Abstract

An Er:Yb co-doped P2O5-La2O5 based glass has been synthesized and used for producing 1.6 cm-long active optical waveguides using a low repetition (1 kHz) rate Ti:Al2O3 fs-laser amplifier. Before processing, the laser energy deposition profile for an elliptically shaped beam was simulated, and the best processing conditions for optimizing the focal volume shape, minimizing non-linear propagation effects, were determined. Under these conditions, a multi-scan writing approach was used to maximize the refractive index change induced and to minimize the transmission losses. After processing, the optical powers propagating inside the waveguide (pump absorption, co- and counter-propagating ASE, low signal gain, …) were measured for uni- and bi-directional pumping schemes, and the measurements were simulated and fitted using an ad hoc developed model to describe the behavior of laser written waveguides. The measurements provide internal gain figures comparable to the best ones reported in phosphate glasses for low repetition rate writing even with larger insertion losses. The simulations provide access to key parameters of the waveguide characteristics (coupling losses and propagation losses, Yb3+ ⇔ Er3+ energy transfer rates, Er3+ upconversion coefficient), which have been used to model the expected performance of these structures in terms of length and doping level. A moderate increase of the Er3+ and Yb3+ doping level would potentially lead to net gain values up to 9.4 dB for a waveguide length of 25 mm.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. J. A. Vallés, J. Solis, J. A. Sánchez-Martín, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and A. Ferrer, “Assesment of Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh contributions to the transmission losses in fs-laser written Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 5, 39–42 (2010).
  27. http://www.kigre.com/files/qxdata.pdf

2010 (5)

M. Pospiech, M. Emons, B. Väckenstedt, G. Palmer, and U. Morgner, “Single-sweep laser writing of 3D-waveguide devices,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6994–7001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Vallés, A. Ferrer, J. A. Sánchez-Martin, A. R. de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Solis, “New Characterization Technique for Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Yb/Er-Codoped Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(6), 996–1002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Study of an optimised bidirectional pump scheme for fs-laser written Yb/Er-codoped integrated waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, J. Solis, J. A. Sánchez-Martín, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and A. Ferrer, “Assesment of Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh contributions to the transmission losses in fs-laser written Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 5, 39–42 (2010).

2009 (1)

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-Power Yb3+-Doped Phosphate Fiber Amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121109-1–121109-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser-photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W. J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9443–9458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Study of the influence of femtosecond laser polarisation on direct writing of waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13158–13163 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Martin and J. C. Knight, “Silica-Clad Neodymium-Doped Lanthanum Phosphate Fibers and Fiber Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(4), 574–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Cortes, “Full characterization of Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 152–159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Martin and R. S. Quimby, “Experimental evidence of the validity of the McCumber theory relating emission and absorption for rare-earth glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(9), 1770–1775 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, “Nd-doped phosphate glasses for high-energy/high-peak-power lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264(1-2), 318–341 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brow, E. Metwalli, and D. L. Sidebottom, “Properties and Structure of Lanthanum Phosphate Glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4102, 88–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. Tanguy, C. Larat, and J. P. Pocholle, “Modelling of the erbium-ytterbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 153(1-3), 172–183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, Sh. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

B. Majaron, M. Čopič, M. Lukač, and M. Marinček, “Influence of hole burning on laser pumping dynamics and efficiency in Yb:Er phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 2138, 183–190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134(2A), A299–A306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Bennion, I.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser-photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berdejo, V.

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Study of an optimised bidirectional pump scheme for fs-laser written Yb/Er-codoped integrated waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brow, R. K.

M. Karabulut, E. Metwalli, and R. K. Brow, “Structure and properties of lanthanum-aluminum-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 283(1-3), 211–219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brow, E. Metwalli, and D. L. Sidebottom, “Properties and Structure of Lanthanum Phosphate Glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4102, 88–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-Power Yb3+-Doped Phosphate Fiber Amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. H.

J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, “Nd-doped phosphate glasses for high-energy/high-peak-power lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264(1-2), 318–341 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. J.

Cheng, Y.

Chiodo, N.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Copic, M.

B. Majaron, M. Čopič, M. Lukač, and M. Marinček, “Influence of hole burning on laser pumping dynamics and efficiency in Yb:Er phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 2138, 183–190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cortes, J.

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Cortes, “Full characterization of Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 152–159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

de la Cruz, A. R.

J. A. Vallés, A. Ferrer, J. A. Sánchez-Martin, A. R. de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Solis, “New Characterization Technique for Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Yb/Er-Codoped Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(6), 996–1002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, P.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser-photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-Power Yb3+-Doped Phosphate Fiber Amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dubov, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser-photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

Emons, M.

