Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a new integrated-optic TE/TM splitter using a polarization-selective Ti:LiNbO3 directional coupler. By application of appropriate voltages, either polarization can be selected (cross talk will be below −30 dB) or both TE and TM modes can be simultaneously extracted (cross talk will be −24 dB).

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Ulrich, “Polarization stabilization on single-mode fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 840–842 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, “Waveguide electro-optic polarization transformer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 655–657 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. See, for example, M. Papuchon, S. Vatoux, “Integrated optical polarizer on LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides using proton exchange,” presented at the Meeting on Integrated Optics and Optical Communication, Tokyo, Japan, June 1983.
  4. M. Masuda, G. L. Yip, “An optical TE–TM mode splitter using a LiNbO3 branching waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 20–22 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Nakajima, T. Horimatsu, M. Seino, I. Sawaki, “TE/TM mode splitter using intersecting waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 617–621 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Mikami, “LiNbO3 coupled-waveguide TE/TM mode splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 491–493 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. C. Alferness, U.S. Patent No.4,390,236 (June28, 1983).
  8. M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive index changes in Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. C. Alferness, R. V. Schmidt, E. H. Turner, “Characteristics of Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical directional couplers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 4012–4016 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Bulmer, W. K. Burns, “Polarization characteristics of LiNbO3 channel waveguide directional couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. LT-1, 227–236 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, “Switched directional couplers with alternating Δβ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 396–400 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1983 (1)

C. Bulmer, W. K. Burns, “Polarization characteristics of LiNbO3 channel waveguide directional couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. LT-1, 227–236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

H. Nakajima, T. Horimatsu, M. Seino, I. Sawaki, “TE/TM mode splitter using intersecting waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 617–621 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, “Waveguide electro-optic polarization transformer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 655–657 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

M. Masuda, G. L. Yip, “An optical TE–TM mode splitter using a LiNbO3 branching waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 20–22 (1980).
[CrossRef]

O. Mikami, “LiNbO3 coupled-waveguide TE/TM mode splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 491–493 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1978 (1)

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive index changes in Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, “Switched directional couplers with alternating Δβ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 396–400 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, “Waveguide electro-optic polarization transformer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 655–657 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, R. V. Schmidt, E. H. Turner, “Characteristics of Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical directional couplers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 4012–4016 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Alferness, U.S. Patent No.4,390,236 (June28, 1983).

Buhl, L. L.

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, “Waveguide electro-optic polarization transformer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 655–657 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bulmer, C.

C. Bulmer, W. K. Burns, “Polarization characteristics of LiNbO3 channel waveguide directional couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. LT-1, 227–236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

C. Bulmer, W. K. Burns, “Polarization characteristics of LiNbO3 channel waveguide directional couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. LT-1, 227–236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Horimatsu, T.

H. Nakajima, T. Horimatsu, M. Seino, I. Sawaki, “TE/TM mode splitter using intersecting waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 617–621 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, “Switched directional couplers with alternating Δβ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 396–400 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, M.

M. Masuda, G. L. Yip, “An optical TE–TM mode splitter using a LiNbO3 branching waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 20–22 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mikami, O.

O. Mikami, “LiNbO3 coupled-waveguide TE/TM mode splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 491–493 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Minakata, M.

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive index changes in Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, S.

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive index changes in Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, H.

H. Nakajima, T. Horimatsu, M. Seino, I. Sawaki, “TE/TM mode splitter using intersecting waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 617–621 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

See, for example, M. Papuchon, S. Vatoux, “Integrated optical polarizer on LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides using proton exchange,” presented at the Meeting on Integrated Optics and Optical Communication, Tokyo, Japan, June 1983.

Saito, S.

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive index changes in Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, I.

H. Nakajima, T. Horimatsu, M. Seino, I. Sawaki, “TE/TM mode splitter using intersecting waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 617–621 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R. V.

R. C. Alferness, R. V. Schmidt, E. H. Turner, “Characteristics of Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical directional couplers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 4012–4016 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, “Switched directional couplers with alternating Δβ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 396–400 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Seino, M.

H. Nakajima, T. Horimatsu, M. Seino, I. Sawaki, “TE/TM mode splitter using intersecting waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 617–621 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, M.

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive index changes in Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Turner, E. H.

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, “Polarization stabilization on single-mode fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 840–842 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vatoux, S.

See, for example, M. Papuchon, S. Vatoux, “Integrated optical polarizer on LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides using proton exchange,” presented at the Meeting on Integrated Optics and Optical Communication, Tokyo, Japan, June 1983.

Yip, G. L.

M. Masuda, G. L. Yip, “An optical TE–TM mode splitter using a LiNbO3 branching waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 20–22 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

O. Mikami, “LiNbO3 coupled-waveguide TE/TM mode splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 491–493 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, “Polarization stabilization on single-mode fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 840–842 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, “Waveguide electro-optic polarization transformer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 655–657 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Masuda, G. L. Yip, “An optical TE–TM mode splitter using a LiNbO3 branching waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 20–22 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. (1)

C. Bulmer, W. K. Burns, “Polarization characteristics of LiNbO3 channel waveguide directional couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. LT-1, 227–236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, “Switched directional couplers with alternating Δβ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 396–400 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

H. Nakajima, T. Horimatsu, M. Seino, I. Sawaki, “TE/TM mode splitter using intersecting waveguides,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 617–621 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive index changes in Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

See, for example, M. Papuchon, S. Vatoux, “Integrated optical polarizer on LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides using proton exchange,” presented at the Meeting on Integrated Optics and Optical Communication, Tokyo, Japan, June 1983.

R. C. Alferness, U.S. Patent No.4,390,236 (June28, 1983).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ti:LiNbO3 directional-coupler TE/TM splitter/combiner.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reversed Δβ switching curve with typical values of lTM and lTE for polarization splitting.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured cross talk for TE (out the crossover waveguide) and TM mode (out the straight-through waveguide) selectivity versus the applied voltage.

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