech, M. A. Nicolet, S. S. Lau, and D. K. Sadana, “The heteroepitaxy of Ge on Si: a comparison of chemical vapor and vacuum deposited layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 1076–1083 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. Martinez and J. Piqueras, “On the mobility of polycrystalline semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 23(4), 297–303 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1953

P. Gay, P. B. Hirsch, and A. Kelly, “The estimation of dislocation densities in metals from X-ray data,” Acta Metall. 1(3), 315–319 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Akbar, S.

B. Cunningham, J. O. Chu, and S. Akbar, “Heteroepitaxial growth of Ge on (100) Si by ultrahigh vacuum, chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(27), 3574–3576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 658–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on silicon for near-infrared light sensing,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near-infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Balbi, and G. Assanto, “Germanium near infrared detector in silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, V. Cencelli, F. De Notaristefani, and G. Assanto, “A near-infrared digital camera in polycrystalline germanium integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(4), 311–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, Hsin-Chiao Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, and G. Assanto, “Advances in the field of poly-Ge on Si near infrared photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 69-70, 257–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balbi, M.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Balbi, and G. Assanto, “Germanium near infrared detector in silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bandaru, P.

J. Liu, H. J. Kim, O. Hul’ko, Y. H. Xie, S. Sahni, P. Bandaru, and E. Yablonovitch, “Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450°C,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 916–919 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baribeau, J. M.

J. M. Baribeau, T. E. Jackman, D. C. Houghton, P. Maigne, and M. W. Denhoff, “Growth and characterization of Si1-x Gex and Ge epilayers on (100) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(12), 5738–5746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Busby, Y.

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, Y. Busby, M. Pea, F. Evangelisti, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, M. Nardone, and C. Ferrari, “Strain relaxation in high Ge content SiGe layers deposited on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calace, L.

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, Hsin-Chiao Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Capellini, G.

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, Y. Busby, M. Pea, F. Evangelisti, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, M. Nardone, and C. Ferrari, “Strain relaxation in high Ge content SiGe layers deposited on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cencelli, V.

L. Colace, G. Masini, V. Cencelli, F. De Notaristefani, and G. Assanto, “A near-infrared digital camera in polycrystalline germanium integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(4), 311–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, M.

D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Low temperature growth of Ge on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(20), 2276–2279 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. O.

B. Cunningham, J. O. Chu, and S. Akbar, “Heteroepitaxial growth of Ge on (100) Si by ultrahigh vacuum, chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(27), 3574–3576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Colace, L.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 658–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on silicon for near-infrared light sensing,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near-infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Balbi, and G. Assanto, “Germanium near infrared detector in silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. Masini, V. Cencelli, F. De Notaristefani, and G. Assanto, “A near-infrared digital camera in polycrystalline germanium integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(4), 311–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, and G. Assanto, “Advances in the field of poly-Ge on Si near infrared photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 69-70, 257–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Conte, G.

F. Evangelisti, M. Garozzo, and G. Conte, “Structure of vapor-deposited Ge films as a function of substrate temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7390–7396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B.

B. Cunningham, J. O. Chu, and S. Akbar, “Heteroepitaxial growth of Ge on (100) Si by ultrahigh vacuum, chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(27), 3574–3576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

De Notaristefani, F.

L. Colace, G. Masini, V. Cencelli, F. De Notaristefani, and G. Assanto, “A near-infrared digital camera in polycrystalline germanium integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(4), 311–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Seta, M.

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, Y. Busby, M. Pea, F. Evangelisti, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, M. Nardone, and C. Ferrari, “Strain relaxation in high Ge content SiGe layers deposited on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Denhoff, M. W.

J. M. Baribeau, T. E. Jackman, D. C. Houghton, P. Maigne, and M. W. Denhoff, “Growth and characterization of Si1-x Gex and Ge epilayers on (100) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(12), 5738–5746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eaglesham, D. J.

D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Low temperature growth of Ge on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(20), 2276–2279 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Evangelisti, F.

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, Y. Busby, M. Pea, F. Evangelisti, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, M. Nardone, and C. Ferrari, “Strain relaxation in high Ge content SiGe layers deposited on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Evangelisti, M. Garozzo, and G. Conte, “Structure of vapor-deposited Ge films as a function of substrate temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7390–7396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, P.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, C.

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, Y. Busby, M. Pea, F. Evangelisti, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, M. Nardone, and C. Ferrari, “Strain relaxation in high Ge content SiGe layers deposited on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Ferrari, L. Francesio, P. Franzosi, and S. Gennari, “High resolution x ray diffraction study of the Bragg peak width in highly mismatched III–V heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4233–4235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

D. Monroe, Y. H. Xie, E. A. Fitzgerald, P. J. Silverman, and G. P. Watson, “Comparison of mobility limiting mechanisms in high mobility Si1−xGex heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(4), 1731–1737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Francesio, L.

