Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate a controllable optical activity emerging as electric-field-dependent circular dicroism (CD) and optical rotatory dispersion (ORD). Such controllable optical activity may offer fascinating possibilities for the production of novel optical materials/devices. The result also supports our previous result about the formation of the chiral superstructure of the 5CB molecules in the BX phase of the 5CB/P8-O-PIMB mixture system.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. H. S. Kitzerow and C. Bahr, eds., Chirality in Liquid Crystals (Springer, 2001).
  2. T. Niori, T. Sekine, J. Watanabe, T. Furukawa, and H. Takezoe, “Distinct ferroelectric smectic liquid crystals consisting of banana shaped achiral molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1231–1233 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Takezoe and Y. Takanishi, “Bent-Core Liquid Crystals: Their Mysterious and Attractive World,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 597–625 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. Keller, “Ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Phys. (Paris) 36, L69–L71 (1975).
  5. D. R. Link, G. Natale, R. Shao, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, E. Körblova, and D. M. Walba, “Spontaneous Formation of Macroscopic Chiral Domains in a Fluid Smectic Phase of Achiral Molecules,” Science 278, 1924–1927 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Takanishi, G. J. Shin, J. C. Jung, S. W. Choi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, and P. Toledano, “Observation of very large chiral domains in a liquid crystal phase formed by mixtures of achiral bent-core and rod molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 4020–4024 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Otani, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Enhanced Optical Activity by Achiral Rod-Like Molecules Nanosegregated in the B4 Structure of Achiral Bent-Core Molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 12368–12372 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Nakata, Y. Takanishi, J. Watanabe, and H. Takezoe, “Blue phases induced by doping chiral nematic liquid crystals with nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 041710 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. A. Madsen, T. J. Dingemans, M. Nakata, and E. T. Samulski, “Thermotropic Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145505 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. R. Acharya, A. Primak, and S. Kumar, “Biaxial Nematic Phase in Bent-Core Thermotropic Mesogens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145506 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. K. Sadashiva, R. A. Reddy, R. Pratibha, and N. V. Madhusudana, “Biaxial smectic A phase in homologous series of compounds composed of highly polar unsymmetrically substituted bent-core molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 943–950 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Reddy and B. K. Sadashiva, “Direct transition from a nematic phase to a polar biaxial smectic A phase in a homologous series of unsymmetrically substituted bent-core compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 14, 310–319 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Guo, S. Dhara, B. K. Sadashiva, S. Radhika, R. Pratibha, Y. Shimbo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Polar switching in the smectic-AdPA phase composed of asymmetric bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 011703 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Eremin, S. Diele, G. Pelzl, H. Nadasi, W. Weissflog, J. Salfetnikolva, and H. Kresse, “Experimental evidence for an achiral orthogonal biaxial smectic phase without in-plane order exhibiting antiferroelectric switching behavior,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 051707 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Keith, M. Prehm, Y. P. Panarin, J. K. Vij, and C. Tschierske, “Development of polar order in liquid crystalline phases of a banana compound with a unique sequence of three orthogonal phases,” Chem. Commun. 46, 3702–3704 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. M. Walba, A. Reddy, T. Gong, M. A. Glaser, C. Zhu, Y. Shen, R. Shao, and N. A. Clark, “SmAPF Achiral Ferroelectrics,” presented at the 23rd International Liquid Crystal Conference, Krakòw, Poland, 11–16 July 2010.
  17. D. Pociecha, M. Čepič, E. Gorecka, and J. Mieczkowski, “Ferroelectric Mesophase with Randomized Interlayer Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 185501 (2003).
  18. Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. Gomola, L. Guo, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “An optically uniaxial antiferroelectric smectic phase in asymmetrical bent-core compounds containing 3-aminophenol central unit,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7944–7952 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Thisayukta, H. Takezoe, and J. Watanabe, “Study on Helical Structure of the B4 Phase Formed from Achiral Banana-Shaped Molecule,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3277–3287 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

