Abstract

In order to make an optical-fiber-type laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV) more compact, we propose the use of a laser diode as the coherent light source. To reduce the optical feedback on the laser source, a polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber was adopted. We have confirmed that the LDV system can be compact and also that it can have a velocity resolution of a few millimeters per second and a signal with a 20-dB signal-to-noise ratio, which are similar to the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio obtained with a He–Ne laser.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Nishihara, Y. Nishi, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, “Measurement of the blood velocity by a laser-Doppler system with an optical fiber,” Rev. Laser Eng. 8, 426–429 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, M. Hironaga, M. Kano, “Optical-fiber laser Doppler velocimeter for high-resolution measurement of pulsatile blood flows,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1785–1790 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. M. Franke, S. L. Ocheltree, W. W. Hunter, J. F. Meyers, “Laser velocimetry with diode junctions semiconductors lasers,” presented at the Conference on Electro-Optic Lasers, Anaheim, California, 1977.
  4. E. J. Shaughnessey, F. H. Zu’bi, “GaAlAs diode sources for laser-Doppler anemometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 835–836 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kanda, K. Nawata, “Injection laser characteristics due to reflected optical power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 559–565 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Machida, A. Kawana, K. Ishihara, H. Tsuchiya, “Interference on an AlGaAs laser diode using a 4.15 km single mode fiber cable,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 535–537 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Interferometric measurement of linewidth and noise in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 196–198 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Yoshikawa, N. Suzuki, T. Suzuki, “Coherence characteristics of a single-mode GaAlAs laser diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.71, 171–174 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Ikushima, M. Maeda, “Lasing spectra of semiconductor lasers coupled to an optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 844–845 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Wenke, G. Elze, “Investigation of optical feedback effects on laser diodes in broad-band optical transmission systems,” J. Opt. Commun. 2, 128–133 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

G. Wenke, G. Elze, “Investigation of optical feedback effects on laser diodes in broad-band optical transmission systems,” J. Opt. Commun. 2, 128–133 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

H. Nishihara, Y. Nishi, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, “Measurement of the blood velocity by a laser-Doppler system with an optical fiber,” Rev. Laser Eng. 8, 426–429 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (3)

I. Ikushima, M. Maeda, “Lasing spectra of semiconductor lasers coupled to an optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 844–845 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanda, K. Nawata, “Injection laser characteristics due to reflected optical power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 559–565 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Machida, A. Kawana, K. Ishihara, H. Tsuchiya, “Interference on an AlGaAs laser diode using a 4.15 km single mode fiber cable,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 535–537 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

E. J. Shaughnessey, F. H. Zu’bi, “GaAlAs diode sources for laser-Doppler anemometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 835–836 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Interferometric measurement of linewidth and noise in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 196–198 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Interferometric measurement of linewidth and noise in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 196–198 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Elze, G.

G. Wenke, G. Elze, “Investigation of optical feedback effects on laser diodes in broad-band optical transmission systems,” J. Opt. Commun. 2, 128–133 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Franke, J. M.

J. M. Franke, S. L. Ocheltree, W. W. Hunter, J. F. Meyers, “Laser velocimetry with diode junctions semiconductors lasers,” presented at the Conference on Electro-Optic Lasers, Anaheim, California, 1977.

Hironaga, M.

Hoki, N.

H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, M. Hironaga, M. Kano, “Optical-fiber laser Doppler velocimeter for high-resolution measurement of pulsatile blood flows,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1785–1790 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishihara, Y. Nishi, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, “Measurement of the blood velocity by a laser-Doppler system with an optical fiber,” Rev. Laser Eng. 8, 426–429 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W. W.

J. M. Franke, S. L. Ocheltree, W. W. Hunter, J. F. Meyers, “Laser velocimetry with diode junctions semiconductors lasers,” presented at the Conference on Electro-Optic Lasers, Anaheim, California, 1977.

Ikushima, I.

I. Ikushima, M. Maeda, “Lasing spectra of semiconductor lasers coupled to an optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 844–845 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

S. Machida, A. Kawana, K. Ishihara, H. Tsuchiya, “Interference on an AlGaAs laser diode using a 4.15 km single mode fiber cable,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 535–537 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kajiya, F.

H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, M. Hironaga, M. Kano, “Optical-fiber laser Doppler velocimeter for high-resolution measurement of pulsatile blood flows,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1785–1790 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishihara, Y. Nishi, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, “Measurement of the blood velocity by a laser-Doppler system with an optical fiber,” Rev. Laser Eng. 8, 426–429 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, T.

T. Kanda, K. Nawata, “Injection laser characteristics due to reflected optical power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 559–565 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kano, M.

Kawana, A.

S. Machida, A. Kawana, K. Ishihara, H. Tsuchiya, “Interference on an AlGaAs laser diode using a 4.15 km single mode fiber cable,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 535–537 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, J.