C. Ferrari, L. Francesio, P. Franzosi, and S. Gennari, “High resolution x ray diffraction study of the Bragg peak width in highly mismatched III–V heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4233–4235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Franzosi, P.

C. Ferrari, L. Francesio, P. Franzosi, and S. Gennari, “High resolution x ray diffraction study of the Bragg peak width in highly mismatched III–V heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4233–4235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fulgoni, D.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galluzzi, F.

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, and G. Assanto, “Advances in the field of poly-Ge on Si near infrared photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 69-70, 257–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garozzo, M.

F. Evangelisti, M. Garozzo, and G. Conte, “Structure of vapor-deposited Ge films as a function of substrate temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7390–7396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gay, P.

P. Gay, P. B. Hirsch, and A. Kelly, “The estimation of dislocation densities in metals from X-ray data,” Acta Metall. 1(3), 315–319 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Gennari, S.

C. Ferrari, L. Francesio, P. Franzosi, and S. Gennari, “High resolution x ray diffraction study of the Bragg peak width in highly mismatched III–V heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4233–4235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, P. B.

P. Gay, P. B. Hirsch, and A. Kelly, “The estimation of dislocation densities in metals from X-ray data,” Acta Metall. 1(3), 315–319 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, D. C.

J. M. Baribeau, T. E. Jackman, D. C. Houghton, P. Maigne, and M. W. Denhoff, “Growth and characterization of Si1-x Gex and Ge epilayers on (100) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(12), 5738–5746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hsin-Chiao Luan,

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, Hsin-Chiao Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hul’ko, O.

J. Liu, H. J. Kim, O. Hul’ko, Y. H. Xie, S. Sahni, P. Bandaru, and E. Yablonovitch, “Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450°C,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 916–919 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jackman, T. E.

J. M. Baribeau, T. E. Jackman, D. C. Houghton, P. Maigne, and M. W. Denhoff, “Growth and characterization of Si1-x Gex and Ge epilayers on (100) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(12), 5738–5746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jenichen, B.

V. M. Kaganer, R. Köhler, M. Schmidbauer, R. Opitz, and B. Jenichen, “X-ray diffraction peaks due to misfit dislocations in heteroepitaxial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 55(3), 1793–1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaganer, V. M.

V. M. Kaganer, R. Köhler, M. Schmidbauer, R. Opitz, and B. Jenichen, “X-ray diffraction peaks due to misfit dislocations in heteroepitaxial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 55(3), 1793–1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A.

P. Gay, P. B. Hirsch, and A. Kelly, “The estimation of dislocation densities in metals from X-ray data,” Acta Metall. 1(3), 315–319 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

J. Liu, H. J. Kim, O. Hul’ko, Y. H. Xie, S. Sahni, P. Bandaru, and E. Yablonovitch, “Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450°C,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 916–919 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near-infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, Hsin-Chiao Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

V. M. Kaganer, R. Köhler, M. Schmidbauer, R. Opitz, and B. Jenichen, “X-ray diffraction peaks due to misfit dislocations in heteroepitaxial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 55(3), 1793–1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuech, T. F.

M. Mäenpää, T. F. Kuech, M. A. Nicolet, S. S. Lau, and D. K. Sadana, “The heteroepitaxy of Ge on Si: a comparison of chemical vapor and vacuum deposited layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 1076–1083 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. S.

M. Mäenpää, T. F. Kuech, M. A. Nicolet, S. S. Lau, and D. K. Sadana, “The heteroepitaxy of Ge on Si: a comparison of chemical vapor and vacuum deposited layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 1076–1083 (1982).
[CrossRef]

LeGoues, F. K.

J. Tersoff and F. K. LeGoues, “Competing relaxation mechanisms in strained layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(22), 3570–3573 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, H. J. Kim, O. Hul’ko, Y. H. Xie, S. Sahni, P. Bandaru, and E. Yablonovitch, “Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450°C,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 916–919 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H. C.

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near-infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mäenpää, M.

M. Mäenpää, T. F. Kuech, M. A. Nicolet, S. S. Lau, and D. K. Sadana, “The heteroepitaxy of Ge on Si: a comparison of chemical vapor and vacuum deposited layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 1076–1083 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Maigne, P.

J. M. Baribeau, T. E. Jackman, D. C. Houghton, P. Maigne, and M. W. Denhoff, “Growth and characterization of Si1-x Gex and Ge epilayers on (100) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(12), 5738–5746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, J.

J. Martinez and J. Piqueras, “On the mobility of polycrystalline semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 23(4), 297–303 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Masini, C.