L. Guo, S. Dhara, B. K. Sadashiva, S. Radhika, R. Pratibha, Y. Shimbo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Polar switching in the smectic-AdPA phase composed of asymmetric bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 011703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Keith, M. Prehm, Y. P. Panarin, J. K. Vij, and C. Tschierske, “Development of polar order in liquid crystalline phases of a banana compound with a unique sequence of three orthogonal phases,” Chem. Commun. 46, 3702–3704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Gomola, L. Guo, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “An optically uniaxial antiferroelectric smectic phase in asymmetrical bent-core compounds containing 3-aminophenol central unit,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7944–7952 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Otani, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Enhanced Optical Activity by Achiral Rod-Like Molecules Nanosegregated in the B4 Structure of Achiral Bent-Core Molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 12368–12372 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. Takezoe and Y. Takanishi, “Bent-Core Liquid Crystals: Their Mysterious and Attractive World,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 597–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Takanishi, G. J. Shin, J. C. Jung, S. W. Choi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, and P. Toledano, “Observation of very large chiral domains in a liquid crystal phase formed by mixtures of achiral bent-core and rod molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 4020–4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

R. A. Reddy and B. K. Sadashiva, “Direct transition from a nematic phase to a polar biaxial smectic A phase in a homologous series of unsymmetrically substituted bent-core compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 14, 310–319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Madsen, T. J. Dingemans, M. Nakata, and E. T. Samulski, “Thermotropic Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Acharya, A. Primak, and S. Kumar, “Biaxial Nematic Phase in Bent-Core Thermotropic Mesogens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145506 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Nakata, Y. Takanishi, J. Watanabe, and H. Takezoe, “Blue phases induced by doping chiral nematic liquid crystals with nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 041710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. K. Sadashiva, R. A. Reddy, R. Pratibha, and N. V. Madhusudana, “Biaxial smectic A phase in homologous series of compounds composed of highly polar unsymmetrically substituted bent-core molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 943–950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

A. Eremin, S. Diele, G. Pelzl, H. Nadasi, W. Weissflog, J. Salfetnikolva, and H. Kresse, “Experimental evidence for an achiral orthogonal biaxial smectic phase without in-plane order exhibiting antiferroelectric switching behavior,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 051707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kitzerow and C. Bahr, eds., Chirality in Liquid Crystals (Springer, 2001).

J. Thisayukta, H. Takezoe, and J. Watanabe, “Study on Helical Structure of the B4 Phase Formed from Achiral Banana-Shaped Molecule,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3277–3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. R. Link, G. Natale, R. Shao, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, E. Körblova, and D. M. Walba, “Spontaneous Formation of Macroscopic Chiral Domains in a Fluid Smectic Phase of Achiral Molecules,” Science 278, 1924–1927 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

T. Niori, T. Sekine, J. Watanabe, T. Furukawa, and H. Takezoe, “Distinct ferroelectric smectic liquid crystals consisting of banana shaped achiral molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1231–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. Keller, “Ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Phys. (Paris) 36, L69–L71 (1975).

1855 (1)

D. Pociecha, M. Čepič, E. Gorecka, and J. Mieczkowski, “Ferroelectric Mesophase with Randomized Interlayer Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 185501 (2003).

Acharya, B. R.

B. R. Acharya, A. Primak, and S. Kumar, “Biaxial Nematic Phase in Bent-Core Thermotropic Mesogens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145506 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araoka, F.

K. Gomola, L. Guo, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “An optically uniaxial antiferroelectric smectic phase in asymmetrical bent-core compounds containing 3-aminophenol central unit,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7944–7952 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Guo, S. Dhara, B. K. Sadashiva, S. Radhika, R. Pratibha, Y. Shimbo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Polar switching in the smectic-AdPA phase composed of asymmetric bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 011703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otani, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Enhanced Optical Activity by Achiral Rod-Like Molecules Nanosegregated in the B4 Structure of Achiral Bent-Core Molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 12368–12372 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahr, C.

H. S. Kitzerow and C. Bahr, eds., Chirality in Liquid Crystals (Springer, 2001).

Cepic, M.

D. Pociecha, M. Čepič, E. Gorecka, and J. Mieczkowski, “Ferroelectric Mesophase with Randomized Interlayer Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 185501 (2003).

Chen, D.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. W.

Y. Takanishi, G. J. Shin, J. C. Jung, S. W. Choi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, and P. Toledano, “Observation of very large chiral domains in a liquid crystal phase formed by mixtures of achiral bent-core and rod molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 4020–4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Link, G. Natale, R. Shao, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, E. Körblova, and D. M. Walba, “Spontaneous Formation of Macroscopic Chiral Domains in a Fluid Smectic Phase of Achiral Molecules,” Science 278, 1924–1927 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhara, S.

