Abstract

We present a new method to characterize transverse vectorial light produced by high-harmonic generation (HHG). The incoherent sum of the two components of the electric field is measured using a bi-dimensional transient grating while one of the components is simultaneously characterized using two-source interferometry. The combination of these two interferometric setups enables the amplitude and phase measurement of the two vectorial components of the extreme ultraviolet radiation. We demonstrate the potential of this technique in the case of HHG in aligned nitrogen, revealing the vectorial properties of harmonics 9–17 of a Ti:sapphire laser.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

High-harmonic generation (HHG) is a unique source of ultrashort pulses for time-resolved experiments with femtosecond to attosecond resolution [1]. HHG occurs when an infrared (IR) laser field is focused in an atomic or molecular gas with an intensity in the 1014W/cm2 range. This results in the emission of a comb of odd harmonics of the IR, extending into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). HHG can be used as a structural or dynamic probe of an external medium, e.g., by photoionization [2] or transient absorption [3]. Alternatively, the generation process itself can serve as a probe of the emitting medium by encoding structural and dynamical information onto the emitted light [4,5]. In both cases, accurately characterizing the XUV is crucial. HHG is generally considered a scalar quantity: when harmonics are produced in an isotropic medium by a linearly polarized laser, they are linearly polarized, parallel to the driving polarization. The extension of HHG to a vectorial quantity opens new perspectives for applications. The vectorial properties of HHG have been used to probe atomic [6] and molecular [7] orbitals, or to detect anisotropies of the generating medium [8]. The vectorial properties of XUV light are of particular interest to probe anisotropic media by transient absorption. Last, the recent production of quasi-circularly polarized HHG [5,912] will enable time-resolved experiments on chiral molecules or magnetic materials in the XUV range [13].

The characterization of fully polarized, transverse vectorial light requires the measurement of the amplitude and phase of its two components perpendicular to the propagation axis. For HHG, this can be achieved by sequentially measuring two projections of the electric field using an XUV polarizer. Here we propose an alternative solution that involves no polarizing optics and can be operated in single-shot: Combined High-harmonic Interferometries for VEctorial Spectroscopy (CHIVES). CHIVES relies on the combination of two synchronized interferometric setups for amplitude and phase measurements, namely, two-source interferometry [1418] and a transient grating modulating HHG in only one source [19,20]. Harmonic source S1 [up in Fig. 1(a)] is spatially modulated by a sinusoidal perturbation induced by the optical interference of two crossed pump beams. These pumps can either be perturbative fields synchronized with the generation field [19], modulating its polarization state (the perturbative and driving fields being orthogonally polarized), or intense pulses inducing a spatial modulation of the target medium itself (molecular excitation grating [20]). In both cases, the pumps create a spatial modulation of the HHG polarization state along the grooves of the grating, resulting in the emission of two orthogonal components. Harmonic source S2, spatially separated from and temporally synchronized with S1, serves as a reference for the measurement (isotropic unexcited medium, linear polarization parallel to the driving field).

 

Fig. 1. (a) CHIVES principle (see text). The bluish fields are polarized along y while the reddish ones are polarized along the x axis. (b) Experimental setup: a 0π phase plate creates two HHG sources in a N2 gas jet. Two pumps create a grating of molecular excitation in S1 only. (c) Spatially resolved spectra. Pump off: two-source interference fringe pattern. Pump on: fringe pattern superposed with incoherent sum of Bragg peaks. Regions of interest are highlighted. They correspond to the harmonic emission through the shortest quantum paths. We discarded the outer rings resulting from long trajectories. The latter shows different behavior.

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For each polarization component, the sinusoidal modulation of S1 leads to diffraction peaks up and down the main HHG beam in the far field. The two polarization components are summed incoherently on the detector. In the following, we refer to them, respectively, as parallel and perpendicular, relative to the direction of their polarization with respect to the polarization of the generation. Because S2 is not modulated, it produces only a central beam that interferes with the parallel component of the undiffracted light from S1. The resulting fringe pattern provides the phase difference between S2 and the parallel component of S1. Implementing the two interferometric techniques yields the parallel component from the fringes but also the sum of both components from the diffracted intensities. A fitting algorithm is used to extract both components from the data. In this Letter, we present successively the experimental implementation of the technique using a grating of molecular alignment, its analysis, and the interpretation of the results.

