Abstract

The utilization of a Rayleigh scattering photon-correlation technique for flame-temperature measurements is presented. Such measurements are reported for the first time to our knowledge and make use of a digital correlator that permits the determination of temporally varying temperature structures (e.g., coherence structures) for extremely low scattering intensities. The application of low-power cw lasers (e.g., He–Ne lasers) seems also to be possible for the investigation of fast processes in the kilohertz domain. In particle-laden flames the influences of Mie scatterers (e.g., soot particles) can be separated by the different time behavior, which, for those scatterers, is governed by the flow velocity.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. M. Dyer, AIAA J. 17, 912 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Leipertz, Appl. Opt. 21, 2872 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. M. Pitts, B. J. McCaffrey, T. Kashiwagi, in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).
  4. J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, in Proceedings of the Fifteenth ICHMT Symposium Heat and Mass Transfer Measurement Techniques (Hemisphere, New York, to be published).
  5. R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1981), pp. 1489–1499.
  6. I. Namer, R. W. Schefer, M. Chan, presented at Spring Meeting of Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, Irvine, Calif., April1980.
  7. D. Benhachmi, N. Younes, H. Yakout, P. E. Emmermann, R. Goulard, AIAA Publ. 83-1554 (1983).
  8. R. W. Pitz, R. Cattolica, F. Robben, L. Talbot, Combust. Flame 27, 313 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, AIAA Publ. 80-1362 (1980).
  10. R. W. Dibble, G. D. Rambach, R. E. Hollenbach, J. T. Ringland, Rep. No. (SAND) 81-8800 (Sandia NationalLaboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1981).
  11. A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Phys. D 8, L167 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Jakeman, in Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy, H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 75–149.
  13. A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Fluid Mech. 88, 431 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

T. M. Dyer, AIAA J. 17, 912 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Fluid Mech. 88, 431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. W. Pitz, R. Cattolica, F. Robben, L. Talbot, Combust. Flame 27, 313 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Phys. D 8, L167 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Benhachmi, D.

D. Benhachmi, N. Younes, H. Yakout, P. E. Emmermann, R. Goulard, AIAA Publ. 83-1554 (1983).

Birch, A. D.

A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Fluid Mech. 88, 431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Phys. D 8, L167 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. R.

A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Fluid Mech. 88, 431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Phys. D 8, L167 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cattolica, R.

R. W. Pitz, R. Cattolica, F. Robben, L. Talbot, Combust. Flame 27, 313 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chan, M.

I. Namer, R. W. Schefer, M. Chan, presented at Spring Meeting of Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, Irvine, Calif., April1980.

Dibble, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1981), pp. 1489–1499.

R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, AIAA Publ. 80-1362 (1980).

R. W. Dibble, G. D. Rambach, R. E. Hollenbach, J. T. Ringland, Rep. No. (SAND) 81-8800 (Sandia NationalLaboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1981).

Dodson, M. G.

A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Fluid Mech. 88, 431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Phys. D 8, L167 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, T. M.

T. M. Dyer, AIAA J. 17, 912 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Emmermann, P. E.

D. Benhachmi, N. Younes, H. Yakout, P. E. Emmermann, R. Goulard, AIAA Publ. 83-1554 (1983).

Goulard, R.

D. Benhachmi, N. Younes, H. Yakout, P. E. Emmermann, R. Goulard, AIAA Publ. 83-1554 (1983).

Haumann, J.

J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, in Proceedings of the Fifteenth ICHMT Symposium Heat and Mass Transfer Measurement Techniques (Hemisphere, New York, to be published).

Hollenbach, R. E.

R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1981), pp. 1489–1499.

R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, AIAA Publ. 80-1362 (1980).

R. W. Dibble, G. D. Rambach, R. E. Hollenbach, J. T. Ringland, Rep. No. (SAND) 81-8800 (Sandia NationalLaboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1981).

Jakeman, E.

E. Jakeman, in Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy, H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 75–149.

Kashiwagi, T.

W. M. Pitts, B. J. McCaffrey, T. Kashiwagi, in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

Leipertz, A.

A. Leipertz, Appl. Opt. 21, 2872 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, in Proceedings of the Fifteenth ICHMT Symposium Heat and Mass Transfer Measurement Techniques (Hemisphere, New York, to be published).

McCaffrey, B. J.

