Abstract

Speckle masking is a method for reconstructing high-resolution images of general astronomical objects from stellar speckle interferograms. In speckle masking no unresolvable star is required within the isoplanatic patch of the object. We present digital applications of speckle masking to close spectroscopic double stars. The speckle interferograms were recorded with the European Southern Observatory’s 3.6-m telescope. Diffraction-limited resolution (0.03 arc sec) was achieved, which is about 30 times higher than the resolution of conventional astrophotography.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophy. 6, 85 (1970).
  2. C. Y. C. Liu, A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 8, 372 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. H. T. Bates, P. T. Gough, P. J. Napier, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 319 (1973).
  4. G. P. Weigelt, Appl. Opt. 17, 2660 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. R. Lynds, S. P. Worden, J. W. Harvey, Astrophys. J. 207, 174 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. T. Knox, B. J. Thompson, Astrophys. J. Lett. 193, L45 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. C. Ehn, P. Nisenson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1196 (1975).
  8. G. P. Weigelt, Opt. Commun. 21, 55 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. H. T. Bates, M. O. Miner, G. I. Lund, A. D. Seager, Opt. Commun. 26, 22 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. H. T. Bates, F. M. Cady, Opt. Commun. 32, 365 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. R. Fienup, Opt. Lett. 3, 27 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. B. J. Brames, J. C. Dainty, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1542 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. G. Walker, Opt. Acta 28, 735 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. N. Mertz, Appl. Opt. 18, 611 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. J. Cocke, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 231, 11 (1980).
  16. C. Roddier, F. Roddier, J. Vernin, presented at the European Southern Observatory Conference on Scientific Importance of High Angular Resolution at IR and Optical Wavelengths, Garching, Germany, March 24–27, 1981.
  17. A. M. J. Huiser, Opt. Commun. 42, 226 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. H. Greenaway, Opt. Commun. 42, 157 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  19. I. S. Reed, IRE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-8, 194 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. C. Dainty, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).
  21. A. W. Lohmann, G. P. Weigelt, B. Wirnitzer, “Triple correlation theory of the astronomical speckle masking method,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

1982 (2)

A. M. J. Huiser, Opt. Commun. 42, 226 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. H. Greenaway, Opt. Commun. 42, 157 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (2)

1980 (2)

W. J. Cocke, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 231, 11 (1980).

R. H. T. Bates, F. M. Cady, Opt. Commun. 32, 365 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1978 (3)

1977 (1)

G. P. Weigelt, Opt. Commun. 21, 55 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

C. R. Lynds, S. P. Worden, J. W. Harvey, Astrophys. J. 207, 174 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

D. C. Ehn, P. Nisenson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1196 (1975).

1974 (1)

K. T. Knox, B. J. Thompson, Astrophys. J. Lett. 193, L45 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (2)

C. Y. C. Liu, A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 8, 372 (1973).
[Crossref]

R. H. T. Bates, P. T. Gough, P. J. Napier, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 319 (1973).

1970 (1)

A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophy. 6, 85 (1970).

1962 (1)

I. S. Reed, IRE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-8, 194 (1962).
[Crossref]

Bates, R. H. T.

R. H. T. Bates, F. M. Cady, Opt. Commun. 32, 365 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. H. T. Bates, M. O. Miner, G. I. Lund, A. D. Seager, Opt. Commun. 26, 22 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. H. T. Bates, P. T. Gough, P. J. Napier, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 319 (1973).

Brames, B. J.

Cady, F. M.

R. H. T. Bates, F. M. Cady, Opt. Commun. 32, 365 (1980).
[Crossref]

Cocke, W. J.

W. J. Cocke, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 231, 11 (1980).

Dainty, J. C.

B. J. Brames, J. C. Dainty, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1542 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. C. Dainty, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).

Ehn, D. C.

D. C. Ehn, P. Nisenson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1196 (1975).

Fienup, J. R.

Gough, P. T.

R. H. T. Bates, P. T. Gough, P. J. Napier, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 319 (1973).

Greenaway, A. H.

A. H. Greenaway, Opt. Commun. 42, 157 (1982).
[Crossref]

Harvey, J. W.

C. R. Lynds, S. P. Worden, J. W. Harvey, Astrophys. J. 207, 174 (1976).
[Crossref]

Huiser, A. M. J.

A. M. J. Huiser, Opt. Commun. 42, 226 (1982).
[Crossref]

Knox, K. T.

K. T. Knox, B. J. Thompson, Astrophys. J. Lett. 193, L45 (1974).
[Crossref]

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophy. 6, 85 (1970).

Liu, C. Y. C.

C. Y. C. Liu, A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 8, 372 (1973).
[Crossref]

Lohmann, A. W.

C. Y. C. Liu, A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 8, 372 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. W. Lohmann, G. P. Weigelt, B. Wirnitzer, “Triple correlation theory of the astronomical speckle masking method,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Lund, G. I.

R. H. T. Bates, M. O. Miner, G. I. Lund, A. D. Seager, Opt. Commun. 26, 22 (1978).
[Crossref]

Lynds, C. R.

C. R. Lynds, S. P. Worden, J. W. Harvey, Astrophys. J. 207, 174 (1976).
[Crossref]

Mertz, L. N.

Miner, M. O.

R. H. T. Bates, M. O. Miner, G. I. Lund, A. D. Seager, Opt. Commun. 26, 22 (1978).
[Crossref]

Napier, P. J.

R. H. T. Bates, P. T. Gough, P. J. Napier, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 319 (1973).

Nisenson, P.

D. C. Ehn, P. Nisenson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1196 (1975).

Reed, I. S.

