Abstract

We present an overview of laser results we obtained with Yb-doped calcium fluoride and its isotype strontium fluoride. In order to study the laser performance in femtosecond and high power regimes, spectral and thermal properties are first discussed including the potential of these crystals at room and cryogenic temperatures. Experimental demonstrations of high-power and ultrashort pulse oscillators and amplifiers are presented and analyzed.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

2010

2009

M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 — a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Pugžlys, G. Andriukaitis, D. Sidorov, A. Irshad, A. Baltuška, W. J. Lai, P. B. Phua, L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, R. Li, S. Ališauskas, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, L. Giniunas, and R. Danielius, “Spectroscopy and lasing of cryogenically cooled Yb,Na:CaF2,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 339–350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100- femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Aubry, A. Bensalah, P. Gredin, G. Patriarche, D. Vivien, and M. Mortier, “Synthesis and optical characterizations of Yb-doped CaF2 ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 750–753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, J. Boudeile, I. Martial, M. Hanna, P. Georges, P. O. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Low-repetition-rate femtosecond operation in extended-cavity mode-locked Yb:CALGO laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 196–198 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Friebel, F. Druon, J. Boudeile, D. N. Papadopoulos, M. Hanna, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, R. Moncorgé, C. Cassagne, and G. Boudebs, “Diode-pumped 99 fs Yb:CaF2 oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1474–1476 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Buenting, H. Sayinc, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, and D. Kracht, “Regenerative thin disk amplifier with combined gain spectra producing 500 μJ sub 200 fs pulses,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8046–8050 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pugžlys, G. Andriukaitis, A. Baltuška, L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, R. Li, W. J. Lai, P. B. Phua, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, and S. Ališauskas, “Multi-mJ, 200-fs, cw-pumped, cryogenically cooled, Yb,Na:CaF2 amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2075–2077 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Druon, D. N. Papadopoulos, J. Boudeile, M. Hanna, P. Georges, A. Benayad, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, “Mode-locked operation of a diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:SrF2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2354–2356 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

T. T. Basiev, M. E. Doroshenko, P. P. Fedorov, V. A. Konyushkin, S. V. Kuznetsov, V. V. Osiko, and M. Sh. Akchurin, “Efficient laser based on CaF2-SrF2-YbF3 nanoceramics,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 521–523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Boudeile, J. Didierjean, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Ménard, R. Moncorgé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Thermal behaviour of ytterbium-doped fluorite crystals under high power pumping,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10098–10109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, R. Boedefeld, S. Podleska, S. Klingebiel, C. Wandt, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, R. Uecker, A. Jochmann, J. Hein, and M. C. Kaluza, “Terawatt diode-pumped Yb:CaF2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2770–2772 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neuhaus, D. Bauer, J. Zhang, A. Killi, J. Kleinbauer, M. Kumkar, S. Weiler, M. Guina, D. H. Sutter, and T. Dekorsy, “Subpicosecond thin-disk laser oscillator with pulse energies of up to 25.9 microjoules by use of an active multipass geometry,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20530–20539 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Popov, P. P. Fedorov, V. A. Konyushkin, A. N. Nakladov, S. V. Kuznetsov, V. V. Osiko, and T. T. Basiev, “Thermal conductivity of single crystals of Sr1–xYbxF2+x solid solution,” Dokl. Phys. 421(5), 614–616 (2008).

P. A. Popov, P. P. Fedorov, S. V. Kuznetsov, V. A. Konyushkin, V. V. Osiko, and T. T. Basiev, “Thermal conductivity of single crystals of Ba1–xYbxF2+x solid solution,” Dokl. Phys. 421(2), 183–185 (2008).

P. Popov, P. Fedorov, S. Kuznetsov, V. Konyushkin, V. Osiko, and T. Basiev, “Thermal conductivity of single crystals of Ca1-xYbxF2+x solid solution,” Dokl. Phys. 53(4), 198–200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Petit, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, X. Portier, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopy of Yb3+:CaF2: From isolated centers to clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, M. von Edlinger, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, “Comparative spectroscopic and laser properties of Yb3+-doped CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 539–542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 448–459 (2007).