L. Guo, S. Dhara, B. K. Sadashiva, S. Radhika, R. Pratibha, Y. Shimbo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Polar switching in the smectic-AdPA phase composed of asymmetric bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 011703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diele, S.

A. Eremin, S. Diele, G. Pelzl, H. Nadasi, W. Weissflog, J. Salfetnikolva, and H. Kresse, “Experimental evidence for an achiral orthogonal biaxial smectic phase without in-plane order exhibiting antiferroelectric switching behavior,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 051707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dingemans, T. J.

L. A. Madsen, T. J. Dingemans, M. Nakata, and E. T. Samulski, “Thermotropic Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eremin, A.

A. Eremin, S. Diele, G. Pelzl, H. Nadasi, W. Weissflog, J. Salfetnikolva, and H. Kresse, “Experimental evidence for an achiral orthogonal biaxial smectic phase without in-plane order exhibiting antiferroelectric switching behavior,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 051707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, T.

T. Niori, T. Sekine, J. Watanabe, T. Furukawa, and H. Takezoe, “Distinct ferroelectric smectic liquid crystals consisting of banana shaped achiral molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1231–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Glaser, M. A.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomola, K.

K. Gomola, L. Guo, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “An optically uniaxial antiferroelectric smectic phase in asymmetrical bent-core compounds containing 3-aminophenol central unit,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7944–7952 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorecka, E.

Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pociecha, M. Čepič, E. Gorecka, and J. Mieczkowski, “Ferroelectric Mesophase with Randomized Interlayer Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 185501 (2003).

Goto, M.

Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L.

K. Gomola, L. Guo, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “An optically uniaxial antiferroelectric smectic phase in asymmetrical bent-core compounds containing 3-aminophenol central unit,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7944–7952 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Guo, S. Dhara, B. K. Sadashiva, S. Radhika, R. Pratibha, Y. Shimbo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Polar switching in the smectic-AdPA phase composed of asymmetric bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 011703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heberling, M. S.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heppke, G.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hough, L. E.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K.

L. Guo, S. Dhara, B. K. Sadashiva, S. Radhika, R. Pratibha, Y. Shimbo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Polar switching in the smectic-AdPA phase composed of asymmetric bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 011703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Gomola, L. Guo, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “An optically uniaxial antiferroelectric smectic phase in asymmetrical bent-core compounds containing 3-aminophenol central unit,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7944–7952 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otani, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Enhanced Optical Activity by Achiral Rod-Like Molecules Nanosegregated in the B4 Structure of Achiral Bent-Core Molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 12368–12372 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takanishi, G. J. Shin, J. C. Jung, S. W. Choi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, and P. Toledano, “Observation of very large chiral domains in a liquid crystal phase formed by mixtures of achiral bent-core and rod molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 4020–4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, C. D.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, H. T.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J. C.

Y. Takanishi, G. J. Shin, J. C. Jung, S. W. Choi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, and P. Toledano, “Observation of very large chiral domains in a liquid crystal phase formed by mixtures of achiral bent-core and rod molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 4020–4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keith, C.

C. Keith, M. Prehm, Y. P. Panarin, J. K. Vij, and C. Tschierske, “Development of polar order in liquid crystalline phases of a banana compound with a unique sequence of three orthogonal phases,” Chem. Commun. 46, 3702–3704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keller, P.

R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. Keller, “Ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Phys. (Paris) 36, L69–L71 (1975).

Kitzerow, H. S.

H. S. Kitzerow and C. Bahr, eds., Chirality in Liquid Crystals (Springer, 2001).

Körblova, E.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Link, G. Natale, R. Shao, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, E. Körblova, and D. M. Walba, “Spontaneous Formation of Macroscopic Chiral Domains in a Fluid Smectic Phase of Achiral Molecules,” Science 278, 1924–1927 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kresse, H.

A. Eremin, S. Diele, G. Pelzl, H. Nadasi, W. Weissflog, J. Salfetnikolva, and H. Kresse, “Experimental evidence for an achiral orthogonal biaxial smectic phase without in-plane order exhibiting antiferroelectric switching behavior,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 051707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kruerke, D.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

B. R. Acharya, A. Primak, and S. Kumar, “Biaxial Nematic Phase in Bent-Core Thermotropic Mesogens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145506 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebert, L.