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, Hsin-Chiao Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Masini, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, V. Cencelli, F. De Notaristefani, and G. Assanto, “A near-infrared digital camera in polycrystalline germanium integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(4), 311–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, and G. Assanto, “Advances in the field of poly-Ge on Si near infrared photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 69-70, 257–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, D.

D. Monroe, Y. H. Xie, E. A. Fitzgerald, P. J. Silverman, and G. P. Watson, “Comparison of mobility limiting mechanisms in high mobility Si1−xGex heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(4), 1731–1737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nardone, M.

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, Y. Busby, M. Pea, F. Evangelisti, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, M. Nardone, and C. Ferrari, “Strain relaxation in high Ge content SiGe layers deposited on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nash, L.

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nellist, P. D.

P. D. Nellist and S. J. Pennycook, “The principles and interpretation of annular dark-field Z-contrast imaging,” Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 113, 147–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nicolet, M. A.

M. Mäenpää, T. F. Kuech, M. A. Nicolet, S. S. Lau, and D. K. Sadana, “The heteroepitaxy of Ge on Si: a comparison of chemical vapor and vacuum deposited layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 1076–1083 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nicotra, G.

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, Y. Busby, M. Pea, F. Evangelisti, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, M. Nardone, and C. Ferrari, “Strain relaxation in high Ge content SiGe layers deposited on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opitz, R.

V. M. Kaganer, R. Köhler, M. Schmidbauer, R. Opitz, and B. Jenichen, “X-ray diffraction peaks due to misfit dislocations in heteroepitaxial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 55(3), 1793–1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pea, M.

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, Y. Busby, M. Pea, F. Evangelisti, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, M. Nardone, and C. Ferrari, “Strain relaxation in high Ge content SiGe layers deposited on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pennycook, S. J.

P. D. Nellist and S. J. Pennycook, “The principles and interpretation of annular dark-field Z-contrast imaging,” Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 113, 147–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perna, A.

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near-infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piqueras, J.

J. Martinez and J. Piqueras, “On the mobility of polycrystalline semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 23(4), 297–303 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 658–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sadana, D. K.

M. Mäenpää, T. F. Kuech, M. A. Nicolet, S. S. Lau, and D. K. Sadana, “The heteroepitaxy of Ge on Si: a comparison of chemical vapor and vacuum deposited layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 1076–1083 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sahni, S.

J. Liu, H. J. Kim, O. Hul’ko, Y. H. Xie, S. Sahni, P. Bandaru, and E. Yablonovitch, “Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450°C,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 916–919 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidbauer, M.

V. M. Kaganer, R. Köhler, M. Schmidbauer, R. Opitz, and B. Jenichen, “X-ray diffraction peaks due to misfit dislocations in heteroepitaxial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 55(3), 1793–1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Silverman, P. J.

D. Monroe, Y. H. Xie, E. A. Fitzgerald, P. J. Silverman, and G. P. Watson, “Comparison of mobility limiting mechanisms in high mobility Si1−xGex heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(4), 1731–1737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sorianello, V.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 658–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near-infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Balbi, and G. Assanto, “Germanium near infrared detector in silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spinella, C.

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, Y. Busby, M. Pea, F. Evangelisti, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, M. Nardone, and C. Ferrari, “Strain relaxation in high Ge content SiGe layers deposited on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tersoff, J.

J. Tersoff and F. K. LeGoues, “Competing relaxation mechanisms in strained layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(22), 3570–3573 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, G. P.

D. Monroe, Y. H. Xie, E. A. Fitzgerald, P. J. Silverman, and G. P. Watson, “Comparison of mobility limiting mechanisms in high mobility Si1−xGex heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(4), 1731–1737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y. H.

J. Liu, H. J. Kim, O. Hul’ko, Y. H. Xie, S. Sahni, P. Bandaru, and E. Yablonovitch, “Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450°C,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 916–919 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Monroe, Y. H. Xie, E. A. Fitzgerald, P. J. Silverman, and G. P. Watson, “Comparison of mobility limiting mechanisms in high mobility Si1−xGex heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(4), 1731–1737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

J. Liu, H. J. Kim, O. Hul’ko, Y. H. Xie, S. Sahni, P. Bandaru, and E. Yablonovitch, “Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450°C,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 916–919 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Acta Metall.

P. Gay, P. B. Hirsch, and A. Kelly, “The estimation of dislocation densities in metals from X-ray data,” Acta Metall. 1(3), 315–319 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Imaging Electron Phys.

