Abstract

Inelastic emission characteristics from individual ethanol droplets (60-μm diameter) containing Rhodamine 6G dye and pumped by a cw laser (514.5 nm) were investigated. Laser emission was confirmed by noting the spectral, temporal, and output-versus-input intensity behavior. The liquid–air boundary of the droplets provides the optical feedback at selected wavelengths corresponding to the morphology-dependent resonances of a spherical droplet.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
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  3. J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, B. J. Messinger, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 6, 272 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Opt. 20, 2299 (1981);A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 20, 1803 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977);A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980);P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Thurn, W. Kiefer, Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 78 (1984).
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  8. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).
  9. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
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  14. C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, W. L. Bond, Phys. Rev. 124, 1807 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  15. H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 273 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. Statz, G. deMars, in Quantum Electronics, C. H. Townes, ed. (Columbia U. Press, New York, 1960), p. 530.
  17. J. P. Kratohvil, M.-P. Lee, M. Kerker, Appl. Opt. 17, 1978 (1978);E.-H. Lee, R. E. Benner, J. B. Fenn, R. K. Chang, Appl. Opt. 17, 1980 (1978).
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1984 (2)

1982 (1)

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (3)

1980 (1)

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1978 (4)

1977 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977);A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980);P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, W. L. Bond, Phys. Rev. 124, 1807 (1961).
[Crossref]

Alexopoulos, N. G.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Opt. 20, 2299 (1981);A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 20, 1803 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977);A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980);P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barber, P. W.

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, B. J. Messinger, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 6, 272 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[Crossref]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[Crossref]

Benner, R. E.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[Crossref]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Bond, W. L.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, W. L. Bond, Phys. Rev. 124, 1807 (1961).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. K.

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 273 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, B. J. Messinger, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 6, 272 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[Crossref]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[Crossref]

Cooke, D. D.

deMars, G.

H. Statz, G. deMars, in Quantum Electronics, C. H. Townes, ed. (Columbia U. Press, New York, 1960), p. 530.

Dorain, P. B.

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[Crossref]

Drusel, P. W.

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Opt. 20, 2299 (1981);A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 20, 1803 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977);A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980);P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garrett, C. G. B.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, W. L. Bond, Phys. Rev. 124, 1807 (1961).
[Crossref]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Kaiser, W.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, W. L. Bond, Phys. Rev. 124, 1807 (1961).
[Crossref]

Kerker, M.

Kiefer, W.

Kratohvil, J. P.

Lee, M.-P.

Long, M. B.

Messinger, B. J.

Owen, J. F.

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, B. J. Messinger, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 6, 272 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[Crossref]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[Crossref]

Statz, H.

H. Statz, G. deMars, in Quantum Electronics, C. H. Townes, ed. (Columbia U. Press, New York, 1960), p. 530.

Stolen, R. H.

Thurn, R.

Tzeng, H.-M.

Uzunoglu, N. K.

Wall, K. F.

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, W. L. Bond, Phys. Rev. 124, 1807 (1961).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977);A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980);P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

H. Statz, G. deMars, in Quantum Electronics, C. H. Townes, ed. (Columbia U. Press, New York, 1960), p. 530.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fluorescence and absorption spectra of Rhodamine 6G in bulk ethanol. The fluorescence spectrum is divided into three wavelength regions, A–C, corresponding to the spectral bandpass of the monochromator and spectrograph.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The inelastic emission spectra collected at 90° and detected by an OMA for individual droplets traversing the cw laser focal volume. Regions A–C correspond to those shown in Fig. 1. The vertical lines highlight the periodicity of the peaks for λ < 595 nm and are extended to λ > 595 nm. Region B demarcates the transition from normal fluorescence to laser emission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The temporal behavior of the emission intensity collected at 0° within regions A and C (see Fig. 1) as three individual droplets traverse the pump-laser focal volume. Relaxation oscillations are evident for emission from region C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The ratio of the spectrally integrated intensity from region A and region C as a function of the input pump-laser intensity. The displayed IC/IA ratio deviates from a constant above 10−2 W, which is a measure of the laser threshold intensity for a single Rhodamine 6G–ethanol droplet.

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