Abstract

Superlenses create sub-diffraction-limit images by reconstructing the evanescent fields arising from an object. We study the lateral, vertical, and spectral field distribution of three different perovskite-based superlenses by means of scattering-type near-field microscopy. Sub-diffraction-limit resolution is observed for all samples with an image contrast depending on losses such as scattering and absorption. For the three lenses superlensing is observed at slightly different frequencies resulting in an overall broad frequency range of 3.6 THz around 20 THz.

© 2011 OSA

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  28. F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning interferometric apertureless microscopy: Optical imaging at 10 Angstrom resolution,” Science269, 1083–1085 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: Optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science251, 1468–1470 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. C. Schneider, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 143101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 256403 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.5, 269–275 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.182, 321–328 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex Optical Constants on a Subwavelength Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 3029–3032 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light-matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418, 159–162 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanomechanical Resonance Tuning and Phase Effects in Optical Near-Field Interaction,” Nano Lett.4, 1669–1672 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  37. P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308, 1607–1608 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. I. Fedorov, J. Petzelt, V. Zelezny, G. A. Komandin, A. A. Volkov, K. Brooks, Y. Huang, and N. Setter, “Far-infrared dielectric response of PbTiO3 and PbZr1–xTixO3 thin ferroelectric films,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter7, 4313–4323 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

S. C. Kehr, Y. Liu, L. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun.2, 249, (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nature Mater.8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321, 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nature mater.7, 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

S. Kamba, D. Nuzhnyy, M. Savinov, J. S̆ebek, J. Petzelt, J. Prokles̆ka, R. Haumont, and J. Kreisel, “Infrared and terahertz studies of polar phonons and magnetodielectric effect in multiferroic BiFeO3 ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B75, 024403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Schneider, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 143101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science316, 430–432 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (7)

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science313, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt and T. Philbin, “General relativity in electrical engineering,” New J. Phys.8, 247–1–18 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. Mock, B. Justice, S. Cummer, J. Pendry, A. Starr, and D. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Kang, G. S. Lee, H. S. Lee, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, S.-J. Cho, B. Xiao, H. Morkoç, and P. G. Snyder, “Infrared ellipsometric study on PZT thin films,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.49, 1604–1610 (2006).

2005 (3)

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308, 1607–1608 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science22, 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. J. Yen, W. Padilla, N. Fang, D. Vier, D. Smith, J. Pendry, D. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanomechanical Resonance Tuning and Phase Effects in Optical Near-Field Interaction,” Nano Lett.4, 1669–1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light-matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418, 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

R. Shelby, D. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292, 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. Pendy, I. Young, D. Larkman, D. Gilderdale, and J. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science291, 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.182, 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex Optical Constants on a Subwavelength Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.5, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

I. Fedorov, J. Petzelt, V. Zelezny, G. A. Komandin, A. A. Volkov, K. Brooks, Y. Huang, and N. Setter, “Far-infrared dielectric response of PbTiO3 and PbZr1–xTixO3 thin ferroelectric films,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter7, 4313–4323 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning interferometric apertureless microscopy: Optical imaging at 10 Angstrom resolution,” Science269, 1083–1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

F. Zenhausern, M. O’Boyle, and H. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Jin, T. Tiefel, M. McCormack, R. Fastnacht, R. Ramesh, and L. Chen, “Thousandfold change in resistivity in magnetoresistive La-Ca-Mn-O films,” Science264, 413–415 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: Optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

M. K. Wu, J. Ashburn, C. Torng, P. Hor, R. Meng, L. Gao, Z. Huang, Y. Wang, and C. Chu, “Superconductivity at 93 K in a new mixed-phase Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58, 908–910 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ɛ and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp.10, 509–514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

W. Spitzer, R. C. Miller, D. Kleinman, and L. Howarth, “Far infrared dielectric dispersion in BaTiO3, SrTiO3, and TiO2,” Phys. Rev.126, 1710–1721 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ashburn, J.

M. K. Wu, J. Ashburn, C. Torng, P. Hor, R. Meng, L. Gao, Z. Huang, Y. Wang, and C. Chu, “Superconductivity at 93 K in a new mixed-phase Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58, 908–910 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science316, 430–432 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachelot, R.

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.5, 269–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nature Mater.8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321, 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D.