M. Siebold, M. Hornung, S. Bock, J. Hein, M. C. Kaluza, J. Wemans, and R. Uecker, “Broad-band regenerative laser amplification in ytterbium-doped calcium fluoride (Yb:CaF2),” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 543–547 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Popov, K. V. Dukel’skii, I. A. Mironov, A. N. Smirnov, P. L. Smolyanskii, P. P. Fedorov, V. Osiko, and T. Basiev, “Thermal conductivity of CaF2 optical ceramic,” Dokl. Phys. 412(2), 185–187 (2007).

F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “New laser crystals for the generation of ultrashort pulses,” C. R. Phys. 8(2), 153–164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Siebold, J. Hein, M. C. Kaluza, and R. Uecker, “High-peak-power tunable laser operation of Yb:SrF2.,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1818–1820 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: the case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers - Part I: theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers - Part II: evaluation of quantum efficiencies and thermo-optic coefficients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1235–1243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ito, C. Goutaudier, Y. Guyot, K. Lebbou, T. Fukuda, and G. Boulon, “Crystal growth, Yb spectroscopy, concentration quenching analysis and potentiality of laser emission in Ca1-xYbxF2+x,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(8), 1501–1521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 — a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).
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S. Ricaud, F. Druon, D. N. Papadopoulos, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, M. Delaigue, Y. Zaouter, A. Courjaud, P. Georges, and E. Mottay, “Short-pulse and high-repetition-rate diode-pumped Yb:CaF2 regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2415–2417 (2010).
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M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 — a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).
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F. Druon, D. N. Papadopoulos, J. Boudeile, M. Hanna, P. Georges, A. Benayad, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, “Mode-locked operation of a diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:SrF2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2354–2356 (2009).
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V. Petit, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, X. Portier, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopy of Yb3+:CaF2: From isolated centers to clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085131 (2008).
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A. Lucca, G. Debourg, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2767–2769 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Menard, and R. Moncorgé, “CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(6), 681–684 (2004).
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A. Lucca, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power tunable diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1879–1881 (2004).
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Catlow, C. R. A.

C. R. A. Catlow, A. V. Chadwick, G. N. Greaves, and L. M. Moroney, “Direct observations of the dopant environment in fluorites using EXAFS,” Nature 312(5995), 601–604 (1984).
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C. R. A. Catlow, A. V. Chadwick, G. N. Greaves, and L. M. Moroney, “Direct observations of the dopant environment in fluorites using EXAFS,” Nature 312(5995), 601–604 (1984).
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Chénais, S.

S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: the case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers - Part I: theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers - Part II: evaluation of quantum efficiencies and thermo-optic coefficients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1235–1243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clausnitzer, T.

Courjaud, A.

Danielius, R.

Debourg, G.

Dekorsy, T.

Delaigue, M.

Didierjean, J.

Doroshenko, M. E.

Doualan, J. L.

S. Ricaud, D. N. Papadopoulos, A. Pellegrina, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Courjaud, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and F. Druon, “High-power diode-pumped cryogenically cooled Yb:CaF₂ laser with extremely low quantum defect,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1602–1604 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Benayad, V. Ménard, R. Moncorgé, J. Boudeile, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Yb3+ doped (Ca,Sr,Ba)F2 for high power laser applications,” Laser Phys. 20(2), 533–536 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ricaud, D. N. Papadopoulos, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, A. Courjaud, E. Mottay, P. Georges, and F. Druon, “Highly efficient, high-power, broadly tunable, cryogenically cooled and diode-pumped Yb:CaF2.,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3757–3759 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ricaud, F. Druon, D. N. Papadopoulos, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, M. Delaigue, Y. Zaouter, A. Courjaud, P. Georges, and E. Mottay, “Short-pulse and high-repetition-rate diode-pumped Yb:CaF2 regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2415–2417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 — a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Friebel, F. Druon, J. Boudeile, D. N. Papadopoulos, M. Hanna, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, R. Moncorgé, C. Cassagne, and G. Boudebs, “Diode-pumped 99 fs Yb:CaF2 oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1474–1476 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Druon, D. N. Papadopoulos, J. Boudeile, M. Hanna, P. Georges, A. Benayad, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, “Mode-locked operation of a diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:SrF2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2354–2356 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Boudeile, J. Didierjean, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Ménard, R. Moncorgé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Thermal behaviour of ytterbium-doped fluorite crystals under high power pumping,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10098–10109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, M. von Edlinger, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, “Comparative spectroscopic and laser properties of Yb3+-doped CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 539–542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lucca, G. Debourg, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2767–2769 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lucca, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power tunable diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1879–1881 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Menard, and R. Moncorgé, “CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(6), 681–684 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J.-L.