R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. Keller, “Ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Phys. (Paris) 36, L69–L71 (1975).

Link, D. R.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Link, G. Natale, R. Shao, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, E. Körblova, and D. M. Walba, “Spontaneous Formation of Macroscopic Chiral Domains in a Fluid Smectic Phase of Achiral Molecules,” Science 278, 1924–1927 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maclennan, J. E.

D. R. Link, G. Natale, R. Shao, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, E. Körblova, and D. M. Walba, “Spontaneous Formation of Macroscopic Chiral Domains in a Fluid Smectic Phase of Achiral Molecules,” Science 278, 1924–1927 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madhusudana, N. V.

B. K. Sadashiva, R. A. Reddy, R. Pratibha, and N. V. Madhusudana, “Biaxial smectic A phase in homologous series of compounds composed of highly polar unsymmetrically substituted bent-core molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 943–950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, L. A.

L. A. Madsen, T. J. Dingemans, M. Nakata, and E. T. Samulski, “Thermotropic Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, R. B.

R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. Keller, “Ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Phys. (Paris) 36, L69–L71 (1975).

Mieczkowski, J.

Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pociecha, M. Čepič, E. Gorecka, and J. Mieczkowski, “Ferroelectric Mesophase with Randomized Interlayer Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 185501 (2003).

Nadasi, H.

A. Eremin, S. Diele, G. Pelzl, H. Nadasi, W. Weissflog, J. Salfetnikolva, and H. Kresse, “Experimental evidence for an achiral orthogonal biaxial smectic phase without in-plane order exhibiting antiferroelectric switching behavior,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 051707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, M.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Madsen, T. J. Dingemans, M. Nakata, and E. T. Samulski, “Thermotropic Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nakata, Y. Takanishi, J. Watanabe, and H. Takezoe, “Blue phases induced by doping chiral nematic liquid crystals with nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 041710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Natale, G.

D. R. Link, G. Natale, R. Shao, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, E. Körblova, and D. M. Walba, “Spontaneous Formation of Macroscopic Chiral Domains in a Fluid Smectic Phase of Achiral Molecules,” Science 278, 1924–1927 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niori, T.

T. Niori, T. Sekine, J. Watanabe, T. Furukawa, and H. Takezoe, “Distinct ferroelectric smectic liquid crystals consisting of banana shaped achiral molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1231–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Otani, T.

T. Otani, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Enhanced Optical Activity by Achiral Rod-Like Molecules Nanosegregated in the B4 Structure of Achiral Bent-Core Molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 12368–12372 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panarin, Y. P.

C. Keith, M. Prehm, Y. P. Panarin, J. K. Vij, and C. Tschierske, “Development of polar order in liquid crystalline phases of a banana compound with a unique sequence of three orthogonal phases,” Chem. Commun. 46, 3702–3704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pelzl, G.

A. Eremin, S. Diele, G. Pelzl, H. Nadasi, W. Weissflog, J. Salfetnikolva, and H. Kresse, “Experimental evidence for an achiral orthogonal biaxial smectic phase without in-plane order exhibiting antiferroelectric switching behavior,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 051707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pociecha, D.

K. Gomola, L. Guo, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “An optically uniaxial antiferroelectric smectic phase in asymmetrical bent-core compounds containing 3-aminophenol central unit,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7944–7952 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pociecha, M. Čepič, E. Gorecka, and J. Mieczkowski, “Ferroelectric Mesophase with Randomized Interlayer Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 185501 (2003).

Pratibha, R.

L. Guo, S. Dhara, B. K. Sadashiva, S. Radhika, R. Pratibha, Y. Shimbo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Polar switching in the smectic-AdPA phase composed of asymmetric bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 011703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Sadashiva, R. A. Reddy, R. Pratibha, and N. V. Madhusudana, “Biaxial smectic A phase in homologous series of compounds composed of highly polar unsymmetrically substituted bent-core molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 943–950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prehm, M.

C. Keith, M. Prehm, Y. P. Panarin, J. K. Vij, and C. Tschierske, “Development of polar order in liquid crystalline phases of a banana compound with a unique sequence of three orthogonal phases,” Chem. Commun. 46, 3702–3704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Primak, A.