Fernández, H.

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121109-1–121109-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrer, A.

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, A. Ferrer, J. A. Sánchez-Martin, A. R. de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Solis, “New Characterization Technique for Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Yb/Er-Codoped Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(6), 996–1002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Study of an optimised bidirectional pump scheme for fs-laser written Yb/Er-codoped integrated waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, J. Solis, J. A. Sánchez-Martín, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and A. Ferrer, “Assesment of Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh contributions to the transmission losses in fs-laser written Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 5, 39–42 (2010).

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121109-1–121109-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gawelda, W.

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121109-1–121109-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Herman, P. R.

Hewak, D. W.

Hirao, K.

Ho, S.

Honkanen, S.

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, Sh. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jiang, S.

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-Power Yb3+-Doped Phosphate Fiber Amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Sh.

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, Sh. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karabulut, M.

M. Karabulut, E. Metwalli, and R. K. Brow, “Structure and properties of lanthanum-aluminum-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 283(1-3), 211–219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

Killi, A.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

R. A. Martin and J. C. Knight, “Silica-Clad Neodymium-Doped Lanthanum Phosphate Fibers and Fiber Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(4), 574–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Laporta, P.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Larat, C.

E. Tanguy, C. Larat, and J. P. Pocholle, “Modelling of the erbium-ytterbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 153(1-3), 172–183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-Power Yb3+-Doped Phosphate Fiber Amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lukac, M.

B. Majaron, M. Čopič, M. Lukač, and M. Marinček, “Influence of hole burning on laser pumping dynamics and efficiency in Yb:Er phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 2138, 183–190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mairaj, A. K.

Majaron, B.

B. Majaron, M. Čopič, M. Lukač, and M. Marinček, “Influence of hole burning on laser pumping dynamics and efficiency in Yb:Er phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 2138, 183–190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marincek, M.

B. Majaron, M. Čopič, M. Lukač, and M. Marinček, “Influence of hole burning on laser pumping dynamics and efficiency in Yb:Er phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 2138, 183–190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

Martin, R. A.

R. A. Martin and J. C. Knight, “Silica-Clad Neodymium-Doped Lanthanum Phosphate Fibers and Fiber Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(4), 574–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. M.

Masuda, M.

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134(2A), A299–A306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Metwalli, E.

M. Karabulut, E. Metwalli, and R. K. Brow, “Structure and properties of lanthanum-aluminum-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 283(1-3), 211–219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brow, E. Metwalli, and D. L. Sidebottom, “Properties and Structure of Lanthanum Phosphate Glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4102, 88–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V. K.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser-photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Minoshima, K.

Miura, K.

Morgner, U.

M. Pospiech, M. Emons, B. Väckenstedt, G. Palmer, and U. Morgner, “Single-sweep laser writing of 3D-waveguide devices,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6994–7001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, Sh. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M. L.

Ohtsuki, T.

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, Sh. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, G.

Peyghambarian, N.

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, Sh. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ping Hua, H. N.

Pocholle, J. P.

E. Tanguy, C. Larat, and J. P. Pocholle, “Modelling of the erbium-ytterbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 153(1-3), 172–183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pospiech, M.

Puerto, D.

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121109-1–121109-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rebolledo, M. A.

J. A. Vallés, A. Ferrer, J. A. Sánchez-Martin, A. R. de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Solis, “New Characterization Technique for Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Yb/Er-Codoped Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(6), 996–1002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Study of an optimised bidirectional pump scheme for fs-laser written Yb/Er-codoped integrated waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, J. Solis, J. A. Sánchez-Martín, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and A. Ferrer, “Assesment of Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh contributions to the transmission losses in fs-laser written Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 5, 39–42 (2010).

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Cortes, “Full characterization of Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 152–159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz de la Cruz, A.

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Study of an optimised bidirectional pump scheme for fs-laser written Yb/Er-codoped integrated waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, J. Solis, J. A. Sánchez-Martín, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and A. Ferrer, “Assesment of Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh contributions to the transmission losses in fs-laser written Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 5, 39–42 (2010).

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121109-1–121109-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rutt,

Sánchez-Martin, J. A.

J. A. Vallés, A. Ferrer, J. A. Sánchez-Martin, A. R. de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Solis, “New Characterization Technique for Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Yb/Er-Codoped Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(6), 996–1002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Martín, J. A.

J. A. Vallés, J. Solis, J. A. Sánchez-Martín, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and A. Ferrer, “Assesment of Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh contributions to the transmission losses in fs-laser written Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 5, 39–42 (2010).

Shihoyama, K.

Sidebottom, D. L.