V. Petit, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, X. Portier, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopy of Yb3+:CaF2: From isolated centers to clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Druon, F.

S. Ricaud, D. N. Papadopoulos, A. Pellegrina, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Courjaud, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and F. Druon, “High-power diode-pumped cryogenically cooled Yb:CaF₂ laser with extremely low quantum defect,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1602–1604 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zaouter, I. Martial, N. Aubry, J. Didierjean, C. Hönninger, E. Mottay, F. Druon, P. Georges, and F. Balembois, “Direct amplification of ultrashort pulses in μ-pulling-down Yb:YAG single crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 748–750 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “New materials for short-pulse amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 268–273 (2011).

S. Ricaud, F. Druon, D. N. Papadopoulos, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, M. Delaigue, Y. Zaouter, A. Courjaud, P. Georges, and E. Mottay, “Short-pulse and high-repetition-rate diode-pumped Yb:CaF2 regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2415–2417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Benayad, V. Ménard, R. Moncorgé, J. Boudeile, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Yb3+ doped (Ca,Sr,Ba)F2 for high power laser applications,” Laser Phys. 20(2), 533–536 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ricaud, D. N. Papadopoulos, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, A. Courjaud, E. Mottay, P. Georges, and F. Druon, “Highly efficient, high-power, broadly tunable, cryogenically cooled and diode-pumped Yb:CaF2.,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3757–3759 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, J. Boudeile, I. Martial, M. Hanna, P. Georges, P. O. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Low-repetition-rate femtosecond operation in extended-cavity mode-locked Yb:CALGO laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 196–198 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Friebel, F. Druon, J. Boudeile, D. N. Papadopoulos, M. Hanna, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, R. Moncorgé, C. Cassagne, and G. Boudebs, “Diode-pumped 99 fs Yb:CaF2 oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1474–1476 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Druon, D. N. Papadopoulos, J. Boudeile, M. Hanna, P. Georges, A. Benayad, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, “Mode-locked operation of a diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:SrF2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2354–2356 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Boudeile, J. Didierjean, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Ménard, R. Moncorgé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Thermal behaviour of ytterbium-doped fluorite crystals under high power pumping,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10098–10109 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “New laser crystals for the generation of ultrashort pulses,” C. R. Phys. 8(2), 153–164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: the case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers - Part I: theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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One can notice that a better fit can be obtained by replacing d by d(1–2.8d) for d<0.25 in the Eq. (1).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Figure of merit plotting thermal conductivity (undoped crystals) versus emission bandwidth (at room temperature) in order to estimate the potential of Yb-doped laser hosts for the development of high-average-power, short-pulse lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of Yb:CaF2 and Yb:SrF2 at room temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission spectra of Yb:CaF2 and Yb:SrF2 at room temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gain cross section of Yb:CaF2, and Yb:SrF2 (for beta = 0.1 and 0.2) at room temperature (left) and LN2 temperature (right).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectra of Yb:CaF2 and Yb:SrF2 at LN2 temperature.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emission spectra of Yb:CaF2 and Yb:SrF2 at LN2 temperature.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption spectra for two different qualities of Yb:CaF2 crystals.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Thermal conductivity versus doping level (Yb/Ca) for Yb:CaF2 at room and LN2 temperatures [10,2426].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Thermal conductivity versus temperature (Yb/Ca) for Yb:CaF2 for 0%, 3% and 15% doping levels [10,2426].

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Short-pulse oscillator setup.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectra obtained with in mode-locked oscillator.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Regenerative amplifier setup.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Evolution of the spectrum in Q-switched and injected regime (blue and deep blue for Yb:SrF2, red and deep red for Yb:SrF2-), and oscillator spectrum (black).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectroscopic and Thermal Properties of Undoped and Yb doped CaF2 at Room and LN2 Temperatures [6,10,11,19,25,2733]

Equations (1)

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κ = β κ 0 d arctan ( κ 0 d β ) ,

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