The experiment was carried out using the 1 kHz Ti:sapphire Aurore laser system at CELIA, which delivers 7 mJ, 25 fs, 800 nm pulses. The laser is split in three parallel beams focused by a 50 cm lens into a continuous gas jet (70 μm nozzle) backed with 4 bars of N2. The central beam (probe beam) is linearly polarized and its profile is shaped with a phase plate, which introduces a π phase difference between its upper and lower halves. As a result, the IR focus splits into two spots separated by a100μm, creating two spatially separated harmonic sources [21]. The two other beams (pump beams) cross in the molecular jet over S1. Their interference pattern creates a sinusoidal grating of molecular excitation (rotational wavepacket) with a spatial period Λ10μm (set by the angle between the two pumps, see [19]). The pumps are advanced by 4.1 ps with respect to the probe in order to maximize the degree of molecular alignment when HHG occurs. The alignment angle (between the driving polarization and the main axis of the molecular ensemble) is controlled by rotating a half-wave plate in each pump beam. The harmonic emission is analyzed by an XUV spectrometer consisting of a 1200mm1 grating, a set of dual microchannel plates, a phosphor screen, and a charge coupled device camera. The cylindrical grating lets the light diverge in the vertical dimension and spectrally resolves it in the horizontal dimension. This provides a spatiospectral image of the harmonic emission. Figure 1(c) shows typical spectra. When the pumps are off (bottom half), we observe horizontal fringes resulting from the two source interference. When the pumps are on (top half), the fringe position shifts (see e.g., the amplitude at x=0 of H9, the ninth harmonic order, is zero for pump on and almost max for pump off) and extra spots appear above and below each harmonic, corresponding to the first order diffraction of the transient grating.

To retrieve the phase and amplitude of the two orthogonal components of the harmonic emission, we extend the model of Ref. [22]. We first consider the two sources separated by a distance a along the x axis. We assume that the electric field at the exit of the medium factorizes as

E⃗out(Ω,x)=(A(Ω,x)·E⃗1(Ω,x))δ(xa/2)+(A(Ω,x)·E⃗2(Ω,x))δ(x+a/2),
where Ω is the harmonic frequency, E⃗i(Ω,x) and A(Ω,x) are, respectively, the fast and slow varying part of the field along the vertical dimension x in the aligned (i=1) and unaligned (i=2) source. In Eq. (1), A(Ω,x) is assumed not to change whether the sample is pumped or not, which is valid only for low pump energies, which means a low degree of molecular alignment. We pumped the sample with 85 μJ in the data presented here. Other data, not shown here, taken at higher pump intensities validated the linear approximation. Its spatial extension is Δxa/2.

In S2, the sample is isotropic and E⃗2(Ω,x) is parallel to the driving polarization (unit vector e⃗): E⃗2(Ω,x)=E2(Ω,x)e⃗=DΩisoeiφΩisoe⃗, where DΩiso and φΩiso are the amplitude and phase of the harmonic dipole moment, respectively.

By contrast, HHG from S1 has two vectorial components, E1(Ω,x) and E1(Ω,x), due to the anisotropy introduced by the molecular alignment. We model E⃗1(Ω) assuming that the degree of molecular alignment follows linearly the local intensity of the excitation. This is correct for pump intensities up to 8×1013W/cm2 [23]. We also assume that the harmonic amplitude and phase follow linearly the degree of molecular alignment [23]. The parallel component of the electric field is given by