R. K. Brow, E. Metwalli, and D. L. Sidebottom, “Properties and Structure of Lanthanum Phosphate Glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4102, 88–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, J.

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121109-1–121109-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, S.

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-Power Yb3+-Doped Phosphate Fiber Amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

J. A. Vallés, A. Ferrer, J. A. Sánchez-Martin, A. R. de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Solis, “New Characterization Technique for Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Yb/Er-Codoped Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(6), 996–1002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Study of an optimised bidirectional pump scheme for fs-laser written Yb/Er-codoped integrated waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, J. Solis, J. A. Sánchez-Martín, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and A. Ferrer, “Assesment of Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh contributions to the transmission losses in fs-laser written Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 5, 39–42 (2010).

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121109-1–121109-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spence, D. J.

Sugimoto, N.

Sugioka, K.

Suratwala, T. I.

J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, “Nd-doped phosphate glasses for high-energy/high-peak-power lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264(1-2), 318–341 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanguy, E.

E. Tanguy, C. Larat, and J. P. Pocholle, “Modelling of the erbium-ytterbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 153(1-3), 172–183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

Urbanek, K. E.

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-Power Yb3+-Doped Phosphate Fiber Amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Väckenstedt, B.

Vallés, J. A.

J. A. Vallés, A. Ferrer, J. A. Sánchez-Martin, A. R. de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Solis, “New Characterization Technique for Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Yb/Er-Codoped Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(6), 996–1002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Study of an optimised bidirectional pump scheme for fs-laser written Yb/Er-codoped integrated waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, J. Solis, J. A. Sánchez-Martín, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and A. Ferrer, “Assesment of Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh contributions to the transmission losses in fs-laser written Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 5, 39–42 (2010).

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Cortes, “Full characterization of Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 152–159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121109-1–121109-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. A. Vallés, A. Ferrer, J. A. Sánchez-Martin, A. R. de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Solis, “New Characterization Technique for Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Yb/Er-Codoped Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(6), 996–1002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, and J. Cortes, “Full characterization of Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(2), 152–159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, “Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 277–285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Lee, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Sinha, K. E. Urbanek, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “High-Power Yb3+-Doped Phosphate Fiber Amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 93–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser-photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. A. Martin and J. C. Knight, “Silica-Clad Neodymium-Doped Lanthanum Phosphate Fibers and Fiber Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(4), 574–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. (1)

J. A. Vallés, J. Solis, J. A. Sánchez-Martín, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, M. A. Rebolledo, and A. Ferrer, “Assesment of Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh contributions to the transmission losses in fs-laser written Er/Yb-codoped phosphate glass waveguides,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 5, 39–42 (2010).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, “Nd-doped phosphate glasses for high-energy/high-peak-power lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263–264(1-2), 318–341 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Karabulut, E. Metwalli, and R. K. Brow, “Structure and properties of lanthanum-aluminum-phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 283(1-3), 211–219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Tanguy, C. Larat, and J. P. Pocholle, “Modelling of the erbium-ytterbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 153(1-3), 172–183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, “Study of an optimised bidirectional pump scheme for fs-laser written Yb/Er-codoped integrated waveguides,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134(2A), A299–A306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, Sh. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Majaron, M. Čopič, M. Lukač, and M. Marinček, “Influence of hole burning on laser pumping dynamics and efficiency in Yb:Er phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 2138, 183–190 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brow, E. Metwalli, and D. L. Sidebottom, “Properties and Structure of Lanthanum Phosphate Glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4102, 88–94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

http://www.kigre.com/files/qxdata.pdf

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral absorption of the glass around the Yb3+ and Er3+ absorption bands.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Guided modes at (a) 1550 nm, and (b) 980 nm, of the waveguide written with the parameters given in the Section 2.B.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bidirectional pump setup for active characterization of the waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured relative gain as a function of the input pump power for (a) a unidirectional pump scheme and (b) for a bi-directional pump scheme where PL1 is kept at its maximum output power (374.5 mW) and PL2 output power is increased.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental values (•) of (a) pump power attenuation and (b) net gain as a function of the input pump power from PL1 together with the numerical fits (solid lines) for these dependences.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured (•) net gain in the dual-pump configuration as a function of the input pump power from PL2, for the maximum available pump power from PL1 (374.5 mW), together with the numerical fit to this dependence.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Net gain of a bidirectionally pumped amplifier (374.5 mW + 355.2 mW) is plotted against waveguide length for 4 different simulated waveguides (see text).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Net gain of a bidirectionally pumped amplifier (374.5 mW + 355.2 mW) of a 25-mm long waveguide vs. the erbium concentration for the same 4 simulated waveguides as Fig. 7.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Best-fit Parameters

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