T. J. Yen, W. Padilla, N. Fang, D. Vier, D. Smith, J. Pendry, D. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: Optical microscopy on a nanometric scale,” Science251, 1468–1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooks, K.

I. Fedorov, J. Petzelt, V. Zelezny, G. A. Komandin, A. A. Volkov, K. Brooks, Y. Huang, and N. Setter, “Far-infrared dielectric response of PbTiO3 and PbZr1–xTixO3 thin ferroelectric films,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter7, 4313–4323 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cebula, M.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

S. Jin, T. Tiefel, M. McCormack, R. Fastnacht, R. Ramesh, and L. Chen, “Thousandfold change in resistivity in magnetoresistive La-Ca-Mn-O films,” Science264, 413–415 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S.-J.

T. D. Kang, G. S. Lee, H. S. Lee, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, S.-J. Cho, B. Xiao, H. Morkoç, and P. G. Snyder, “Infrared ellipsometric study on PZT thin films,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.49, 1604–1610 (2006).

Chu, C.

M. K. Wu, J. Ashburn, C. Torng, P. Hor, R. Meng, L. Gao, Z. Huang, Y. Wang, and C. Chu, “Superconductivity at 93 K in a new mixed-phase Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58, 908–910 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cummer, S.

D. Schurig, J. Mock, B. Justice, S. Cummer, J. Pendry, A. Starr, and D. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damjanovic, D.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science316, 430–432 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308, 1607–1608 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eng, L.

S. C. Kehr, Y. Liu, L. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun.2, 249, (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Schneider, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 143101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science22, 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. Padilla, N. Fang, D. Vier, D. Smith, J. Pendry, D. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303, 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fastnacht, R.

S. Jin, T. Tiefel, M. McCormack, R. Fastnacht, R. Ramesh, and L. Chen, “Thousandfold change in resistivity in magnetoresistive La-Ca-Mn-O films,” Science264, 413–415 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedorov, I.

I. Fedorov, J. Petzelt, V. Zelezny, G. A. Komandin, A. A. Volkov, K. Brooks, Y. Huang, and N. Setter, “Far-infrared dielectric response of PbTiO3 and PbZr1–xTixO3 thin ferroelectric films,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter7, 4313–4323 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fox, G.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gajek, M.

S. C. Kehr, Y. Liu, L. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun.2, 249, (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

M. K. Wu, J. Ashburn, C. Torng, P. Hor, R. Meng, L. Gao, Z. Huang, Y. Wang, and C. Chu, “Superconductivity at 93 K in a new mixed-phase Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58, 908–910 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gevorgian, S.

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N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 051606 (2006).
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T. J. Yen, W. Padilla, N. Fang, D. Vier, D. Smith, J. Pendry, D. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303, 1494–1496 (2004).
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S. C. Kehr, Y. Liu, L. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun.2, 249, (2011).
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J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nature Mater.8, 568–571 (2009).
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S. C. Kehr, Y. Liu, L. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun.2, 249, (2011).
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J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nature Mater.8, 568–571 (2009).
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X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nature mater.7, 435–441 (2008).
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J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321, 930 (2008).
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N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science22, 534–537 (2005).
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T. J. Yen, W. Padilla, N. Fang, D. Vier, D. Smith, J. Pendry, D. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303, 1494–1496 (2004).
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C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 203901 (2005).
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C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 203901 (2005).
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F. Zenhausern, M. O’Boyle, and H. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65, 1623–1625 (1994).
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G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.5, 269–275 (1999).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 051606 (2006).
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T. D. Kang, G. S. Lee, H. S. Lee, H. Lee, Y. S. Kang, S.-J. Cho, B. Xiao, H. Morkoç, and P. G. Snyder, “Infrared ellipsometric study on PZT thin films,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.49, 1604–1610 (2006).

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

I. Fedorov, J. Petzelt, V. Zelezny, G. A. Komandin, A. A. Volkov, K. Brooks, Y. Huang, and N. Setter, “Far-infrared dielectric response of PbTiO3 and PbZr1–xTixO3 thin ferroelectric films,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter7, 4313–4323 (1995).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

S. C. Kehr, Y. Liu, L. Martin, P. Yu, M. Gajek, S.-Y. Yang, C.-H. Yang, M. Wenzel, R. Jacob, H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Helm, X. Zhang, L. Eng, and R. Ramesh, “Near-field examination of perovskite-based superlenses and superlens-enhanced probe-object coupling,” Nat. Commun.2, 249, (2011).
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Nature (1)

