Abstract

A new optical technique, based on morphology-dependent peaks in the fluorescence spectra, is used to determine the evaporation and condensation rates of a linear stream of ethanol droplets. The droplets are monodispersed, in close proximity to one another, and impregnated with fluorescent dye molecules. On irradiation of the droplets with a single N2 laser pulse, the evaporation or condensation rates can be deduced from the wavelength shift (to the blue or to the red, respectively) of the spectrally narrow (<0.1-nm) structure-resonance peaks in the fluorescence spectra.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).
  2. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).
  3. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  4. J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 6, 540 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. B. Pluchino, Appl. Opt. 20, 2986 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, B. J. Messinger, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 6, 272 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980); J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Arnold, A. B. Pluchino, Appl. Opt. 21, 4194 (1982); S. Arnold, M. Neuman, A. B. Pluchino, Opt. Lett. 9, 4 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Tal (Thau), D. N. Lee, W. A. Sirignano, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 26, 1265 (1983); J. J. Sangiovanni, M. Labowsky, Combust. Flame 47, 15 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Kerker, P. J. McNulty, M. Sculley, H. Chew, D. D. Cooke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1676 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. G. Alexopoulos, N. K. Uzunoglu, Appl. Opt. 17, 235 (1978); M. Kerker, Appl. Opt. 18, 1180 (1979); Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 275 (1982).
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1983 (1)

R. Tal (Thau), D. N. Lee, W. A. Sirignano, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 26, 1265 (1983); J. J. Sangiovanni, M. Labowsky, Combust. Flame 47, 15 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

1981 (3)

1980 (1)

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980); J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (3)

1977 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Alexopoulos, N. G.

Arnold, S.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 6, 540 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, B. J. Messinger, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 6, 272 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980); J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980); J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, H. S.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Chang, R. K.

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 6, 540 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, B. J. Messinger, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 6, 272 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980); J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chew, H.

Cooke, D. D.

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, P. J. McNulty, M. Sculley, H. Chew, D. D. Cooke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1676 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

Lee, D. N.

R. Tal (Thau), D. N. Lee, W. A. Sirignano, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 26, 1265 (1983); J. J. Sangiovanni, M. Labowsky, Combust. Flame 47, 15 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McNulty, P. J.

Messinger, B. J.

Owen, J. F.

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 6, 540 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, B. J. Messinger, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 6, 272 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980); J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pluchino, A. B.

Rosasco, G. J.

Sculley, M.

Sirignano, W. A.

R. Tal (Thau), D. N. Lee, W. A. Sirignano, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 26, 1265 (1983); J. J. Sangiovanni, M. Labowsky, Combust. Flame 47, 15 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tal (Thau), R.

R. Tal (Thau), D. N. Lee, W. A. Sirignano, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 26, 1265 (1983); J. J. Sangiovanni, M. Labowsky, Combust. Flame 47, 15 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Uzunoglu, N. K.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (1)

R. Tal (Thau), D. N. Lee, W. A. Sirignano, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 26, 1265 (1983); J. J. Sangiovanni, M. Labowsky, Combust. Flame 47, 15 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980); J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental arrangement for the structure-resonance fluorescence technique. The pulsed N2 laser beam is focused onto a stream of droplets that are generated with equal radii. The collection optics image the stream of droplets onto the entrance slit of the spectrograph. The dispersed fluorescence spectra from the individual droplets are detected by a television camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The single-laser-shot fluorescence spectra from 8 to 10 spatially resolved droplets emerging from a droplet generator into several different environments: (a) ambient, (b) higher-temperature, and (c) room-temperature but higher ambient ethanol-vapor pressure (EtOH Pvapor). The accumulated wavelength shift for 8 to 10 droplets is indicated for a specific λ n , l flu peak. Shifts to shorter wavelengths (blue shift) and longer wavelengths (red shift) correspond to evaporation and condensation, respectively.

Equations (1)

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Δ a / a = Δ λ n , l / λ n , l .

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