E1(Ω,x)=[DΩiso+(DΩ,θDΩiso)f(x)]eiφΩiso+i(φΩ,θφΩiso)f(x),
where f(x)=(sin(kx)+1)/2 with k=2πΛ is the modulation introduced by the excitation grating and DΩ,θ and φΩ,θ are the amplitude and phase of the most aligned stripe at an angle θ. The Bragg peaks result from the interference of HHG from aligned and unaligned molecules across the grating. By contrast, HHG along the orthogonal polarization originates exclusively from aligned molecules:
E1(Ω,x)=DΩ,θf(x)ei(φΩ,θf(x)+φΩ0),
where φΩ0 is a reference phase, corresponding to the phase of the orthogonal dipole moment when the alignment distribution tends to be isotropic. φΩ0 is ignored in the following because it is not encoded in the far field. The dipoles are further normalized by their isotropic value. We note dΩ,θ=DΩ,θ/DΩiso, dΩ,θ=DΩ,θ/DΩiso, ϕΩ,θ=φΩ,θφΩiso, and ϕΩ,θ=φΩ,θ. The electric field on the detector H⃗(ξ,Ω) is given by the Fourier transform of E⃗out(Ω,x). Taking into account Eqs. (2) and (3) it is
H⃗(ξ,Ω)=(A˜(ξ,Ω)E⃗˜1(ξ,Ω))eiaξ/2+DΩisoeiφΩisoA˜(ξ,Ω)eiaξ/2e⃗,
where A˜(ξ,Ω) (resp. E⃗˜1(ξ,Ω)) is the Fourier transform of A(x,Ω) (resp. E⃗1(x,Ω)). ξ=X/λz is the Fourier plane spatial frequency and λ the harmonic wavelength.

The sinusoidal modulation of the HHG amplitude and phase in the near field produces Bragg peaks in the far field. Here we consider only the first order diffraction peaks. This holds only in the low pump energy regime and for HHG phase modulations smaller than 2 rad [23]. The intensity on the detector is the incoherent sum of I and I. For pumps off, it is typical of two-source interference I0(ξ,Ω)=2|A˜(ξ,Ω)DΩiso|2(1+cos(aξ)). Averaging over the slowly varying envelope of the fringes yields I0(Ω)=2|A˜(ξ,Ω)DΩiso|2. I0 is normalized by I0(Ω). For pumps on, the zeroth and first order intensities are given by

I0(ξ,Ω)=I0(ξ,Ω)+I0(ξ,Ω)=12(1+|α(dΩ,θ,ϕΩ,θ)|2+|γ(dΩ,θ,ϕΩ,θ)|2),
I1(ξ,Ω)=I1(ξ,Ω)+I1(ξ,Ω)=12(|β(dΩ,θ,ϕΩ,θ)|2+|δ(dΩ,θ,ϕΩ,θ)|2),
α(dΩ,θ,ϕΩ,θ)=eiϕΩ,θ2[dΩ,θ+12J0(ϕΩ,θ2)+idΩ,θ12J1(ϕΩ,θ2)],
β(dΩ,θ,ϕΩ,θ)=eiϕΩ,θ2[dΩ,θ+12J±1(ϕΩ,θ2)+idΩ,θ14(J2(ϕΩ,θ2)J0(ϕΩ,θ2))],
γ(dΩ,θ,ϕΩ,θ)=dΩ,θ2[J0(ϕΩ,θ2)+iJ1(ϕΩ,θ2)],
δ(dΩ,θ,ϕΩ,θ)=dΩ,θ2[J0(ϕΩ,θ2)+i2[J2(ϕΩ,θ2)J0(ϕΩ,θ2)]],
where Ji are the Bessel functions. The diffracted (I1) and undiffracted (I0) intensities depend on the amplitude and phase of the two polarization components of the harmonic emission. By contrast, the position of the fringes (φobs) in the undiffracted spot depends only on the parallel component of the dipole:
φobs=aξargα(dΩ,ϕΩ)=aξϕΩ/2arctan(dΩ1dΩ+1·J1(ϕΩ/2)J0(ϕΩ/2)).