P. D. Nellist and S. J. Pennycook, “The principles and interpretation of annular dark-field Z-contrast imaging,” Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 113, 147–203 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

V. Sorianello, A. Perna, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Near-infrared absorption of germanium thin films on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Ferrari, L. Francesio, P. Franzosi, and S. Gennari, “High resolution x ray diffraction study of the Bragg peak width in highly mismatched III–V heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4233–4235 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Low temperature growth of Ge on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(20), 2276–2279 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, J. O. Chu, and S. Akbar, “Heteroepitaxial growth of Ge on (100) Si by ultrahigh vacuum, chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(27), 3574–3576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Balbi, and G. Assanto, “Germanium near infrared detector in silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

L. Colace, G. Masini, V. Cencelli, F. De Notaristefani, and G. Assanto, “A near-infrared digital camera in polycrystalline germanium integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(4), 311–315 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. Colace, V. Sorianello, M. Romagnoli, and G. Assanto, “Near-infrared Ge-on-Si power monitors monolithically integrated on SOI chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 658–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, P. Ferrara, G. Assanto, D. Fulgoni, and L. Nash, “Low dark-current germanium-on-silicon near-infrared detectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1813–1815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J.

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on silicon for near-infrared light sensing,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

C. Masini, L. Calace, G. Assanto, Hsin-Chiao Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance p-i-n Ge on Si photodetectors for the near infrared: from model to demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(6), 1092–1096 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Mäenpää, T. F. Kuech, M. A. Nicolet, S. S. Lau, and D. K. Sadana, “The heteroepitaxy of Ge on Si: a comparison of chemical vapor and vacuum deposited layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 1076–1083 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Baribeau, T. E. Jackman, D. C. Houghton, P. Maigne, and M. W. Denhoff, “Growth and characterization of Si1-x Gex and Ge epilayers on (100) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(12), 5738–5746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Evangelisti, M. Garozzo, and G. Conte, “Structure of vapor-deposited Ge films as a function of substrate temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7390–7396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, H. J. Kim, O. Hul’ko, Y. H. Xie, S. Sahni, P. Bandaru, and E. Yablonovitch, “Ge films grown on Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy below 450°C,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 916–919 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, Y. Busby, M. Pea, F. Evangelisti, G. Nicotra, C. Spinella, M. Nardone, and C. Ferrari, “Strain relaxation in high Ge content SiGe layers deposited on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

D. Monroe, Y. H. Xie, E. A. Fitzgerald, P. J. Silverman, and G. P. Watson, “Comparison of mobility limiting mechanisms in high mobility Si1−xGex heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11(4), 1731–1737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

G. Masini, L. Colace, F. Galluzzi, and G. Assanto, “Advances in the field of poly-Ge on Si near infrared photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 69-70, 257–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

V. M. Kaganer, R. Köhler, M. Schmidbauer, R. Opitz, and B. Jenichen, “X-ray diffraction peaks due to misfit dislocations in heteroepitaxial structures,” Phys. Rev. B 55(3), 1793–1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Tersoff and F. K. LeGoues, “Competing relaxation mechanisms in strained layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(22), 3570–3573 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron.

J. Martinez and J. Piqueras, “On the mobility of polycrystalline semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 23(4), 297–303 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2006).

C. Claeys and E. Simoen, Fundamental and Technological Aspects of Extended Defects in Germanium (Springer, 2009).

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics (Springer, 2004).

D. J. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, Silicon Photonics II (Springer, 2011).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) HR-XRD ω−2θ diffraction profile of Ge-on-Si films grown at various substrate temperatures. (b) FWHM of Ge (004) diffraction peaks versus substrate temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRD large angle scan of Ge-on-Si films grown at 300 (blue) and 500°C (red).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional TEM images of samples grown at (a) 300°C and (b) 500°C: the STEM-HAADF image is shown upward, the BF image downward. The difference in surface morphology is apparent.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional HR TEM in [011] zone axis of samples evaporated (a) at 300 °C and (b) at 500 °C. The insets show the Fourier transforms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Fourier transform of the HR TEM image from the sample grown at 500°C (Fig. 4(b)). (b) Color-coded HR TEM image of the film in Fig. 4(b), with colours corresponding to the spatial frequencies circled in the FT.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Near-infrared optical absorption of Ge-on-Si thin films and Ge-bulk versus wavelength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffusion length of minority carriers (circles, vertical axis on the left) and mobility of majority carriers (squares, vertical axis on the right) of evaporated Ge thin films versus temperature.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Dark current density and 1.55μm responsivity versus reverse bias for normal incidence Ge-on-Si photodetectors fabricated at 300°C. (b) Schematic top and side views of the device.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Dark current density and 1.55μm responsivity versus reverse bias in Ge-on-SOI waveguide photodetectors fabricated at 300°C. (b) Schematic side and top views of the device.

Equations (1)

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R ( V ) = λ 1.24 ( 1 Θ ) ( 1 e α x ( V ) 1 + α L n )

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