B. R. Acharya, A. Primak, and S. Kumar, “Biaxial Nematic Phase in Bent-Core Thermotropic Mesogens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145506 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabe, J. P.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radhika, S.

L. Guo, S. Dhara, B. K. Sadashiva, S. Radhika, R. Pratibha, Y. Shimbo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Polar switching in the smectic-AdPA phase composed of asymmetric bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 011703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, R. A.

R. A. Reddy and B. K. Sadashiva, “Direct transition from a nematic phase to a polar biaxial smectic A phase in a homologous series of unsymmetrically substituted bent-core compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 14, 310–319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Sadashiva, R. A. Reddy, R. Pratibha, and N. V. Madhusudana, “Biaxial smectic A phase in homologous series of compounds composed of highly polar unsymmetrically substituted bent-core molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 943–950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sadashiva, B. K.

L. Guo, S. Dhara, B. K. Sadashiva, S. Radhika, R. Pratibha, Y. Shimbo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Polar switching in the smectic-AdPA phase composed of asymmetric bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 011703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reddy and B. K. Sadashiva, “Direct transition from a nematic phase to a polar biaxial smectic A phase in a homologous series of unsymmetrically substituted bent-core compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 14, 310–319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Sadashiva, R. A. Reddy, R. Pratibha, and N. V. Madhusudana, “Biaxial smectic A phase in homologous series of compounds composed of highly polar unsymmetrically substituted bent-core molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 943–950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salfetnikolva, J.

A. Eremin, S. Diele, G. Pelzl, H. Nadasi, W. Weissflog, J. Salfetnikolva, and H. Kresse, “Experimental evidence for an achiral orthogonal biaxial smectic phase without in-plane order exhibiting antiferroelectric switching behavior,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 051707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Samulski, E. T.

L. A. Madsen, T. J. Dingemans, M. Nakata, and E. T. Samulski, “Thermotropic Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekine, T.

T. Niori, T. Sekine, J. Watanabe, T. Furukawa, and H. Takezoe, “Distinct ferroelectric smectic liquid crystals consisting of banana shaped achiral molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1231–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shao, R.

D. R. Link, G. Natale, R. Shao, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, E. Körblova, and D. M. Walba, “Spontaneous Formation of Macroscopic Chiral Domains in a Fluid Smectic Phase of Achiral Molecules,” Science 278, 1924–1927 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimbo, Y.

L. Guo, S. Dhara, B. K. Sadashiva, S. Radhika, R. Pratibha, Y. Shimbo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Polar switching in the smectic-AdPA phase composed of asymmetric bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 011703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, G. J.

Y. Takanishi, G. J. Shin, J. C. Jung, S. W. Choi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, and P. Toledano, “Observation of very large chiral domains in a liquid crystal phase formed by mixtures of achiral bent-core and rod molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 4020–4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stocker, W.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strzelecki, L.

R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. Keller, “Ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Phys. (Paris) 36, L69–L71 (1975).

Takanishi, Y.

H. Takezoe and Y. Takanishi, “Bent-Core Liquid Crystals: Their Mysterious and Attractive World,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 597–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takanishi, G. J. Shin, J. C. Jung, S. W. Choi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, and P. Toledano, “Observation of very large chiral domains in a liquid crystal phase formed by mixtures of achiral bent-core and rod molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 4020–4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakata, Y. Takanishi, J. Watanabe, and H. Takezoe, “Blue phases induced by doping chiral nematic liquid crystals with nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 041710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

L. Guo, S. Dhara, B. K. Sadashiva, S. Radhika, R. Pratibha, Y. Shimbo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Polar switching in the smectic-AdPA phase composed of asymmetric bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 011703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Gomola, L. Guo, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “An optically uniaxial antiferroelectric smectic phase in asymmetrical bent-core compounds containing 3-aminophenol central unit,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7944–7952 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Otani, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Enhanced Optical Activity by Achiral Rod-Like Molecules Nanosegregated in the B4 Structure of Achiral Bent-Core Molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 12368–12372 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takezoe and Y. Takanishi, “Bent-Core Liquid Crystals: Their Mysterious and Attractive World,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 597–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takanishi, G. J. Shin, J. C. Jung, S. W. Choi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, and P. Toledano, “Observation of very large chiral domains in a liquid crystal phase formed by mixtures of achiral bent-core and rod molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 4020–4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakata, Y. Takanishi, J. Watanabe, and H. Takezoe, “Blue phases induced by doping chiral nematic liquid crystals with nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 041710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Thisayukta, H. Takezoe, and J. Watanabe, “Study on Helical Structure of the B4 Phase Formed from Achiral Banana-Shaped Molecule,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3277–3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Niori, T. Sekine, J. Watanabe, T. Furukawa, and H. Takezoe, “Distinct ferroelectric smectic liquid crystals consisting of banana shaped achiral molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1231–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thisayukta, J.