Experimentally, we access I0 (resp. I1) by integrating the undiffracted (resp. diffracted) light over the spatial and spectral dimensions for each harmonic order [plain lines in Figs. 2(b) and 2(c)]. φobs is measured by Fourier-transform of the zeroth order fringe pattern [plain lines in Fig. 2(a)]. Equations (6)–(11) are then used to fit the experimental values of φobs, I0, and I1 and retrieve dΩ,θ, ϕΩ,θ, dΩ,θ, and ϕΩ,θ. In this robust procedure, we minimized the error function ε=w0ε0+w1ε1+w2ε2 where the wi are weights chosen as the mean values of the measured intensities and absolute phase, and εi are the square values of the difference between the theoretical value for a given set of parameters and the actual experimental data. We performed a theoretical study of the robustness of the retrieval by generating noisy numerical data, and found that the fitting procedure converged properly in all cases. The symmetry of the generating medium imposes dΩ,0°=dΩ,90°=0. We enforce this condition by imposing the value of the perpendicular intensity at these angles to be zero. The retrieved I0, I1, and φobs are displayed with symbols in Figs. 2(a)2(c). When the orthogonal component of the grating fades away, our model is less relevant. This explains the worse agreement observed for I1 at 0° and 90°. However, the remaining error is extremely low, in the 1016 on average. To illustrate the influence of the grating’s perpendicular component, note that when it is ignored, as in Ref. [22], the error remains high, in the 103 on average, and the simultaneous fit clearly does not converge.

 

Fig. 2. Plain lines: far-field measurement of (a) φobs, (b) I0, and (c) I1 as a function of alignment angle. Symbols (squares, triangles, disks, diamonds, and crosses): values retrieved through the fit.

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The values of dΩ,θ, ϕΩ,θ, dΩ,θ, and ϕΩ,θ that fit the best the experimental values of φobs, I0, and I1 according to Eqs. (6)–(11) are plotted in Fig. 3. For the parallel component, the amplitude is maximized when molecules are aligned parallel to the laser field, except for the H11, which shows a weak contrast and an inverted behavior. This inversion was already reported in Ref. [24] and attributed to the vicinity of the ionization threshold. Our measurements show that the evolution of the phase and intensity of the orthogonal component of H11 are close to that of the higher orders. By contrast, H9 shows a maximum in the orthogonal emission for higher alignment angles and an inverted phase behavior for the parallel component. These elements should help understanding the process of below-threshold HHG [25]. H13 to H17 show orthogonal dipole moments comparable to the parallel ones when the molecules are aligned around 45°. This is consistent with the strong ellipticity that was measured for these harmonics by conventional polarimetry [15,20]. Note that the variations of ϕΩ,θ are smoother than the ones of ϕΩ,θ because the former are strongly constrained by φobs.

 

Fig. 3. Amplitude and phase of the parallel component (a) and (b) and of the perpendicular component (c) and (d) as retrieved by the CHIVES procedure. The grey curve shows the upper bound limit imposed on the fitting function to enforce a null value of the dipole at 0° and 90°.

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CHIVES could be extended to resolve the polarization state of HHG. The two missing elements are the phase relation between the parallel and perpendicular components, φΩisoφΩ0 and the degree of polarization of the harmonic light. φΩisoφΩ0 could be calibrated by one polarimetry scan (Malus law) at a given alignment angle and used for all other measurements. With this extension, CHIVES would considerably speed up polarization measurements by replacing long polarimetry scans by single shot interferometry measurements.

In conclusion, we proposed a combined arrangement for single-shot, phase-sensitive investigation of the vectorial properties of high-order harmonic emission. We derived the equations describing how it works and successfully implemented it in aligned N2. We confirmed previous results and extended phase measurements toward harmonic orders close to the ionization barrier of N2. We foresee that CHIVES will be useful for time-resolved, phase-sensitive vectorial studies in HHG spectroscopy, as well as for low repetition rate experiments and refined polarization studies. This technique can be slightly modified to reconstruct the excitation grating by holography, as well as to study the phase relation between HHG short and long trajectories. Also, CHIVES can be extended to study other polarization-sensitive nonlinear phenomena like cross-polarized wave generation [26] and polarization resolved SHG microscopy [27].

Funding

Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) (ANR-09-BLAN-0031-01 ATTOWAVE, ANR-14-CE32-0014 MISFITS); Conseil Régional d’Aquitaine (Regional Council of Aquitaine) (20091304003 ATTOMOL, COLA 2 No. 2.1.3-09010502).

