Abstract

A new method for accurately measuring the oscillator strengths of gases is presented. The technique is based on determining the phase-matching conditions for four-wave mixing in a gas mixture. When high gas pressures are used, the measurement is independent of the detailed spatial-mode properties of the laser. By using the known refractive index of argon as a reference, the oscillator strength of the xenon ground-state-to-7s [3/2]1 transition at 117.04 nm was found to be 0.098 ± 0.012.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. L. Wiese, G. A. Martin, in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, R. C. Weast, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983), pp. 319–354.
  2. P. G. Wilkinson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 6, 823 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. J. Wynne, R. Beigang, Phys. Rev. A 23, 2736 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Puell, C. R. Vidal, Opt. Comm. 19, 279 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-11, 287 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, D. W. Koopman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. M. Yiu, T. J. McIlrath, R. Mahon, Phys. Rev. A 20, 2470 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. P. Gladushchak, S. A. Moshkalev, G. I. Chaschina, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 51, 608 (1981).
  9. S. D. Kramer, C. H. Chen, M. G. Payne, G. S. Hurst, B. E. Lehmann, Appl. Optics 22, 3271 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, D. W. Koopman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 444 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. J. Leonard, At. Data and Nucl. Data Tables 14, 22 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. I. Chashchina, V. I. Gladushchak, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 24, 542 (1968).
  13. P. D. Chopra, D. W. O. Heddle, J. Phys. B 7, 2421 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Bideau, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1566 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Delage, J. D. Carette, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1345 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Geiger, Z. Phys. A 282, 129 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Geiger, Phys. Lett. 33A, 351 (1970.
  19. R. J. Celotta, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. (personal communication).

1983 (1)

S. D. Kramer, C. H. Chen, M. G. Payne, G. S. Hurst, B. E. Lehmann, Appl. Optics 22, 3271 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (4)

J. J. Wynne, R. Beigang, Phys. Rev. A 23, 2736 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Gladushchak, S. A. Moshkalev, G. I. Chaschina, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 51, 608 (1981).

A. Bideau, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1566 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

Y. M. Yiu, T. J. McIlrath, R. Mahon, Phys. Rev. A 20, 2470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, D. W. Koopman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 444 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, D. W. Koopman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. Geiger, Z. Phys. A 282, 129 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

A. Delage, J. D. Carette, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1345 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Puell, C. R. Vidal, Opt. Comm. 19, 279 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-11, 287 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

P. J. Leonard, At. Data and Nucl. Data Tables 14, 22 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Chopra, D. W. O. Heddle, J. Phys. B 7, 2421 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. Geiger, Phys. Lett. 33A, 351 (1970.

1968 (1)

G. I. Chashchina, V. I. Gladushchak, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 24, 542 (1968).

1966 (1)

P. G. Wilkinson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 6, 823 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abjean, R.

A. Bideau, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

J. J. Wynne, R. Beigang, Phys. Rev. A 23, 2736 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bideau, A.

A. Bideau, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-11, 287 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Carette, J. D.

A. Delage, J. D. Carette, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1345 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Celotta, R. J.

R. J. Celotta, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. (personal communication).

Chaschina, G. I.

V. P. Gladushchak, S. A. Moshkalev, G. I. Chaschina, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 51, 608 (1981).

Chashchina, G. I.

G. I. Chashchina, V. I. Gladushchak, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 24, 542 (1968).

Chen, C. H.

S. D. Kramer, C. H. Chen, M. G. Payne, G. S. Hurst, B. E. Lehmann, Appl. Optics 22, 3271 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chopra, P. D.

P. D. Chopra, D. W. O. Heddle, J. Phys. B 7, 2421 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Delage, A.

A. Delage, J. D. Carette, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1345 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Geiger, J.

J. Geiger, Z. Phys. A 282, 129 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Geiger, Phys. Lett. 33A, 351 (1970.

Gladushchak, V. I.

G. I. Chashchina, V. I. Gladushchak, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 24, 542 (1968).

Gladushchak, V. P.

V. P. Gladushchak, S. A. Moshkalev, G. I. Chaschina, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 51, 608 (1981).

Guern, Y.

A. Bideau, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Heddle, D. W. O.

P. D. Chopra, D. W. O. Heddle, J. Phys. B 7, 2421 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hilbig, R.

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1566 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hurst, G. S.

S. D. Kramer, C. H. Chen, M. G. Payne, G. S. Hurst, B. E. Lehmann, Appl. Optics 22, 3271 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Johannin-Gilles, A.

A. Bideau, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Koopman, D. W.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, D. W. Koopman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 444 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, D. W. Koopman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, S. D.

S. D. Kramer, C. H. Chen, M. G. Payne, G. S. Hurst, B. E. Lehmann, Appl. Optics 22, 3271 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, B. E.

S. D. Kramer, C. H. Chen, M. G. Payne, G. S. Hurst, B. E. Lehmann, Appl. Optics 22, 3271 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, P. J.

