Abstract

Optical mixing of waves separated in frequency by many gigahertz can be accomplished by allowing the waves to mix in a nonlinear medium to generate microwave difference frequencies. This basis for high-bandwidth optical mixers is demonstrated by mixing optical frequencies ~4 GHz apart of a pulsed dye-laser beam at ~660 nm in a LiTaO3 crystal to produce readily detectable microwave power at ~4 GHz.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Advanced Devices Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, specifies response bandwidths from 7 to 10 GHz on its S-100-series pyroelectric detectors. The voltage responsivity, ≳5 μV/W, is flat above 10 μm and below 0.35 μm but unfortunately drops by some 2 orders of magnitude in the visible.
  2. G. Lucovsky, R. B. Emmons, Appl. Opt. 4, 697 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. P. Schinke, R. G. Smith, A. R. Hartman, in Semiconductor Devices for Optical Communication, Vol. 39, H. Kressel, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980), p. 63.
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Y. Wang, D. M. Bloom, D. M. Collins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 190 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Y. Wang, D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 19, 554 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  7. M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. E. Niebuhr, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 136 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Zernike, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 931 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Van Tran, C. K. N. Patel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 463 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Y. Chang, N. Van Tran, C. K. N. Patel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 357 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. J. Bridges, A. R. Strnad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 382 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. O. Hocker, D. R. Sokoloff, V. Danen, A. Szoke, A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 401 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. J. Bridges, T. Y. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 811 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. H. Tran, R. Kachru, T. F. Gallagher, J. P. Watjen, G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 8, 157 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. V. Lenzo, E. H. Turner, E. G. Spencer, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 81 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

1983 (3)

S. Y. Wang, D. M. Bloom, D. M. Collins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 190 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Wang, D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 19, 554 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Tran, R. Kachru, T. F. Gallagher, J. P. Watjen, G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 8, 157 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

T. J. Bridges, A. R. Strnad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 382 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (3)

T. J. Bridges, T. Y. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 811 (1969).
[CrossRef]

F. Zernike, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 931 (1969).
[CrossRef]

N. Van Tran, C. K. N. Patel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 463 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

T. Y. Chang, N. Van Tran, C. K. N. Patel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 357 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Hocker, D. R. Sokoloff, V. Danen, A. Szoke, A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 401 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

P. V. Lenzo, E. H. Turner, E. G. Spencer, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 81 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1963 (1)

K. E. Niebuhr, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 136 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ballman, A. A.

P. V. Lenzo, E. H. Turner, E. G. Spencer, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 81 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Bloom, D. M.

S. Y. Wang, D. M. Bloom, D. M. Collins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 190 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Wang, D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 19, 554 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bridges, T. J.

T. J. Bridges, A. R. Strnad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 382 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bridges, T. Y. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 811 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

T. J. Bridges, T. Y. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 811 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, N. Van Tran, C. K. N. Patel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 357 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D. M.

S. Y. Wang, D. M. Bloom, D. M. Collins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 190 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Danen, V.

L. O. Hocker, D. R. Sokoloff, V. Danen, A. Szoke, A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 401 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Emmons, R. B.

Franken, P. A.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, T. F.

Hartman, A. R.

D. P. Schinke, R. G. Smith, A. R. Hartman, in Semiconductor Devices for Optical Communication, Vol. 39, H. Kressel, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980), p. 63.
[CrossRef]

Hocker, L. O.

L. O. Hocker, D. R. Sokoloff, V. Danen, A. Szoke, A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 401 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Javan, A.

L. O. Hocker, D. R. Sokoloff, V. Danen, A. Szoke, A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 401 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kachru, R.

Lenzo, P. V.

P. V. Lenzo, E. H. Turner, E. G. Spencer, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 81 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Lucovsky, G.

Niebuhr, K. E.

K. E. Niebuhr, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 136 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

N. Van Tran, C. K. N. Patel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 463 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, N. Van Tran, C. K. N. Patel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 357 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Schinke, D. P.

D. P. Schinke, R. G. Smith, A. R. Hartman, in Semiconductor Devices for Optical Communication, Vol. 39, H. Kressel, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980), p. 63.
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

D. P. Schinke, R. G. Smith, A. R. Hartman, in Semiconductor Devices for Optical Communication, Vol. 39, H. Kressel, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980), p. 63.
[CrossRef]

Sokoloff, D. R.

L. O. Hocker, D. R. Sokoloff, V. Danen, A. Szoke, A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 401 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, E. G.

P. V. Lenzo, E. H. Turner, E. G. Spencer, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 81 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Strnad, A. R.

T. J. Bridges, A. R. Strnad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 382 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Szoke, A.

L. O. Hocker, D. R. Sokoloff, V. Danen, A. Szoke, A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 401 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N. H.

Turner, E. H.

P. V. Lenzo, E. H. Turner, E. G. Spencer, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 81 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Van Tran, N.

N. Van Tran, C. K. N. Patel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 463 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, N. Van Tran, C. K. N. Patel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 357 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Y.

S. Y. Wang, D. M. Bloom, D. M. Collins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 190 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Wang, D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 19, 554 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. F.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Watjen, J. P.

Weinreich, G.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 931 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. Y. Wang, D. M. Bloom, D. M. Collins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 190 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Niebuhr, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 136 (1963).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, N. Van Tran, C. K. N. Patel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 357 (1968).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bridges, A. R. Strnad, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 382 (1972).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Hocker, D. R. Sokoloff, V. Danen, A. Szoke, A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 401 (1968).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Lenzo, E. H. Turner, E. G. Spencer, A. A. Ballman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 81 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Y. Wang, D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 19, 554 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

T. J. Bridges, T. Y. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 811 (1969).
[CrossRef]

F. Zernike, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 931 (1969).
[CrossRef]

N. Van Tran, C. K. N. Patel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 463 (1969).
[CrossRef]

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Advanced Devices Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, specifies response bandwidths from 7 to 10 GHz on its S-100-series pyroelectric detectors. The voltage responsivity, ≳5 μV/W, is flat above 10 μm and below 0.35 μm but unfortunately drops by some 2 orders of magnitude in the visible.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

D. P. Schinke, R. G. Smith, A. R. Hartman, in Semiconductor Devices for Optical Communication, Vol. 39, H. Kressel, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980), p. 63.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus: M, mirror; F-P, Fabry–Perot étalon; CU, crystal unit; A, amplifier; D, detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microstrip LiTaO3 nonlinear crystal unit (not to scale). All dimensions are in millimeters. See text for legends.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microwave source scan showing the homodyne signal resulting from the microwave generated at ν1 = 3.5 GHz by nonlinear mixing of the dye-laser optical frequencies inside the LiTaO3 crystal.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p 1 ( ν 1 ) = 1 2 j k d i j k ( ν 1 ) E j ( ν 3 ) E k * ( ν 2 ) × exp { i [ 2 π ( ν 3 ν 2 ) t ( k 3 k 2 ) z ] } + c . c .,
P 1 = P 2 P 3 ( μ 0 0 ) 3 / 2 ( 2 π ν 1 ) 2 d 2 2 n 1 n 2 n 3 l 2 a b sin 2 Ψ Ψ 2 .

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