Abstract

By using cw laser diodes operating at 1.26 and 1.34 μm, the cross talk caused by stimulated Raman scattering in a 21-km single-mode fiber was measured to be −25.2 dB at a pump-power level of 1.0 mW. The Raman-gain coefficient was calculated to be 0.57 × 10−11 cm/W, which is in good agreement with previously reported values measured with high-power pulsed lasers.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. H. Stolen, “Nonlinearity in fiber transmission,”Proc. IEEE 68, 1232–1236 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Ikeda, “Stimulated Raman amplification characteristics in long span single-mode silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 39, 148–152 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276–278 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. G. Smith, “Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2489–2494 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. G. Stolen, “Fiber Raman lasers,” in Fiber and Integrated Optics, D. B. Ostrowsky, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1979), pp. 157–182.
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. C. Young et al., “Biconic single-mode connectors with insertion losses below 0.3 dB,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper PD5.
  7. Supplied by C. A. Burrus, Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, N.J. 07733.
  8. In a small-gain approximation, which is valid for the pump-power levels that we consider, the cross talk is not the function of signal power. Therefore, the same cross talk is expected for the signal power, which is comparable with the pump power, i.e., 1.0 mW.

1981 (1)

M. Ikeda, “Stimulated Raman amplification characteristics in long span single-mode silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 39, 148–152 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. H. Stolen, “Nonlinearity in fiber transmission,”Proc. IEEE 68, 1232–1236 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276–278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Ikeda, M.

M. Ikeda, “Stimulated Raman amplification characteristics in long span single-mode silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 39, 148–152 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276–278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

Stolen, R. G.

R. G. Stolen, “Fiber Raman lasers,” in Fiber and Integrated Optics, D. B. Ostrowsky, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1979), pp. 157–182.
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, “Nonlinearity in fiber transmission,”Proc. IEEE 68, 1232–1236 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276–278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Young, W. C.

W. C. Young et al., “Biconic single-mode connectors with insertion losses below 0.3 dB,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper PD5.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276–278 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Ikeda, “Stimulated Raman amplification characteristics in long span single-mode silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 39, 148–152 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. H. Stolen, “Nonlinearity in fiber transmission,”Proc. IEEE 68, 1232–1236 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. G. Stolen, “Fiber Raman lasers,” in Fiber and Integrated Optics, D. B. Ostrowsky, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1979), pp. 157–182.
[CrossRef]

W. C. Young et al., “Biconic single-mode connectors with insertion losses below 0.3 dB,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper PD5.

Supplied by C. A. Burrus, Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, N.J. 07733.

In a small-gain approximation, which is valid for the pump-power levels that we consider, the cross talk is not the function of signal power. Therefore, the same cross talk is expected for the signal power, which is comparable with the pump power, i.e., 1.0 mW.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power-dependent Raman cross talk.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Length-dependent Raman cross talk.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effects of pump laser power and fiber loss on Raman cross talk.

Equations (4)

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( d d Z + γ s ) P s ( Z ) = g A P p ( Z ) P s ( Z ) ,
P s ( L ) = P s ( 0 ) exp [ γ s L + g P p ( 0 ) A γ p ( 1 e γ p L ) ] ,
β ( L ) P s ( L ) / P s o ( L ) 1 = exp [ g P p ( 0 ) A γ p ( 1 e γ p L ) ] 1 .
β ( L ) = g P p ( 0 ) A γ p ( 1 e γ p L ) .

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