Acknowledgment

The authors thank R. Bouillaud and L. Merzeau for their technical assistance; E. Mével and E. Constant for providing key apparatus to the experiment; and P. Salières for carefully reading the manuscript and giving extremely useful suggestions during the analysis process.

REFERENCES

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2. F. Lépine, M. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, Nat. Photonics 8, 195 (2014). [CrossRef]  

3. L. Gallmann, J. Herrmann, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, A. Ludwig, M. Lucchini, and U. Keller, Mol. Phys. 111, 2243 (2013). [CrossRef]  

4. J. P. Marangos, S. Baker, N. Kajumba, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Torres, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 35 (2008). [CrossRef]  

5. A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015). [CrossRef]  

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8. Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008). [CrossRef]  

9. R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997). [CrossRef]  

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19. Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, D. Kartashov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and T. Auguste, Opt. Lett. 32, 436 (2007). [CrossRef]  

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22. A. Rupenyan, J. B. Bertrand, D. M. Villeneuve, and H. J. Wörner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033903 (2012). [CrossRef]  

23. Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Zeidler, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 43, 065401 (2010). [CrossRef]  

24. H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010). [CrossRef]  

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References

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  1. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Lépine, M. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, Nat. Photonics 8, 195 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. Gallmann, J. Herrmann, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, A. Ludwig, M. Lucchini, and U. Keller, Mol. Phys. 111, 2243 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. P. Marangos, S. Baker, N. Kajumba, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Torres, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 35 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Phys. 5, 412 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pepin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, S. Daly, and I. Powis, Nat. Commun. 4, 2132 (2013).
  14. M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. H. Lee, I. J. Kim, S. B. Park, T. K. Kim, and C. H. Nam, Opt. Lett. 33, 2083 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, D. Kartashov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and T. Auguste, Opt. Lett. 32, 436 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Camper, T. Ruchon, D. Gauthier, O. Gobert, P. Salières, B. Carré, and T. Auguste, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043843 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Rupenyan, J. B. Bertrand, D. M. Villeneuve, and H. J. Wörner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033903 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Zeidler, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 43, 065401 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
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  25. D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
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  27. C. Teulon, I. Gusachenko, G. Latour, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Opt. Express 23, 9313 (2015).
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2015 (6)

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Teulon, I. Gusachenko, G. Latour, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Opt. Express 23, 9313 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Camper, T. Ruchon, D. Gauthier, O. Gobert, P. Salières, B. Carré, and T. Auguste, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043843 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Lépine, M. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, Nat. Photonics 8, 195 (2014).
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2013 (2)

L. Gallmann, J. Herrmann, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, A. Ludwig, M. Lucchini, and U. Keller, Mol. Phys. 111, 2243 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, S. Daly, and I. Powis, Nat. Commun. 4, 2132 (2013).

2012 (1)

A. Rupenyan, J. B. Bertrand, D. M. Villeneuve, and H. J. Wörner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033903 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Zeidler, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 43, 065401 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Phys. 5, 412 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
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G. H. Lee, I. J. Kim, S. B. Park, T. K. Kim, and C. H. Nam, Opt. Lett. 33, 2083 (2008).
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J. P. Marangos, S. Baker, N. Kajumba, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Torres, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 35 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pepin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, D. Kartashov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and T. Auguste, Opt. Lett. 32, 436 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
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1997 (1)

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997).
[Crossref]

Albert, O.

Altucci, C.

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997).
[Crossref]

Andreev, A.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ardana-Lamas, F.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Auguste, T.

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camper, T. Ruchon, D. Gauthier, O. Gobert, P. Salières, B. Carré, and T. Auguste, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043843 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, D. Kartashov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and T. Auguste, Opt. Lett. 32, 436 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baker, S.

J. P. Marangos, S. Baker, N. Kajumba, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Torres, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 35 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bellini, M.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bertrand, J. B.

A. Rupenyan, J. B. Bertrand, D. M. Villeneuve, and H. J. Wörner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033903 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blanchet, V.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boguslavskiy, A. E.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

Botheron, P.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boutu, W.