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light-matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature418, 159–162 (2002).
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Nature mater. (1)

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nature mater.7, 435–441 (2008).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

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W. Spitzer, R. C. Miller, D. Kleinman, and L. Howarth, “Far infrared dielectric dispersion in BaTiO3, SrTiO3, and TiO2,” Phys. Rev.126, 1710–1721 (1962).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

M. K. Wu, J. Ashburn, C. Torng, P. Hor, R. Meng, L. Gao, Z. Huang, Y. Wang, and C. Chu, “Superconductivity at 93 K in a new mixed-phase Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett.58, 908–910 (1987).
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R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex Optical Constants on a Subwavelength Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 256403 (2008).
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J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85, 3966–3969 (2000).
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D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 203901 (2005).
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Science (14)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

s-NSIM setup and perovskite properties. (a) Sketch of the experimental setup including the superlens structure, the geometry at the near-field probe, and the free-electron laser light source [22]. The superlenses consist of two layers A and B of thicknesses d and 2d (d=200 nm), respectively, with A–B being BFO-STO, PZT-STO, or BFO-PZT. As for objects, we study structured SRO on a STO substrate. (b) Perovskite structure of the materials used with lattice constants in Å determined by X-ray diffraction; (c) imaginary and real parts of the dielectric constants ɛ of all constituents taken either from literature (for BFO, STO, and PZT [2426]) or determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (for SRO, see [22]); (d) real parts of the dielectric constants at the high-frequency side of their phonon resonances depicted in c. The arrows indicate the frequencies at which superlensing is expected for superlens systems with A–B being BFO-PZT, BFO-STO, and PZT-STO (from small to large frequencies), whereas the green box highlights the area of a phonon-enhanced near-field signal in the top-most layers STO and PZT. (Figure adapted from [22])

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-field images of different superlenses. For different sample types, we show (from left to right): topography images (scalebar is 10 μm), third-harmonic near-field signal NF3Ω as a function of the distance h (vertical offset added for better visibility, dashed lines show NF3Ω = 0), and near-field images showing NF2Ω or NF3Ω at two selected frequencies (same color range) at which either the phonon-enhanced signal (left) or the superlens-enhanced signal (right) dominates. (a) SRO objects only, distance dependence measured with FEL, near-field images with CO2 laser. (b)–(d) Different types of superlenses. On areas with and without SRO objects on the opposite site of the lens (see Fig. 1a), we observe different distance dependences: at low frequencies, the phonon-enhanced signal is present on all areas of the sample, whereas at high frequencies localized fields are present only on SRO objects due to the superlensing effect. At these frequencies, we observe a clear contrast with sub-wavelength resolution (images on the far-right). Please note that for the BFO-PZT superlens (d) the phase of the superlens contribution is opposite to the phase of the phonon-enhanced signal resulting in an inverted contrast.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transfer functions for the three different perovskite-based superlenses, namely (a) BFO-STO, (b) PZT-STO, and (c) BFO-PZT. The transmittance |T|2 is shown as a function of frequency f and wavenumber k using materials properties from literature [24, 25, 38]. For each superlens, we show (from left to right): 1. sketch of the superlens, 2. isothermal contour of the transfer function (the white line is the light line), and 3. the transmittance as a function of the tangential wave vector up to 10k0 for the corresponding superlensing frequencies (peaks at kt = k0 correspond to total internal reflection). For the latter, we compare the response of the superlens (blue) with the response of a reference sample (red) for which layer B consists of material A.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near-field spectroscopy on three different samples. We compare the spectral near-field response on areas with (red) and without (green) SRO objects for three different superlenses. The highlighted areas mark the additional fields on the SRO objects due to the superlensing effect, which is present when the real parts of the permittivities of the layers A and B have opposite signs (theoretical position marked with arrows in the Re(ɛ) diagrams). For different types of superlenses, this response is located at slightly different frequencies with different bandwidth. It characteristically shifts to larger frequencies with increasing distance h between probe and sample surface [22]. (a) BFO-STO superlens, (b) PZT-STO superlens, and (c) BFO-PZT superlens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the near-field spectra on all lenses for h = 0 nm with the same NF3Ω-scale. The BFO-STO superlens shows the highest signal, whereas it is decreased for PZT-STO and BFO-PZT due to interface roughness and higher material absorption, respectively.

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