Abstract

An interconnection method for transmissive stars is presented that permits the fabrication of arbitrarily large stars from elementary ones. Being free from multiple-path interference, this synthesis is particularly well suited for single-mode stars. The method can be implemented with any of a number of techniques; in particular, the use of recently developed high-quality 3-dB couplers should result in the synthesis of large single-mode stars with negligible excess loss.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. F. Milton, A. B. Lee, Appl. Opt. 15, 244 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. C. Hudson, F. L. Thiel, Appl. Opt. 15, 2540 (1974);E. G. Rawson, M. D. Bailey, Electron. Lett. 15, 432 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. G. Rawson, R. M. Metcalfe, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, 983 (1978);M. K. Barnoski, Fundamentals of Optical Fiber Communications (Academic, New York, 1981), Chap. 7.
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, Opt. Lett. 4, 29 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 131 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. H. McMahon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1479 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Tamura, M. Nakamura, S. Ohshima, T. Ito, T. Ozeki, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 61 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. F. Milton, “Star coupler for single mode fiber communication systems,” U.S. Patent3,937,557 (1976).
  9. U. Killat, G. Rabe, W. Rave, Fiber Integr. Opt. 4, 159 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. W. Uhlhorn, S. L. Storozum, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 296, 141 (1981).
  11. A. Yoshida, R. G. Lamont, D. C. Johnson, Appl. Opt. 20, 2340 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. D. Beasley, D. R. Moore, D. W. Stowe, in Digest of Sixth Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, B.C., 1983), paper ML5.
  13. J. S. Leach, G. J. Gannel, A. J. Robertson, P. Gurton, Electron. Lett. 18, 697 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1984 (1)

T. Tamura, M. Nakamura, S. Ohshima, T. Ito, T. Ozeki, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 61 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

U. Killat, G. Rabe, W. Rave, Fiber Integr. Opt. 4, 159 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Leach, G. J. Gannel, A. J. Robertson, P. Gurton, Electron. Lett. 18, 697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

R. W. Uhlhorn, S. L. Storozum, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 296, 141 (1981).

A. Yoshida, R. G. Lamont, D. C. Johnson, Appl. Opt. 20, 2340 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, Opt. Lett. 4, 29 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

E. G. Rawson, R. M. Metcalfe, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, 983 (1978);M. K. Barnoski, Fundamentals of Optical Fiber Communications (Academic, New York, 1981), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

M. C. Hudson, F. L. Thiel, Appl. Opt. 15, 2540 (1974);E. G. Rawson, M. D. Bailey, Electron. Lett. 15, 432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Beasley, J. D.

J. D. Beasley, D. R. Moore, D. W. Stowe, in Digest of Sixth Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, B.C., 1983), paper ML5.

Bergh, R. A.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chandross, E. A.

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gannel, G. J.

J. S. Leach, G. J. Gannel, A. J. Robertson, P. Gurton, Electron. Lett. 18, 697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Giallorenzi, T. G.

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, Opt. Lett. 4, 29 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurton, P.

J. S. Leach, G. J. Gannel, A. J. Robertson, P. Gurton, Electron. Lett. 18, 697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, M. C.

M. C. Hudson, F. L. Thiel, Appl. Opt. 15, 2540 (1974);E. G. Rawson, M. D. Bailey, Electron. Lett. 15, 432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

T. Tamura, M. Nakamura, S. Ohshima, T. Ito, T. Ozeki, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 61 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

Kaminow, I. P.

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Killat, U.

U. Killat, G. Rabe, W. Rave, Fiber Integr. Opt. 4, 159 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kotler, G.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lamont, R. G.

Leach, J. S.

J. S. Leach, G. J. Gannel, A. J. Robertson, P. Gurton, Electron. Lett. 18, 697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. B.

McMahon, D. H.

Metcalfe, R. M.

E. G. Rawson, R. M. Metcalfe, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, 983 (1978);M. K. Barnoski, Fundamentals of Optical Fiber Communications (Academic, New York, 1981), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

Milton, A. F.