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bruner, B. D.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Burgy, F.

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

Camper, A.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camper, T. Ruchon, D. Gauthier, O. Gobert, P. Salières, B. Carré, and T. Auguste, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043843 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carré, B.

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camper, T. Ruchon, D. Gauthier, O. Gobert, P. Salières, B. Carré, and T. Auguste, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043843 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
[Crossref]

Comby, A.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

Constant, E.

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Zeidler, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 43, 065401 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Phys. 5, 412 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pepin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, D. Kartashov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and T. Auguste, Opt. Lett. 32, 436 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dagan, M.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

Daly, S.

G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, S. Daly, and I. Powis, Nat. Commun. 4, 2132 (2013).

Dax, A.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Descamps, D.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Diner, A.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dudovich, N.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Zeidler, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 43, 065401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Phys. 5, 412 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pepin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, D. Kartashov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and T. Auguste, Opt. Lett. 32, 436 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dumergue, M.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

English, E.

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Etchepare, J.

Fabre, B.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fajardo, M.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fedorov, N.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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Ferré, A.

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O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
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D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
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L. Gallmann, J. Herrmann, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, A. Ludwig, M. Lucchini, and U. Keller, Mol. Phys. 111, 2243 (2013).
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A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
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G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, S. Daly, and I. Powis, Nat. Commun. 4, 2132 (2013).

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A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
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A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
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O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
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Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
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A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
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M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
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G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
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L. Gallmann, J. Herrmann, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, A. Ludwig, M. Lucchini, and U. Keller, Mol. Phys. 111, 2243 (2013).
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Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
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Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
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D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
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F. Lépine, M. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, Nat. Photonics 8, 195 (2014).
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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
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Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
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J. P. Marangos, S. Baker, N. Kajumba, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Torres, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 35 (2008).
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O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
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X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
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Kartashov, D.

Keller, U.

L. Gallmann, J. Herrmann, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, A. Ludwig, M. Lucchini, and U. Keller, Mol. Phys. 111, 2243 (2013).
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O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
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J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pepin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
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Kim, T. K.

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O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
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M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
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G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
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Lee, G. H.

Lépine, F.

F. Lépine, M. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, Nat. Photonics 8, 195 (2014).
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J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pepin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
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X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
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A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
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L. Gallmann, J. Herrmann, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, A. Ludwig, M. Lucchini, and U. Keller, Mol. Phys. 111, 2243 (2013).
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X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
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L. Gallmann, J. Herrmann, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, A. Ludwig, M. Lucchini, and U. Keller, Mol. Phys. 111, 2243 (2013).
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Ludwig, A.

L. Gallmann, J. Herrmann, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, A. Ludwig, M. Lucchini, and U. Keller, Mol. Phys. 111, 2243 (2013).
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G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
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M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
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Mahieu, B.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
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Mairesse, Y.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
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A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
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Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Zeidler, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 43, 065401 (2010).
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D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Phys. 5, 412 (2009).
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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
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J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pepin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
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Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, D. Kartashov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and T. Auguste, Opt. Lett. 32, 436 (2007).
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Malka, V.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
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Manschwetus, B.

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
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Marangos, J. P.

J. P. Marangos, S. Baker, N. Kajumba, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Torres, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 35 (2008).
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Merceron, L.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mével, E.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mikosch, J.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
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Nahon, L.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, S. Daly, and I. Powis, Nat. Commun. 4, 2132 (2013).

Nam, C. H.

Nembach, H.

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, S. B.

Patchkovskii, S.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pepin, H.

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pepin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
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Perron, J.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Petit, S.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Petrov, G. I.

Pons, B.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Popmintchev, D.

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
[Crossref]

Popmintchev, T.

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
[Crossref]

Powis, I.

G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, S. Daly, and I. Powis, Nat. Commun. 4, 2132 (2013).

Raz, O.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Robinson, J. S.

J. P. Marangos, S. Baker, N. Kajumba, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Torres, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 35 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ruchon, T.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camper, T. Ruchon, D. Gauthier, O. Gobert, P. Salières, B. Carré, and T. Auguste, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043843 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rupenyan, A.