J. Thisayukta, H. Takezoe, and J. Watanabe, “Study on Helical Structure of the B4 Phase Formed from Achiral Banana-Shaped Molecule,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3277–3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toledano, P.

Y. Takanishi, G. J. Shin, J. C. Jung, S. W. Choi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, and P. Toledano, “Observation of very large chiral domains in a liquid crystal phase formed by mixtures of achiral bent-core and rod molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 4020–4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tschierske, C.

C. Keith, M. Prehm, Y. P. Panarin, J. K. Vij, and C. Tschierske, “Development of polar order in liquid crystalline phases of a banana compound with a unique sequence of three orthogonal phases,” Chem. Commun. 46, 3702–3704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vij, J. K.

C. Keith, M. Prehm, Y. P. Panarin, J. K. Vij, and C. Tschierske, “Development of polar order in liquid crystalline phases of a banana compound with a unique sequence of three orthogonal phases,” Chem. Commun. 46, 3702–3704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walba, D. M.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Link, G. Natale, R. Shao, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, E. Körblova, and D. M. Walba, “Spontaneous Formation of Macroscopic Chiral Domains in a Fluid Smectic Phase of Achiral Molecules,” Science 278, 1924–1927 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, J.

Y. Takanishi, G. J. Shin, J. C. Jung, S. W. Choi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, and P. Toledano, “Observation of very large chiral domains in a liquid crystal phase formed by mixtures of achiral bent-core and rod molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 4020–4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakata, Y. Takanishi, J. Watanabe, and H. Takezoe, “Blue phases induced by doping chiral nematic liquid crystals with nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 041710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Thisayukta, H. Takezoe, and J. Watanabe, “Study on Helical Structure of the B4 Phase Formed from Achiral Banana-Shaped Molecule,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3277–3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Niori, T. Sekine, J. Watanabe, T. Furukawa, and H. Takezoe, “Distinct ferroelectric smectic liquid crystals consisting of banana shaped achiral molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1231–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weissflog, W.

A. Eremin, S. Diele, G. Pelzl, H. Nadasi, W. Weissflog, J. Salfetnikolva, and H. Kresse, “Experimental evidence for an achiral orthogonal biaxial smectic phase without in-plane order exhibiting antiferroelectric switching behavior,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 051707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zasadzinski, J.

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Commun. (1)

C. Keith, M. Prehm, Y. P. Panarin, J. K. Vij, and C. Tschierske, “Development of polar order in liquid crystalline phases of a banana compound with a unique sequence of three orthogonal phases,” Chem. Commun. 46, 3702–3704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

T. Otani, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Enhanced Optical Activity by Achiral Rod-Like Molecules Nanosegregated in the B4 Structure of Achiral Bent-Core Molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 12368–12372 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. (5)

T. Niori, T. Sekine, J. Watanabe, T. Furukawa, and H. Takezoe, “Distinct ferroelectric smectic liquid crystals consisting of banana shaped achiral molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1231–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takanishi, G. J. Shin, J. C. Jung, S. W. Choi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, and P. Toledano, “Observation of very large chiral domains in a liquid crystal phase formed by mixtures of achiral bent-core and rod molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 15, 4020–4024 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Sadashiva, R. A. Reddy, R. Pratibha, and N. V. Madhusudana, “Biaxial smectic A phase in homologous series of compounds composed of highly polar unsymmetrically substituted bent-core molecules,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 943–950 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Reddy and B. K. Sadashiva, “Direct transition from a nematic phase to a polar biaxial smectic A phase in a homologous series of unsymmetrically substituted bent-core compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 14, 310–319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Gomola, L. Guo, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “An optically uniaxial antiferroelectric smectic phase in asymmetrical bent-core compounds containing 3-aminophenol central unit,” J. Mater. Chem. 20, 7944–7952 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