A. F. Milton, A. B. Lee, Appl. Opt. 15, 244 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Milton, “Star coupler for single mode fiber communication systems,” U.S. Patent3,937,557 (1976).

Moore, D. R.

J. D. Beasley, D. R. Moore, D. W. Stowe, in Digest of Sixth Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, B.C., 1983), paper ML5.

Nakamura, M.

T. Tamura, M. Nakamura, S. Ohshima, T. Ito, T. Ozeki, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 61 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ohshima, S.

T. Tamura, M. Nakamura, S. Ohshima, T. Ito, T. Ozeki, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 61 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, T.

T. Tamura, M. Nakamura, S. Ohshima, T. Ito, T. Ozeki, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 61 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, G.

U. Killat, G. Rabe, W. Rave, Fiber Integr. Opt. 4, 159 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rave, W.

U. Killat, G. Rabe, W. Rave, Fiber Integr. Opt. 4, 159 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rawson, E. G.

E. G. Rawson, R. M. Metcalfe, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, 983 (1978);M. K. Barnoski, Fundamentals of Optical Fiber Communications (Academic, New York, 1981), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

Robertson, A. J.

J. S. Leach, G. J. Gannel, A. J. Robertson, P. Gurton, Electron. Lett. 18, 697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sheem, S. K.

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, Opt. Lett. 4, 29 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silfvast, W. T.

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Storozum, S. L.

R. W. Uhlhorn, S. L. Storozum, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 296, 141 (1981).

Stowe, D. W.

J. D. Beasley, D. R. Moore, D. W. Stowe, in Digest of Sixth Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, B.C., 1983), paper ML5.

Tamura, T.

T. Tamura, M. Nakamura, S. Ohshima, T. Ito, T. Ozeki, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 61 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, F. L.

M. C. Hudson, F. L. Thiel, Appl. Opt. 15, 2540 (1974);E. G. Rawson, M. D. Bailey, Electron. Lett. 15, 432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Uhlhorn, R. W.

R. W. Uhlhorn, S. L. Storozum, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 296, 141 (1981).

Yoshida, A.

Appl. Opt. (3)

M. C. Hudson, F. L. Thiel, Appl. Opt. 15, 2540 (1974);E. G. Rawson, M. D. Bailey, Electron. Lett. 15, 432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Milton, A. B. Lee, Appl. Opt. 15, 244 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yoshida, R. G. Lamont, D. C. Johnson, Appl. Opt. 20, 2340 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. K. Sheem, T. G. Giallorenzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, I. P. Kaminow, E. A. Chandross, R. L. Fork, W. T. Silfvast, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 486 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Leach, G. J. Gannel, A. J. Robertson, P. Gurton, Electron. Lett. 18, 697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

U. Killat, G. Rabe, W. Rave, Fiber Integr. Opt. 4, 159 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

E. G. Rawson, R. M. Metcalfe, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, 983 (1978);M. K. Barnoski, Fundamentals of Optical Fiber Communications (Academic, New York, 1981), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Tamura, M. Nakamura, S. Ohshima, T. Ito, T. Ozeki, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 61 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

R. W. Uhlhorn, S. L. Storozum, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 296, 141 (1981).

Other (2)

J. D. Beasley, D. R. Moore, D. W. Stowe, in Digest of Sixth Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, B.C., 1983), paper ML5.

A. F. Milton, “Star coupler for single mode fiber communication systems,” U.S. Patent3,937,557 (1976).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An L × M-star formed by interconnection of L M-stars and M L-stars.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mn-star formed by interconnection of n layers of Mn−1 M-stars. U represents the same layer of M-stars repeated n times; I1, I2,…,In−1 represent n − 1 interconnection layers.

Equations (3)

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if P i 0 , P j = 0 for j i ;
then P j = P i / N for j = 1 , 2 , , N ,
n × M n 1 .

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