A. Rupenyan, J. B. Bertrand, D. M. Villeneuve, and H. J. Wörner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033903 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sabbar, M.

L. Gallmann, J. Herrmann, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, A. Ludwig, M. Lucchini, and U. Keller, Mol. Phys. 111, 2243 (2013).
[Crossref]

Salières, P.

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camper, T. Ruchon, D. Gauthier, O. Gobert, P. Salières, B. Carré, and T. Auguste, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043843 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Saltiel, S. M.

Sardinha, A.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schafer, K. J.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

Schibli, T. R.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sebban, S.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shafir, D.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Phys. 5, 412 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shaw, J. M.

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
[Crossref]

Skantzakis, E.

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smirnova, O.

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[Crossref]

Soifer, H.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Spanner, M.

Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Zeidler, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 43, 065401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Staedter, D.

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stolow, A.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stremoukhov, S.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tate, J. L.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[Crossref]

Teulon, C.

Tisch, J. W. G.

J. P. Marangos, S. Baker, N. Kajumba, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Torres, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 35 (2008).
[Crossref]

Torres, R.

J. P. Marangos, S. Baker, N. Kajumba, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Torres, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 35 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tozzi, A.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
[Crossref]

Turgut, E.

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, D. M.

A. Rupenyan, J. B. Bertrand, D. M. Villeneuve, and H. J. Wörner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033903 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Zeidler, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 43, 065401 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Phys. 5, 412 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pepin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, D. Kartashov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and T. Auguste, Opt. Lett. 32, 436 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vodungbo, B.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

F. Lépine, M. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, Nat. Photonics 8, 195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wagner, N.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wahlström, C.-G.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997).
[Crossref]

Walters, Z.

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Weber, S.

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, I.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wörner, H. J.

A. Rupenyan, J. B. Bertrand, D. M. Villeneuve, and H. J. Wörner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033903 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yost, D. C.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeidler, D.

Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Zeidler, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 43, 065401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zeitoun, P.

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zerne, R.

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zusin, D.

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (1)

Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Zeidler, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 43, 065401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mol. Phys. (1)

L. Gallmann, J. Herrmann, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, A. Ludwig, M. Lucchini, and U. Keller, Mol. Phys. 111, 2243 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (3)

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Lambert, B. Vodungbo, J. Gautier, B. Mahieu, V. Malka, S. Sebban, P. Zeitoun, J. Luning, J. Perron, A. Andreev, S. Stremoukhov, F. Ardana-Lamas, A. Dax, C. Hauri, A. Sardinha, and M. Fajardo, Nat. Commun. 6, 6167 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, S. Daly, and I. Powis, Nat. Commun. 4, 2132 (2013).

Nat. Photonics (3)

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, Nat. Photonics 9, 99 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ferré, C. Handschin, M. Dumergue, F. Burgy, A. Comby, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, G. A. Garcia, R. Géneaux, L. Merceron, E. Mével, L. Nahon, S. Petit, B. Pons, D. Staedter, S. Weber, T. Ruchon, V. Blanchet, and Y. Mairesse, Nat. Photonics 9, 93 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Lépine, M. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, Nat. Photonics 8, 195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Phys. 5, 412 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

Y. Mairesse, S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, W. Boutu, P. Breger, E. Constant, D. Descamps, E. Mével, S. Petit, and P. Salières, New J. Phys. 10, 025028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photonics (1)

A. Camper, A. Ferré, N. Lin, E. Skantzakis, D. Staedter, E. English, B. Manschwetus, F. Burgy, S. Petit, D. Descamps, T. Auguste, O. Gobert, B. Carré, P. Salières, Y. Mairesse, and T. Ruchon, Photonics 2, 184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. P. Marangos, S. Baker, N. Kajumba, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Torres, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 35 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Camper, T. Ruchon, D. Gauthier, O. Gobert, P. Salières, B. Carré, and T. Auguste, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043843 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