P. J. Leonard, At. Data and Nucl. Data Tables 14, 22 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, R.

Y. M. Yiu, T. J. McIlrath, R. Mahon, Phys. Rev. A 20, 2470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, D. W. Koopman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 444 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, D. W. Koopman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Martin, G. A.

W. L. Wiese, G. A. Martin, in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, R. C. Weast, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983), pp. 319–354.

McIlrath, T. J.

Y. M. Yiu, T. J. McIlrath, R. Mahon, Phys. Rev. A 20, 2470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, D. W. Koopman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 444 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, D. W. Koopman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Moshkalev, S. A.

V. P. Gladushchak, S. A. Moshkalev, G. I. Chaschina, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 51, 608 (1981).

Myerscough, V. P.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, D. W. Koopman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 444 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Payne, M. G.

S. D. Kramer, C. H. Chen, M. G. Payne, G. S. Hurst, B. E. Lehmann, Appl. Optics 22, 3271 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Puell, H.

H. Puell, C. R. Vidal, Opt. Comm. 19, 279 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shreider, E. Y.

V. P. Gladushchak, S. A. Moshkalev, G. I. Chaschina, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 51, 608 (1981).

G. I. Chashchina, V. I. Gladushchak, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 24, 542 (1968).

Vidal, C. R.

H. Puell, C. R. Vidal, Opt. Comm. 19, 279 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1566 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, W. L.

W. L. Wiese, G. A. Martin, in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, R. C. Weast, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983), pp. 319–354.

Wilkinson, P. G.

P. G. Wilkinson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 6, 823 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, J. J.

J. J. Wynne, R. Beigang, Phys. Rev. A 23, 2736 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yiu, Y. M.

Y. M. Yiu, T. J. McIlrath, R. Mahon, Phys. Rev. A 20, 2470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Optics (1)

S. D. Kramer, C. H. Chen, M. G. Payne, G. S. Hurst, B. E. Lehmann, Appl. Optics 22, 3271 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, D. W. Koopman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 305 (1978).
[CrossRef]

At. Data and Nucl. Data Tables (1)

P. J. Leonard, At. Data and Nucl. Data Tables 14, 22 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-11, 287 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Myerscough, D. W. Koopman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 444 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilbig, R. Wallenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1566 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

P. D. Chopra, D. W. O. Heddle, J. Phys. B 7, 2421 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

P. G. Wilkinson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 6, 823 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

A. Bideau, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, A. Johannin-Gilles, J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 25, 395 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm. (1)

H. Puell, C. R. Vidal, Opt. Comm. 19, 279 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (2)

V. P. Gladushchak, S. A. Moshkalev, G. I. Chaschina, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 51, 608 (1981).

G. I. Chashchina, V. I. Gladushchak, E. Y. Shreider, Opt. Spectrosc. 24, 542 (1968).

Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Geiger, Phys. Lett. 33A, 351 (1970.

Phys. Rev. A (3)

A. Delage, J. D. Carette, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1345 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Yiu, T. J. McIlrath, R. Mahon, Phys. Rev. A 20, 2470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wynne, R. Beigang, Phys. Rev. A 23, 2736 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. A (1)

J. Geiger, Z. Phys. A 282, 129 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

W. L. Wiese, G. A. Martin, in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, R. C. Weast, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983), pp. 319–354.

R. J. Celotta, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. (personal communication).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The four-wave mixing process in xenon.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The reciprocal of the energy difference 1/ΔE versus the argon–xenon pressure ratio R necessary to maximize the VUV output.

Equations (7)

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I ( 2 ω 1 + ω 2 ) = N 2 χ 2 F I ( ω 1 ) I ( ω 1 ) I ( ω 2 ) ,
Δ k = 2 k ( λ 1 ) + k ( λ 2 ) k ( λ 3 ) ,
α R + β n 3 ( Xe ) / λ 3 = c / 2 π b N ( Xe ) ,
R = N ( Ar ) / N ( Xe ) , α = 2 [ n 1 ( Ar ) n 2 ( Ar ) ] / λ 1 + [ n 2 ( Ar ) n 3 ( Ar ) ] / λ 3 , β = 2 [ n 1 ( Xe ) n 2 ( Xe ) ] / λ 1 + n 2 ( Xe ) / λ 3 .
n 1 ( Ar ) = 1.128 ( ± 0.002 ) × 10 23 cm 3 , n 2 ( Ar ) = 1.035 ( ± 0.002 ) × 10 23 cm 3 , n 1 ( Xe ) = 3.04 ( ± 0.01 ) × 10 23 cm 3 , n 2 ( Xe ) = 2.53 ( ± 0.07 ) × 10 23 cm 3 .
α R + β n 3 ( Xe ) / λ 3 = 0 ,
1 / Δ E = ( 4 π α / r f ) R + ( 4 π / r f λ ) ( d λ β ) ,

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