H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, M. Hironaga, M. Kano, “Optical-fiber laser Doppler velocimeter for high-resolution measurement of pulsatile blood flows,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1785–1790 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishihara, Y. Nishi, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, “Measurement of the blood velocity by a laser-Doppler system with an optical fiber,” Rev. Laser Eng. 8, 426–429 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Machida, S.

S. Machida, A. Kawana, K. Ishihara, H. Tsuchiya, “Interference on an AlGaAs laser diode using a 4.15 km single mode fiber cable,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 535–537 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

I. Ikushima, M. Maeda, “Lasing spectra of semiconductor lasers coupled to an optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 844–845 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Meyers, J. F.

J. M. Franke, S. L. Ocheltree, W. W. Hunter, J. F. Meyers, “Laser velocimetry with diode junctions semiconductors lasers,” presented at the Conference on Electro-Optic Lasers, Anaheim, California, 1977.

Nawata, K.

T. Kanda, K. Nawata, “Injection laser characteristics due to reflected optical power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 559–565 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, Y.

H. Nishihara, Y. Nishi, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, “Measurement of the blood velocity by a laser-Doppler system with an optical fiber,” Rev. Laser Eng. 8, 426–429 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, M. Hironaga, M. Kano, “Optical-fiber laser Doppler velocimeter for high-resolution measurement of pulsatile blood flows,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1785–1790 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishihara, Y. Nishi, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, “Measurement of the blood velocity by a laser-Doppler system with an optical fiber,” Rev. Laser Eng. 8, 426–429 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ocheltree, S. L.

J. M. Franke, S. L. Ocheltree, W. W. Hunter, J. F. Meyers, “Laser velocimetry with diode junctions semiconductors lasers,” presented at the Conference on Electro-Optic Lasers, Anaheim, California, 1977.

Shaughnessey, E. J.

E. J. Shaughnessey, F. H. Zu’bi, “GaAlAs diode sources for laser-Doppler anemometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 835–836 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. W.

J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Interferometric measurement of linewidth and noise in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 196–198 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

M. Yoshikawa, N. Suzuki, T. Suzuki, “Coherence characteristics of a single-mode GaAlAs laser diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.71, 171–174 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

M. Yoshikawa, N. Suzuki, T. Suzuki, “Coherence characteristics of a single-mode GaAlAs laser diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.71, 171–174 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, H.

S. Machida, A. Kawana, K. Ishihara, H. Tsuchiya, “Interference on an AlGaAs laser diode using a 4.15 km single mode fiber cable,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 535–537 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wenke, G.

G. Wenke, G. Elze, “Investigation of optical feedback effects on laser diodes in broad-band optical transmission systems,” J. Opt. Commun. 2, 128–133 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, M.

M. Yoshikawa, N. Suzuki, T. Suzuki, “Coherence characteristics of a single-mode GaAlAs laser diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.71, 171–174 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Zu’bi, F. H.

E. J. Shaughnessey, F. H. Zu’bi, “GaAlAs diode sources for laser-Doppler anemometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 835–836 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. J. Shaughnessey, F. H. Zu’bi, “GaAlAs diode sources for laser-Doppler anemometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 835–836 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, A. W. Smith, “Interferometric measurement of linewidth and noise in GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 196–198 (1964).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

I. Ikushima, M. Maeda, “Lasing spectra of semiconductor lasers coupled to an optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 844–845 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanda, K. Nawata, “Injection laser characteristics due to reflected optical power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 559–565 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Machida, A. Kawana, K. Ishihara, H. Tsuchiya, “Interference on an AlGaAs laser diode using a 4.15 km single mode fiber cable,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 535–537 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Wenke, G. Elze, “Investigation of optical feedback effects on laser diodes in broad-band optical transmission systems,” J. Opt. Commun. 2, 128–133 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

H. Nishihara, Y. Nishi, J. Koyama, N. Hoki, F. Kajiya, “Measurement of the blood velocity by a laser-Doppler system with an optical fiber,” Rev. Laser Eng. 8, 426–429 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Yoshikawa, N. Suzuki, T. Suzuki, “Coherence characteristics of a single-mode GaAlAs laser diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.71, 171–174 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Franke, S. L. Ocheltree, W. W. Hunter, J. F. Meyers, “Laser velocimetry with diode junctions semiconductors lasers,” presented at the Conference on Electro-Optic Lasers, Anaheim, California, 1977.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Light-signal pickup of the optical-fiber-type LDV system.

Figure 2
Figure 2

Spectrum broadening of the homodyned signal of a laser diode and its dependence on the optical path-length difference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Noise spectrum observed in the presence of optical feedback of 1%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Proposed LDV system having a laser diode and a polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of the optical-fiber pickup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured spectrum of the velocity of a rotating disk.

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