Abstract

A continuous-wave dye laser having a self-pumped phase conjugator in place of its usual output mirror will slowly change its own output wavelength with time. The laser has a bandwidth of 1.5 GHz and can self-scan to either longer or shorter wavelengths over a 37-nm range. The phase conjugator uses self-pumped four-wave mixing in a BaTiO3 crystal. A ring laser that uses two-wave mixing in the same crystal is also observed to have a frequency offset of a few hertz compared with the frequency of the pumping beam. These two effects are related; both are caused by a spontaneously moving photorefractive-index grating in the BaTiO3 crystal.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. B. Whitten, J. M. Ramsey, Opt. Lett. 9, 44 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. R. MacDonald, J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 548 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Feinberg, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 5, 519 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. I. Stepanov, V. V. Kulikov, M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 44, 19 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. F. Lam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 155 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  8. Here we assume that the gratings in both interaction regions in the self-pumped phase conjugator have the same velocity.

1984 (1)

1983 (2)

1982 (3)

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[Crossref]

S. I. Stepanov, V. V. Kulikov, M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 44, 19 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

Cronin-Golomb, M.

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[Crossref]

Feinberg, J.

Fischer, B.

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hellwarth, R. W.

Kulikov, V. V.

S. I. Stepanov, V. V. Kulikov, M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 44, 19 (1982).
[Crossref]

Lam, J. F.

J. F. Lam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 155 (1983).
[Crossref]

MacDonald, K. R.

Petrov, M. P.

S. I. Stepanov, V. V. Kulikov, M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 44, 19 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ramsey, J. M.

Stepanov, S. I.

S. I. Stepanov, V. V. Kulikov, M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 44, 19 (1982).
[Crossref]

White, J. O.

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[Crossref]

Whitten, W. B.

Yariv, A.

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. F. Lam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 155 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. I. Stepanov, V. V. Kulikov, M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 44, 19 (1982).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

Here we assume that the gratings in both interaction regions in the self-pumped phase conjugator have the same velocity.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A self-scanning dye laser with two curved mirrors and a BaTiO3 crystal as the phase-conjugating front reflector. The removable mirror is needed to initiate lasing but can be removed once the phase conjugator has turned on. The detectors D monitor the power, reflected off a glass (wedged) flat, of the optical beams going into and out of the BaTiO3 crystal. The light is polarized in the plane of the figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Far-field spatial-mode patterns of the cw dye laser. The beam incident upon the BaTiO3 phase conjugator is split off by the glass flat shown in Fig. 1 and photographed on a distant screen. The argon laser was deliberately misfocused on the dye jet so that high-order modes could oscillate: A, with the removable plane mirror in place, but before the phase conjugator has turned on; B, with the plane mirror and the phase conjugator; C, with the phase conjugator alone. D, Fabry–Perot pattern (free spectral range = 0.25 cm−1 = 7.5 GHz) of the dye laser operating with the phase conjugator alone. The spectral mode is a doublet separated by ∼1.5 GHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Self-scanning of a cw dye laser having only a self-pumped phase conjugator as the front reflector. (a) Rapid scan toward the red. The optical table was lightly vibrated by a fish-tank motor during this scan. (b) Same as (a), but without deliberate table vibration. (c) Scan toward the blue. Blue scans were unaffected by table vibration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ring laser using the coupling of two beams in a BaTiO3 crystal. The ring resonator beam was split off by a 4% beam splitter (BS#1) and combined with the original pumping beam by a 50% beam splitter (BS#2) to make a fringe pattern on the screen. The angle between the normal to the crystal's entrance face and the pumping beam was 17°; the angle between the normal and the ring beam was −14°.

Equations (2)

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scan rate = I linear cavity I ring cavity ( 2 Δ f 2 L ) = 0.09 cm 1 / sec
Λ = λ / [ 2 sin ( θ / 2 ) ] ,

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