W. M. Pitts, B. J. McCaffrey, T. Kashiwagi, in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

Namer, I.

I. Namer, R. W. Schefer, M. Chan, presented at Spring Meeting of Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, Irvine, Calif., April1980.

Pitts, W. M.

W. M. Pitts, B. J. McCaffrey, T. Kashiwagi, in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

Pitz, R. W.

R. W. Pitz, R. Cattolica, F. Robben, L. Talbot, Combust. Flame 27, 313 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rambach, G. D.

R. W. Dibble, G. D. Rambach, R. E. Hollenbach, J. T. Ringland, Rep. No. (SAND) 81-8800 (Sandia NationalLaboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1981).

Ringland, J. T.

R. W. Dibble, G. D. Rambach, R. E. Hollenbach, J. T. Ringland, Rep. No. (SAND) 81-8800 (Sandia NationalLaboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1981).

Robben, F.

R. W. Pitz, R. Cattolica, F. Robben, L. Talbot, Combust. Flame 27, 313 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Schefer, R. W.

I. Namer, R. W. Schefer, M. Chan, presented at Spring Meeting of Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, Irvine, Calif., April1980.

Talbot, L.

R. W. Pitz, R. Cattolica, F. Robben, L. Talbot, Combust. Flame 27, 313 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. R.

A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Fluid Mech. 88, 431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Phys. D 8, L167 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yakout, H.

D. Benhachmi, N. Younes, H. Yakout, P. E. Emmermann, R. Goulard, AIAA Publ. 83-1554 (1983).

Younes, N.

D. Benhachmi, N. Younes, H. Yakout, P. E. Emmermann, R. Goulard, AIAA Publ. 83-1554 (1983).

AIAA J. (1)

T. M. Dyer, AIAA J. 17, 912 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Combust. Flame (1)

R. W. Pitz, R. Cattolica, F. Robben, L. Talbot, Combust. Flame 27, 313 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Fluid Mech. 88, 431 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

A. D. Birch, D. R. Brown, M. G. Dodson, J. R. Thomas, J. Phys. D 8, L167 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

E. Jakeman, in Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy, H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 75–149.

R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, AIAA Publ. 80-1362 (1980).

R. W. Dibble, G. D. Rambach, R. E. Hollenbach, J. T. Ringland, Rep. No. (SAND) 81-8800 (Sandia NationalLaboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1981).

W. M. Pitts, B. J. McCaffrey, T. Kashiwagi, in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, to be published).

J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, in Proceedings of the Fifteenth ICHMT Symposium Heat and Mass Transfer Measurement Techniques (Hemisphere, New York, to be published).

R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1981), pp. 1489–1499.

I. Namer, R. W. Schefer, M. Chan, presented at Spring Meeting of Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, Irvine, Calif., April1980.

D. Benhachmi, N. Younes, H. Yakout, P. E. Emmermann, R. Goulard, AIAA Publ. 83-1554 (1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity ACF taken in a premixed laminar methane–air flame.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral power density of the ACF in Fig. 1 indicating that a fluctuating density with a frequency of about 15 Hz is superimposed upon the random turbulent fluctuation of the background radiation. The vertical axis scale is linear.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radial profiles of the normalized mean value ( ρ ̅ / ρ ), the rms value ( ρ ), the skewness (β), and the kurtosis (γ) of the density taken in a premixed turbulent methane–air flame.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radial profiles of the mean and rms values of the temperature in a premixed turbulent methane–air flame as calculated from the density values in Fig. 3.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I R ( t ) = k n ( t ) I 0 Ω l ( d σ / d Ω ) eff + S = c ρ ( t ) + S ,
G ( τ ) = A lim t 1 t 0 t I R ( t ) × I R ( t + τ ) d t ,
G ( τ ) = A [ R ( τ ) ρ 2 + ( ρ ̅ + S / c ) 2 ] .
P ( f ) = 4 0 R ( τ ) cos ( 2 π f τ ) d τ .
T ( t ) = ( const . / ρ ̅ ) ( 1 + ρ / ρ ̅ ) 1 ,
T / T ̅ ρ / ρ ̅ .
n s = ( c t ) s 0 1 [ ρ ( t ) + S / c ] s P ( ρ ) d ρ ,
ρ ̅ = ( n 1 S t ) / c t .
μ j = ( c t ) j s = 0 i j ! s ! ( j s ) ! ( n 1 ) s n j s ,

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