R. B. Meyer, L. Liebert, L. Strzelecki, and P. Keller, “Ferroelectric liquid crystals,” J. Phys. (Paris) 36, L69–L71 (1975).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Takezoe and Y. Takanishi, “Bent-Core Liquid Crystals: Their Mysterious and Attractive World,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 597–625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Thisayukta, H. Takezoe, and J. Watanabe, “Study on Helical Structure of the B4 Phase Formed from Achiral Banana-Shaped Molecule,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3277–3287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

M. Nakata, Y. Takanishi, J. Watanabe, and H. Takezoe, “Blue phases induced by doping chiral nematic liquid crystals with nonchiral molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 041710 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Guo, S. Dhara, B. K. Sadashiva, S. Radhika, R. Pratibha, Y. Shimbo, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Polar switching in the smectic-AdPA phase composed of asymmetric bent-core molecules,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 011703 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Eremin, S. Diele, G. Pelzl, H. Nadasi, W. Weissflog, J. Salfetnikolva, and H. Kresse, “Experimental evidence for an achiral orthogonal biaxial smectic phase without in-plane order exhibiting antiferroelectric switching behavior,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 051707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

L. A. Madsen, T. J. Dingemans, M. Nakata, and E. T. Samulski, “Thermotropic Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145505 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Acharya, A. Primak, and S. Kumar, “Biaxial Nematic Phase in Bent-Core Thermotropic Mesogens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 145506 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pociecha, M. Čepič, E. Gorecka, and J. Mieczkowski, “Ferroelectric Mesophase with Randomized Interlayer Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 185501 (2003).

Y. Shimbo, E. Gorecka, D. Pociecha, F. Araoka, M. Goto, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Mieczkowski, K. Gomola, and H. Takezoe, “Electric-Field-Induced Polar Biaxial Order in a Nontilted Smectic Phase of an Asymmetric Bent-Core Liquid Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 113901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

L. E. Hough, H. T. Jung, D. Kruerke, M. S. Heberling, M. Nakata, C. D. Jones, D. Chen, D. R. Link, J. Zasadzinski, G. Heppke, J. P. Rabe, W. Stocker, E. Körblova, D. M. Walba, M. A. Glaser, and N. A. Clark, “Helical Nanofilament Phases,” Science 325, 456–460 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Link, G. Natale, R. Shao, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, E. Körblova, and D. M. Walba, “Spontaneous Formation of Macroscopic Chiral Domains in a Fluid Smectic Phase of Achiral Molecules,” Science 278, 1924–1927 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. S. Kitzerow and C. Bahr, eds., Chirality in Liquid Crystals (Springer, 2001).

D. M. Walba, A. Reddy, T. Gong, M. A. Glaser, C. Zhu, Y. Shen, R. Shao, and N. A. Clark, “SmAPF Achiral Ferroelectrics,” presented at the 23rd International Liquid Crystal Conference, Krakòw, Poland, 11–16 July 2010.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Chemical structures of the bent-core (P8-O-PIMB) and rod-core (5CB) liquid crystalline compounds used in this study. (b) Phase diagram of a binary mixture system of P-8-OPIMB and 5CB, determined by polarization optical microscopy (reproduced from Ref. [7]).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical setup built up for the micro-monodomain CD spectrum measurement. This setup allows to detect the signal from a small spot of several 10s μm diameter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photomicrographs of the textures of the (a) B4 and (b) BX phases. Optical segregation can be clearly observed by slightly decrossing the polarizers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of the thermal change on the CD spectral shape for the chiral monodomain of 60 wt% 5CB sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of the textures of 90 wt% 5CB sample in a thick cell (∼12-μm gap) with and without field application.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variety of CD spectra measured for the chiral monodomain of 60 wt% 5CB sample upon several different voltages.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) CD spectra and (b) ORD spectra measured for 90 wt% 5CB sample in the B4 and BX phases in an ultra-thin cell (∼700-nm gap).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Kramers-Kronig transformed ORD spectra calculated from the measured CD spectra of Fig. 7(a).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) ON-OFF switching behavior of the OR signal from 90 wt% 5CB sample in the BX phase, confirming an electric-field-controllable optical activity. (b) Continuous change in the OR signal at λ = 550 nm plotted as a function of applied voltage.

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