I. S. Reed, IRE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-8, 194 (1962).
[Crossref]

Roddier, C.

C. Roddier, F. Roddier, J. Vernin, presented at the European Southern Observatory Conference on Scientific Importance of High Angular Resolution at IR and Optical Wavelengths, Garching, Germany, March 24–27, 1981.

Roddier, F.

C. Roddier, F. Roddier, J. Vernin, presented at the European Southern Observatory Conference on Scientific Importance of High Angular Resolution at IR and Optical Wavelengths, Garching, Germany, March 24–27, 1981.

Seager, A. D.

R. H. T. Bates, M. O. Miner, G. I. Lund, A. D. Seager, Opt. Commun. 26, 22 (1978).
[Crossref]

Thompson, B. J.

K. T. Knox, B. J. Thompson, Astrophys. J. Lett. 193, L45 (1974).
[Crossref]

Vernin, J.

C. Roddier, F. Roddier, J. Vernin, presented at the European Southern Observatory Conference on Scientific Importance of High Angular Resolution at IR and Optical Wavelengths, Garching, Germany, March 24–27, 1981.

Walker, J. G.

J. G. Walker, Opt. Acta 28, 735 (1981).
[Crossref]

Weigelt, G. P.

G. P. Weigelt, Appl. Opt. 17, 2660 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. P. Weigelt, Opt. Commun. 21, 55 (1977).
[Crossref]

A. W. Lohmann, G. P. Weigelt, B. Wirnitzer, “Triple correlation theory of the astronomical speckle masking method,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Wirnitzer, B.

A. W. Lohmann, G. P. Weigelt, B. Wirnitzer, “Triple correlation theory of the astronomical speckle masking method,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Worden, S. P.

C. R. Lynds, S. P. Worden, J. W. Harvey, Astrophys. J. 207, 174 (1976).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophy. (1)

A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophy. 6, 85 (1970).

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

R. H. T. Bates, P. T. Gough, P. J. Napier, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 319 (1973).

Astrophys. J. (1)

C. R. Lynds, S. P. Worden, J. W. Harvey, Astrophys. J. 207, 174 (1976).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. J. Lett. (1)

K. T. Knox, B. J. Thompson, Astrophys. J. Lett. 193, L45 (1974).
[Crossref]

IRE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

I. S. Reed, IRE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-8, 194 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

D. C. Ehn, P. Nisenson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1196 (1975).

B. J. Brames, J. C. Dainty, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1542 (1981).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. G. Walker, Opt. Acta 28, 735 (1981).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (6)

C. Y. C. Liu, A. W. Lohmann, Opt. Commun. 8, 372 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. M. J. Huiser, Opt. Commun. 42, 226 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. H. Greenaway, Opt. Commun. 42, 157 (1982).
[Crossref]

G. P. Weigelt, Opt. Commun. 21, 55 (1977).
[Crossref]

R. H. T. Bates, M. O. Miner, G. I. Lund, A. D. Seager, Opt. Commun. 26, 22 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. H. T. Bates, F. M. Cady, Opt. Commun. 32, 365 (1980).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

W. J. Cocke, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 231, 11 (1980).

Other (3)

C. Roddier, F. Roddier, J. Vernin, presented at the European Southern Observatory Conference on Scientific Importance of High Angular Resolution at IR and Optical Wavelengths, Garching, Germany, March 24–27, 1981.

J. C. Dainty, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).

A. W. Lohmann, G. P. Weigelt, B. Wirnitzer, “Triple correlation theory of the astronomical speckle masking method,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the masking step In (x) · In (xm). In the above example we assumed a cornerlike object O(x) and an unrealistic simple atmospheric psf consisting of five small speckles. Of course, in actual atmospheric psf’s the speckle density is higher. The purpose of this example is to illustrate that the masking product In (x) · In (xm) is approximately equal to the desired psf Pn (x) if the masking vector m was chosen suitably. The example also illustrates that additional wrong points appear because of undesired overlaps. Fortunately, the effect of these undesired overlaps can be compensated for by the speckle-masking transfer function, as described in the text. The information obtained about the psf’s permits reconstruction of the object.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Speckle-masking measurement of the close spectroscopic double star ψ Sagittarii. (a) One of the 150 speckle interferograms evaluated (b), (c) show the reconstructed true image of ψ Sagittarii. We measured (epoch, 1982.378) separation, 0.184 ± 0.004″; position angle, 105.6 ± 1°; intensity ratio, 1.3 ± 0.2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Speckle-masking measurement of the spectroscopic double stars (a) η Virginis (1982.386; 0.137 ± 0.004″; 335.5 ± 1°; 1.2 ± 0.3), (b) 9 Puppis (1980.019; 0.159 ± 0.004″; 38.9 ± 1°; 1.3 ± 0.3), (c) Ω Leonis (1980.019; 0.463 ± 0.004″; 17.0 ± 1°; 1.6 ± 0.3). The numbers in parentheses are, from left to right, epoch, separation, position angle, and intensity ratio.

Equations (3)

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I n ( x ) = O ( x ) * P n ( x ) , n = 1 , 2 , , N ,
[ I n ( x ) · I n ( x m ) ] I n ( x ) = [ I n ( x ) · I n ( x m ) ] · I n ( x + x ) d x ,
[ I n ( x ) · I n ( x m ) ] I n ( x ) [ I m ( x ) · I n ( x m ) ] I n ( x ) [ I n ( x ) · I m ( x m ) ] I n ( x ) [ I n ( x ) · I n ( x m ) ] I m ( x ) + 2 [ I n ( x ) · I k ( x m ) ] I m ( x ) = [ O ( x ) · O ( x m ) ] O ( x ) O ( x ) ,

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