A. Rupenyan, J. B. Bertrand, D. M. Villeneuve, and H. J. Wörner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 033903 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Y. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Zerne, C. Altucci, M. Bellini, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, C. Lyngå, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1006 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, H. Pepin, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243001 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 297 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 073902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) CHIVES principle (see text). The bluish fields are polarized along y while the reddish ones are polarized along the x axis. (b) Experimental setup: a 0 π phase plate creates two HHG sources in a N 2 gas jet. Two pumps create a grating of molecular excitation in S 1 only. (c) Spatially resolved spectra. Pump off: two-source interference fringe pattern. Pump on: fringe pattern superposed with incoherent sum of Bragg peaks. Regions of interest are highlighted. They correspond to the harmonic emission through the shortest quantum paths. We discarded the outer rings resulting from long trajectories. The latter shows different behavior.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Plain lines: far-field measurement of (a)  φ obs , (b)  I 0 , and (c)  I 1 as a function of alignment angle. Symbols (squares, triangles, disks, diamonds, and crosses): values retrieved through the fit.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Amplitude and phase of the parallel component (a) and (b) and of the perpendicular component (c) and (d) as retrieved by the CHIVES procedure. The grey curve shows the upper bound limit imposed on the fitting function to enforce a null value of the dipole at 0° and 90°.

Equations (11)

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E⃗ out ( Ω , x ) = ( A ( Ω , x ) · E⃗ 1 ( Ω , x ) ) δ ( x a / 2 ) + ( A ( Ω , x ) · E⃗ 2 ( Ω , x ) ) δ ( x + a / 2 ) ,
E 1 ( Ω , x ) = [ D Ω iso + ( D Ω , θ D Ω iso ) f ( x ) ] e i φ Ω iso + i ( φ Ω , θ φ Ω iso ) f ( x ) ,
E 1 ( Ω , x ) = D Ω , θ f ( x ) e i ( φ Ω , θ f ( x ) + φ Ω 0 ) ,
H⃗ ( ξ , Ω ) = ( A ˜ ( ξ , Ω ) E⃗ ˜ 1 ( ξ , Ω ) ) e i a ξ / 2 + D Ω iso e i φ Ω iso A ˜ ( ξ , Ω ) e i a ξ / 2 e⃗ ,
I 0 ( ξ , Ω ) = I 0 ( ξ , Ω ) + I 0 ( ξ , Ω ) = 1 2 ( 1 + | α ( d Ω , θ , ϕ Ω , θ ) | 2 + | γ ( d Ω , θ , ϕ Ω , θ ) | 2 ) ,
I 1 ( ξ , Ω ) = I 1 ( ξ , Ω ) + I 1 ( ξ , Ω ) = 1 2 ( | β ( d Ω , θ , ϕ Ω , θ ) | 2 + | δ ( d Ω , θ , ϕ Ω , θ ) | 2 ) ,
α ( d Ω , θ , ϕ Ω , θ ) = e i ϕ Ω , θ 2 [ d Ω , θ + 1 2 J 0 ( ϕ Ω , θ 2 ) + i d Ω , θ 1 2 J 1 ( ϕ Ω , θ 2 ) ] ,
β ( d Ω , θ , ϕ Ω , θ ) = e i ϕ Ω , θ 2 [ d Ω , θ + 1 2 J ± 1 ( ϕ Ω , θ 2 ) + i d Ω , θ 1 4 ( J 2 ( ϕ Ω , θ 2 ) J 0 ( ϕ Ω , θ 2 ) ) ] ,
γ ( d Ω , θ , ϕ Ω , θ ) = d Ω , θ 2 [ J 0 ( ϕ Ω , θ 2 ) + i J 1 ( ϕ Ω , θ 2 ) ] ,
δ ( d Ω , θ , ϕ Ω , θ ) = d Ω , θ 2 [ J 0 ( ϕ Ω , θ 2 ) + i 2 [ J 2 ( ϕ Ω , θ 2 ) J 0 ( ϕ Ω , θ 2 ) ] ] ,
φ obs = a ξ arg α ( d Ω , ϕ Ω ) = a ξ ϕ Ω / 2 arctan ( d Ω 1 d Ω + 1 · J 1 ( ϕ Ω / 2 ) J 0 ( ϕ Ω / 2 ) ) .

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